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Printed by A. Spottiswoode, 




In my larger Grammar I have endeavoured methodically 
to put together everything which relates to the Latin 
language in its best period, and serves to explain the 
language of the Roman classics. Although I have 
abstained from accumulating examples which only con- 
firm the rules, and which the pupil, with much more 
pleasure and profit, may collect for himself, still th^ 
size of the work has become larger than is commonly 
thought desirable for schools. Youthful beginners are 
easily frightened by the sight of voluminous school- 
books, although the intention may be that the pupils 
should go through only part of them : the eye and 
mind of beginners are often attracted by those parts 
which, for the time, should not engage their atten- 
tion, and fill them with unnecessary alarm. The price 
of a school-book, too, is a matter of some consider- 
ation ; for only a small number of those who learn the 
elements of Latin continue the study of it with a view 
to acquire a perfect knowledge of it. 

For these reasons it was found necessary in Germany, 
after the publication of the third edition of the larger 
Grammar, to prepare an abridgment for the use of 
schools; and I have ever since been endeavouring to 

A 2 


comprise in each of the two works, in agreement nth 
each other, the matter which appeared to me necessary 
for the acquisition of the Latin language, in the differ- 
ent stages of the beginner and of the reader of classical 
authors. The sixth edition of this abridgment, corre- 
sponding with the ninth of the larger work, has recently- 
appeared in Germany, and is now presented to the 
English public. I take this opportunity of making a 
few observations respecting the principles on which the 
abridgment is made, and the manner in which it should 
be used. 

Intelligent teachers have always been of opinion, that 
it is desirable for a beginner, in learning a language or 
a science, to adhere to one and the same book, that he 
may gradually become acquainted with the whole and 
all its parts, and thus make it, as it were, his own. In 
laying down such a rule, it is, of course, assumed that 
the book is based upon a profound and correct knowledge 
of the subject it treats of, and that it is methodically 
arranged ; and if such is the case, the habit acquired by 
the learner, of referring for all the particulars he meets 
with to certain parts of his manual, is the best assist- 
ance for his memory, and insures an easy, regular, and 
continuous progress: the unavoidable difficulties con- 
nected with the subject itself or the terminology of the 
rules are removed, by frequent recurrence to and con- 
sideration of them ; and the knowledge, once acquired, 
thus takes firm root and becomes easy in its application. 
Different books on the same science for each particular 
stage of the pupil, produce confusion. Setting aside 
the fact that different authors entertain different views 
on the same subject, the mere difference of expression 
is quite enough to puzzle the youthful mind ; and no- 


thing is worse than to compel a pupil to learn the same 
thing twice or three times in different ways. 

Knowledge is acquired step by step : in every science 
the elements must be set forth first, and be impressed 
upon the memory ; and in Grammar in particular the 
pupil has first to learn the paradigms of the declensions 
and conjugations, the rules about gender and the irre- 
gular conjugation, next the formation of derivative and 
compound words ; then the regular syntax ; and lastly, 
the special peculiarities of syntax and their rhetorical 
application, or the syntaxis ornata. These different 
stages are distinguished in every grammar by different 
sections or chapters ; and, in mine, in particular, the 
division is carried on further by the system of text and 
notes, printed in larger and smaller types, by which 
means the more important parts are separated from 
those of less importance. If, therefore, the study of a 
beginner is directed by an intelligent teacher, there can 
be no danger of a pupil being overwhelmed by the 
quantity of the materials contained in the grammar. 
But if, nevertheless, a smaller book is to be put into 
his hands, it is evident from the foregoing remarks, 
that the main difference between it and the larger 
work must consist in omissions. For this reason 
the division into chapters and the paragraphs are the 
same in the Grammar and in the present Abridgment ; 
go that the two books may be used by the side of each 
other, and the pupil who has commenced his studies in 
the School Grammar, will at once find himself at home 
in the larger work ; and by recognising that which he 
has already learned, he will be inspired with confidence 
that he can acquire the rest also, and without much 
difficulty. The parts omitted in the School Grammar 

A 3 


are the Syntaxis Ornata, all specialities and peculiarities 
in the idioms of particular authors, and everything that 
is poetical and unclassieal, which is noticed, even in the 
larger Grammar, for the most part only in notes. By 
this means the Syntax is reduced to the simplest funda- 
mental rules concerning the use of cases, tenses, and 
moods. The part containing the Accidence may, per- 
haps, still appear to be rather full ; but I believe that 
the vague manner in which many persons are acquainted 
with Latin is, for the most part, owing to the neglect 
of this very portion in Latin grammars. That which 
actually exists in the classical language must be stated 
with proper minuteness and systematically; the rest 
may be left to the teacher, who has to select what is 
necessary in every particular instance. 

The list of the Irregular Verbs contains the very 
essence of the language, but has been very much 
abridged in regard to particulars and to compound 
verbs. The section on Etymology can be clear and 
instructive only when the pupil is in possession of a 
sufficient number of analogies. 

It may, perhaps, be said that the style of the syn- 
tactical rules is not sufficiently easy and concise for 
boys ; and though it may be admitted that it is per- 
fectly appropriate for the larger Grammar, some persons 
perhaps may still demand for the School Grammar 
a different mode of expression ad captum puerorum, 
even if it should be at the expense of correctness 
and accuracy. But on this point I am of a different 
opinion. A grammatical rule must be simple and concise, 
but accurate, and ought not to contain either one word 
too much or too little ; and in this respect there should | 
be no difference between a larger and a smaller grammar; 


a puerile plainness and a superficiality which is half 
true and half false, are in direct opposition to the ob- 
jects of grammatical instruction. A grammar is not a 
thing to be put into the hands of helpless children, but 
a school of training for the understanding : it requires a 
teacher who explains and illustrates by examples that 
which, from its nature, is difficult ; and, after such illus- 
trations, the pupil himself will see that the rule could 
not have been expressed more plainly and concisely. 
I have not neglected to give such illustrations in some 
of the notes. For this purpose the examples of the 
larger Grammar have, on the whole, not been curtailed, 
for they are intended to give the teacher an opportunity 
of showing the application of the rules, and they are, 
at the same time, a treasure for the memory of the 
pupil, from which he may derive pleasure even in the 
latest years of his life. With regard to Latin Metres, I 
have added an Appendix, containing the most necessary 
elements, the metrical feet, the structure of the iambic 
senarius and of the dactylic hexameter and pentameter ; 
and this will, I think, be sufficient for those who read 
Phaedrus, Ovid, or Virgil, provided it is combined 
with the rules about the length and shortness of sylla- 
bles, which form an indispensable part of grammar. 

In conclusion, I may be permitted to express my wish 
that this work also may contribute towards a prosper- 
ous and successful study of language, the influence of 
which on the cultivation of the understanding, and, if 
properly directed, also on the cultivation of the feelings, 
is universally acknowledged. 


Berlin, July, 1846. 



Introduction - 


I. Of the Vowels and Consonants 
II. Of Syllables - 
III. Of the Length and Shortness of Syllables 
IV. Of the Accent of Words 








V. Division of Words according to their Signification - 15 

VI. Nouns Substantive. — General Rules of Gender - 16 

VII. Number, Case, and Declension - - - 19 

VIII. First Declension - - - - -20 

IX. Greek Words in e, as, and es- - - - 21 

X. Gender of the Nouns of the First Declension - 21 

XL Second Declension - - - - - 22 

XII. Greek Words of the Second Declension - - 24 

XIII. Gender of the Nouns of the Second Declension - 24 

XIV. Third Declension. — Genitive - - - 25 
XV. The remaining Cases of the Third Declension - 31 

Appendix - - - - - - 37 

XVI. Greek Words of the Third Declension - - 39 
XVII. Gender of Words of the Third Declension. — 

Masculines - - - - 40 

XVIII. Feminines- - - - - 41 

XIX. Neuters - - - - - 43 

XX. Fourth Declension - - - - - 44 

XXI. Fifth Declension - - - - - 45 

XXII. Irregular Declension. — Indeclinables. — Defectives - 46 

XXIII. Heteroclita Heterogenea - 50 

XXIV. Nouns Adjective. — Terminations. — Declension - 53 
Appendix - =- - - - - 54 

XXV. Comparison of Adjectives - - - - 58 

XXVI. Comparison of Adverbs and increased Comparison - 59 

XXVII. Irregular and defective Comparison - - - 60 


Chap. Page 

XXVIII. Numerals. — I. Cardinal Numerals - - -62 

XXIX. II. Ordinal Numerals - - - -65 

XXX. III. Distributive Numerals - - - - 67 

XXXI. IV. Multiplicative Numerals - - -68 

XXXII. V. Proportional Numerals - - - - 68 

XXXIII. VI. Numeral Adverbs - - - = 69 

XXXIV. Pronouns and Adjective Pronouns - - - 70 
XXXV. Declension of Pronouns - - - -72 

XXXVI. Declension of the Possessive Pronouns and of Pro- 

nominals - - - - - - 75 

XXXVII. The Verb - - - - - -76 

XXXVIII. Moods. — Tenses 78 

XXXIX. Numbers. — Persons- - - - - 79 

XL. Formation of the Tenses - - - - 80 

f XLI. The Verb esse - - - ... 84 

XL 1 1. The four Conjugations - - - - 86 

XLIII. Remarks on the Conjugations - 101 

List of Verbs which are irregular in the Formation of 
their Perfect and Supine. 

XLIV. First Conjugation - - - - - 104 

XLV. Second Conjugation - - - - - 106 

XL VI. Third Conjugation. — 1. Verbs which have a Vowel 

before o including those in vo - - - 113 

XL VII. 2. Verbs in do and to - - - - - 1 16 

XLVIII. 3. Verbs in bo and po - - - - 120 

XLIX. 4. Verbs with a Palatal Letter, g, c, ct, h, qu, and gu 

(in which u is not considered as a vowel) before o - 121 

L. 5. Verbs which have Z, m 9 n 9 r "before o - - 1 24 

LI. 6. Verbs in so and xo - - - - 127 

LII. Inchoatives - - - - - -129 

LIII. Fourth Conjugation - - - - -131 

LIV. List of Deponent Verbs of the First Conjugation - 132 

LV. Deponents of the Second Conjugation - - 135 

LVI. Deponents of the Third Conjugation - - - 135 

LVII. Deponents of the Fourth Conjugation - - 137 

LVI 1 1. Irregular Verbs - - - - - 138 

LIX. Defective Verbs - - - - - 145 

LX. Impersonal Verbs - - - - - 148 

LXI. Etymology of Nouns and Verbs - - - 150 

LXII. Etymology of Particles - - - - 165 

LXIIL Primitive Adverbs - - - - - 168 

LXIV. Comparison of Adverbs - - - - 172 

LXV. Prepositions - - - - - - 172 

LXVI. Prepositions in Compound Words - - - 175 

LXVII. Conjunctions - - - - - 178 

LXVIII. Interjections 181 




I. Connection of Subject and Predicate. 
LXIX. Subject and Predicate 


II. On the Use of Cases. 

LXX. Nominative Case 

LXXI. Accusative Case 

LXXII. Dative Case - 

LXXIII. Genitive Case 

LXXIV. Ablative Case 

LXXV. Vocative Case 



III. Use of the Tenses. 
LXXVI. The Tenses - 

- 212 

IV. Of the Moods. 

LXXVII. Indicative Mood 
LXXVIII. Subjunctive Mood - 
LXXIX. Imperative Mood 

LXXX. Infinitive Mood 
LXXXI. Use of the Participles 
LXXXII. Use of the Gerund - 
LXXXIII. Use of the Supine - 



- 258 




The Latin language was once spoken by the Romans, at 
first only in a part of Middle Italy, but subsequently in all 
Italy and in other countries subject to the Romans. At 
present it can be learnt only from books and the monumental 
inscriptions of that people. 

The earliest Latin writings that we possess, were com- 
posed about 200 years before the birth of Christ, and in the 
sixth century after Christ Latin, as a spoken language, died 
entirely away. It had then become quite corrupted through 
the influence of the foreign nations which had settled in the 
Roman dominions, and it became so mixed up with the lan- 
guages of the invaders that a number of new languages 
(Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese,) were gradually 
formed out of it. All persons who wrote Latin in later 
times had learnt it as a dead language. 

During the long period in which the Latin language was 
spoken, it underwent various changes, not only in the num- 
ber of its words and their meanings, in their forms and 
combinations, but, to some extent, in its pronunciation also. 
We shall in this Grammar describe the language, though 
not exclusively, such as it was spoken and written during 
the most important period of Roman literature, that is, about 
the time of Julius Caesar and Cicero, till shortly after the 
birth of Christ. That period is commonly called the golden 


age, and the subsequent one, till about A. d. 120, the silver 
age of the Latin language. 

The Latin language in its origin is nearest akin to the 
Greek, and at the time when the Romans became acquainted 
with the literature, arts, and institutions of Greece, they 
adopted a great many single words, as well as constructions, 
from the Greek. Both languages, moreover, belong to the 
same family from which the English, German, northern, and 
many other languages have sprung. 



[§ l.] 1. The Vowels of the Language are A, a; E, e; 
I, i ; 0,o; U, u (Y, y) : and the diphthongs, AE, ae ; OE, 
oe ; AU, au ; and EU, eu. Their ancient pronunciation 
did not differ in any essential point from that of the modern 
Italian or German; but the modern pronunciation varies 
in the different countries of Europe, though the length 
and shortness of the vowels are and ought to be observed 
everywhere. (See Chap. HI.) The Latin language has no 
signs to distinguish a long from a short vowel. 

Note. The vowel y (called y psilon) occurs only in words which were 
introduced into the Latin language from or through the Greek, at a time 
when the former was already developed, such as syllaba, pyramis, Cyrus ; 
whereas other words, the Greek origin of which leads us back to more 
ancient times, or has been obscured by changes of sound, have lost their 
original y ; such as mus (from the Greek fivs), silva (from v\rj), and 
lacrima (from Mupvov). The word stilus, too, is better written with i, since 
practice did not acknowledge its identity with the Greek arvAos. 
The diphthong eu, if we except Greek words, occurs only in heu, heus, seu, 
neu, and in neuter and neutiquam. The diphthongs ei, oi, and ui, occur 
only in interjections, such as hex, eia, oiei, and hui, and in cases where dein, 
proin, huic, or cut, are contracted into one syllable, as is commonly done 
in poetry. 

[§ 3.] 2. The Consonants are, B, b; C, c ; D, d; F, f ; 
G, g ; H, h; (K, k ;) L, I; M, m; N, n; P, p; Q, q; 
By r; & s; T,t; X, x ; (Z, z). With regard to their 


classification, it is only necessary here to observe that /, m, 
n, r, are called liquids (liquidae), and the rest mutes (mutae), 
with the exception of s, which, being a sibilant (littera 
sibilans), is of a peculiar nature. The mutes may again be 
classified, with reference to the organ by which they are 
pronounced, into labials (v, b, p, /), palatals (g, c, k, qu), and 
Unguals (d, t). X and z (called zetd) are double consonants. 

Note. Z occurs only in words borrowed from the Greek ; j and v 
were expressed by the Latins by the same signs as the vowels i and u ; 
but in pronunciation they were distinguished ; but we who have two 
distinct signs, ought to distinguish them also in writing. But in Greek 
words, we must every where write i and u : Iambus, Iones, La'ius, Agaue, 
and not Jonia, Agave, for the Greeks had neither aj nor a v. 

K became a superfluous letter in Latin, as its place was generally 
supplied by c ; w can be used only when modern words are introduced into 
the Latin language without undergoing any change in their orthography. 
His only an aspiration, whence it does not make position. [§ SO.] 

[§ 6 -] 3. Respecting the pronunciation of the consonants, 
it must be observed, that the rule with the Latins was to 
pronounce them just as they were written. Every modern 
nation has its own peculiar way of pronouncing them ; and 
among the many corruptions of the genuine pronunciation 
there are two which have become firmly rooted, and which it 
is, perhaps, impossible to banish from the language. We 
pronounce c, when followed by e, i, y, ae, or oe, both in Latin 
and Greek words, like our s, and when followed by other 
vowels or by consonants like a k. The Romans on the other 
hand, as far as we can ascertain, always pronounced c like k; 
and the Greeks, in their intercourse with the Romans, did 
not hear any other pronunciation. A similar corruption is 
observed in the pronunciation of ti like ski, when followed 
by a vowel, as in justitia, otium. It would, however, be 
quite wrong to pronounce the ti in totius in the same manner, 
since the i in this w r ord is long. But there are some cases 
in which the short ti, even in our common pronunci- 
ation, retains its proper sound: 1) in Greek words, such as 
Miltiades, Boeotia, Aegyptius ; 2) when the t is preceded by 
another t, by s or x, e. g. Bruttii, ostium, mixtio ; and 3) 
when it is followed by the termination of the infinitive passive 
er, as in nitier, quatier. 

Note 1. The conjunction cum (when, as) is commonly written quum, 
to distinguish it from the preposition cum (with), although guum is always 
pronounced like cum, and not like qwum. 

b 2 


[§ 8.] Note 2. The meeting of two vowels, one of which forms the ending 
and the other the beginning of a word, causes an hiatus or yawning which 
is usually avoided in verse by the former of the vowels being thrown out 
(elisio). As the m at the end of a word was not audibly uttered when the 
next word began with a vowel, the vowel preceding the m is likewise 
passed over in reading verse. The verse multum Me et terris jactatus et 
alto, is therefore read mulV UV et terris, &c. 

[§ 12.] 4. There is no necessity for giving any special 
rules about the orthography in Latin, since there is absolutely 
nothing arbitrary in the spelling of words that requires to be 
learned : but there are a great many separate words, of which 
neither the pronunciation nor the spelling is established, and 
with regard to which the ancients themselves were uncertain, 
as we see from the monuments still extant. We spell and 
pronounce, e. g. anulus, belua, litus, paulus, better with one 
consonant than with two ; whereas immo, nummus, sollemnis, 
sollers, sollicitus, Juppiter, and quattuor are more correctly 
spelled with two consonants than one. It is not certain 
whether we ought to write litera or littera. The words 
saeculum, saepire are better with the diphthong than with 
the simple vowel e ; whereas in heres, fetus, and fenus, the 
simple vowel is better than the diphthong. In general it 
may be said, that the mode of spelling now adopted in the 
best editions of Latin writers is the correct one. 

[§ 13.] 5. The Romans had no other point than the full 
stop, and our whole artificial system of punctuation was un- 
known to them : but, to facilitate the understanding of their 
works, we now use in Latin the same signs which have be- 
come established in our own language : viz. the comma (,), 
colon (:), semicolon (;), sign of exclamation (!), sign of inter- 
rogation (?), and the parenthesis ( ). 

6. With regard to the use of capital and small letters, it 
must be observed, that the Romans, generally speaking, wrote 
only in capital letters (litterae unciales), until in the latest 
period of antiquity, the small letters came into use, which are 
now employed in writing Latin. Capital initials are at 
present used : a) at the beginning of a verse or at least of 
a strophe ; b) at the beginning of a new sentence, both in 
prose and in verse, after a full stop, and after a colon when 
a person's own words are quoted ; c) in proper names, and in 
adjectives and adverbs which are derived from them, e. g., 
Latium, ermos Latinus, Latine loqui ; d) in words which 
express a title or office, such as Consul, Tribunus, and Sena- 
tus, but not in their derivatives. 


7. The diaeresis (puncta diaereseos) is a sign to facilitate 
reading ; it is put upon a vowel which is to be pronounced 
separately, and which is not to be combined with the pre- 
ceding one into a diphthong, as in aer, aeris, poeta. The 
signs to indicate the length or shortness of a vowel or syl- 
lable (- and v,) were sometimes used by the ancients them- 

CHAP. n. 


[§ 14.] 1. A vowel or a diphthong may by itself form a 
syllable, as in u-va, me-o ; all other syllables arise from a 
combination of consonants and vowels. The Latin language 
allows only two consonants to stand at the end of a syllable, 
and three only in those cases where the last is s. At the 
beginning of a syllable, also, there can be no more than two 
consonants, except when the first is a c, p, or s, followed by 
muta cum liquida ; and at the beginning of a word there 
never are three consonants, except in the case of sc, sp, and 
st being followed by an r or I : for example, do-ctrina, cor- 

2. It often appears doubtful as to how a word is to be 
divided into syllables, and where the division is to be made 
at the end of a line, when the space does not suffice. The 
following rules, however, which are founded on the structure 
of the language, should be observed : — 1) A consonant 
which stands between two vowels belongs to the latter, as in 
ma-ter. 2) Those consonants which, in Latin or Greek, 
may together begin a word, go together in the division of 
syllables ; e. g., pa-tris, and not pat-ris, as tr occurs at the 
beginning of tres. In like manner, li-bri (brevis), i-gnis 
(gnomon), o~mnis, da-mnum (fxraofjiat), a-ctus, pun-ctum 
(kt^julo), ra-ptus, scri-ptus, pro-pter (Ptolemaeus), Ca-dmus 
(^fjLweg), re-gnum (yvovg), va-fre (fretus), a-thleta (•S-Xt'^w), 
i-pse, scri-psi (\//a^w), Le-sbos (o-ScVvv/u), e-sca, po-sco 
(scando), a-sper, ho-spes (spes\ pastor, fau-stus, i-ste {stare). 
3) In compound words, the division must be made so as to 

B 3 


keep the parts distinct, as inter-eram (not inte-reram), be- 
cause the word is composed of inter and eram. So also 
ab-utor, ab-rado, abs-condo, dis-quiro, et-iam, ob-latum ; 
and red-eo, red-undo, prod-eo, and sed-itio, for the d, here 
inserted to prevent hiatus, must go with the preceding 
vowel. But when the component parts of a word are doubt- 
ful, or when the first word has dropped its termination to 
prevent hiatus, the syllables are divided as if the word were 
not a compound ; e. g., po-tes (from pote or potts es), ani- 
madverto and not anim-adverto. ve-neo (from venum eo\ 
ma-gnanimus, am-bages. 



[§ 15.] Syllables are long or short, either by the nature 
of the vowel they contain, or they become long by their 
short vowel being followed by two or more consonants, that 
is, by their position. We shall first speak of the natural 
length and shortness of vowels. 

1 , All Diphthongs are long, and also all those single vowels 
which have arisen from the contraction of two into one, such 
as cogo (from codgo), mdlo (from mdvolo), tibicen (from 
tibiicen and tibia, but tubicen from tuba), blgae (from biju- 
gae), bubus and bobus (from bovibus), and so also dis for 
diis, gratis for gratiis, and nil for nihil. 

[§ 16.] 2. A Yowel is short, when it is followed by an- 
other vowel ( Vocalis ante vocalem brevis est), as in deus, 
films, pius, ruo, corruo ; and, as h is not considered as a 
consonant, also in such words as trdho, contraho, veho, and 

Note. Exceptions. 1) The vowel e in eheu is always long, and 
the o in ohe is frequently long. 2) The e in the termination of the 
genitive and dative of the fifth declension is long when it is preceded 
by a vowel, as in diet, speciei. 3) a and e are long in the vocative ter- 
minations di and ei of words ending in ajus and ejus; e. g., Gai, 
Vultei. (See Chap. XL note 3.) 4) All the genitives in ius, except 
alterius, have the i commonly long ; the poets however use the i in illius, 
istius, ipsius, unius, totius, ullius, and utrius, sometimes as a long and some- 
times as a short vowel; but alius, being a contraction for aliius, can never 


be made short. Alterius on the other hand, is sometimes made long. 5) The 
verb^o has the i long, except when an r occurs in it, as in Ovid : Omnia jam 
f lent, fieri quae posse negabam. 6) Greek words retain their own original 
quantity, and we therefore say aer, eos, (rjc6s), Amphion, Agesildus, and 
Menelaus, The e and i in the terminations ea and eus, or ia and ius, 
therefore, are long when they represent the Greek eta and eios (the 
Romans, not having the diphthong ei in their language, represent the 
Greek ei sometimes by e and sometimes by f, but these vowels, of course, 
are always long); e. g., Galatea, Medea, uEneas, Dareus, or Darius, 
Iphigenla Alexandria, Antiochla, Nicomedla, Samaria, Seleucla, Thalia, 
Arlus, Basillus, crocodilus, and the adjectives Epicureus, Pythagoreus, 
spondeus : but when the Greek is ea or ia the e and i are short, as in 
idea, philosophia, theologia. The same is the case with the patronymic 
words in ides, since the Greek may be lBtjs, as in Priamides and 
JEacides ; or eifys, as in Atrldes, Pelldes, which are derived from Atreus 
and Peleus. 

[§ 17 -] 3. Usage (auctoritas) alone makes the vowel in 
the first syllable of mater, f rater, pravuSy mano (I flow), 
dicOy ducOy miror, nitor, scribo, dono, pono, utor, mutOy sumo, 
cura, &c. long; and short in pater, cado, rego, tego, bibo, 
minor, colo, moror, probo, domus, soror, and others. It 
must be presumed that the student makes himself acquainted 
with the quantity of such words as these by practice, for 
rules can here be given only with regard to derivatives. It 
must further be observed, that the i in the following words 
is long : formica, lecticay lorica, vesicay urtlcay saliva, 
castigo, and formido. 

a) Derivative words retain the quantity of their root, as 
is the case also in declension and conjugation : thus the a in 
amor and amo is short, and therefore also in amoris, amat, 
amabam, dmavi, &c. ; except when the consonants after the 
vowel of the root produce a difference. New words formed 
from roots likewise retain the quantity ; as from amo — 
amor, amicus, amabilis ; from lux, lucis — luceo, lucidus ; 
from mater — rndternus, mdtertera ; and from pater — 
patriuSy pdternus. 

[§ 18 -3 With regard to Conjugation, however, the following rules also 
must be observed. 

1. The perfect and supine, when they consist of two syllables, and the 
tenses formed from them, have the first syllable long, even when in the 
present tense it is short, e. g,, video, vldi ; fugio, fugi ; lego, legi, legisse, 
legeram, &c. ; video, visum ; moveo, motum, motus, moturus (except, however, 
when one vowel stands before another, in which case the general rule 
remains in force, as in ruo, rui, dirui). Seven dissyllabic perfects, how- 
ever, and nine dissyllabic supines together with their compounds make 
their penultima short ; viz. bibi, dedi, fldi (from jindo), steti, stiti, tuli, 

B 4 


and sctdi (from scindd), and datum, ratum, sdtum, itum, litum, citum, quitum, 
situm, and rutum. Sisto makes its supine statum, whence status, a, urn, 
and the compounds adstitum, destitum, restitum. 

2. Perfects which are formed by reduplication, as tundo, tutudi ; cano, 
cecini, ; pello, pepuli, have the first two syllables short : but the second 
sometimes becomes long by position, as in mordeo, momordi,; tendo, 
tetendi. Pedo and caedo are the only two words which retain the long 
vowel in the syllable which forms the root, pepedi, cecldi ; whereas cddo, 
in accordance with the rule, has cecldi. 

3. The perfect posui and the supine positum have the o short, although 
in pono it is long. 

With regard to Declension, we must notice the exception that the 
words lar, par, sal, and pes shorten their vowel throughout their declen- 
sion : sdlis, pedis, &c. 

[§ 19 J ^ n tne formation of new words by Derivation, there are several 
exceptions to the above rule. The following words make the short vowel 
long : mdcer, mdcero ; lego, lex legis, legare ; rego-, rex, regis, regula ; tego, 
tegula ; sedeo, sedes ; sero, semen, sementis ; suspicor, suspicio ; persono 9 
persona ; voco, vox, vocis ; homo, humanus, and a few others. The fol- 
lowing words have a short vowel, although it is long in the root: labare 
from labi ; ndtare from nare ; pdciscor from pax, pads ; ambitus and 
ambitio from amblre, ambitum ; dicax from dlcere ; fides and perfidus from 
fido and fldus (but we regularly find infidus); molestus from moles; 
wota and ndtare from notus ; odium from odi ; sopor from sopire; dux, 
ducis, and redux, reducis, from duco ; lucerna from luceo. 

[§ 20.] The Terminations or final syllables, by means of which 
adjectives are formed from substantives, are of a different kind. Among 
these alis, aris, anus, ivus and osus, have a long vowel ; but idus and icus, 
a short one ; e. g., letalis, vulgaris, montanus, aestlvus, vinosus ; aridus, 
avidus, cupidus, modicus, publicus, rusticus, bellicus. A long i, however, occurs 
in amicus, aprlcus,pudicus, and posticus, and in the substantives mendlcus and 
umbilicus. The terminations His and bilis have the i short when they make 
derivatives from verbs, but long when from substantives; e.g., facilis 
and amabilis, from facto and amo ; but civllis, puerllis, from civis and puer. 
The only exceptions are humilis and parilis, from humus and par. The tin the 
termination inus may be long or short : it is long in adjectives derived 
from names of animals and places, as asinlnus, canlnus, Latlnus, and a few 
others, such as divinus, genulnus, clandestlnus, intestlnus, marlnus, and vici- 
nus ; it is short in most adjectives which express time, as crastinus, diutinus, 
pristinus, and in those which indicate a material or substance, as crys- 
tallinus, elephantinus, cedrinus, oleaginus. Some adjectives expressive of 
time, however, have the i long, viz. matutinus, vespertinus, and repentlnus. 

[§ 21.] b) Compound words retain the quantity of the 
vowels of their elements : thus from dvus and nepos we 
make abdvus and abnepos, from probus improbus, from jus 
(juris) perjurus, from lego (I read) perlego, and from lego 
(I despatch), ablego, delego y collega. Even when the vowel 
is changed, its quantity remains the same : e. g., laedo, illido; 
caedo, incido ; aequus, iniquus ; fauces, suffoco ; claudo^ 


recludo ; facto, efficio; cado, incido ; rdtus, irritus ; rego, 
erigo ; lego, elxgo. We may therefore infer from compound 
words the quantity of those of which they consist ; e. g., from 
admlror and abutor we conclude that miror and utor have 
the first syllable long ; and from commoror and desuper, that 
the first syllable in moror and super is short, which is not 
always accurately distinguished in pronunciation, because 
these syllables have the accent. (See Chap. IV.) 

But there are some exceptions, and the following compound words 
change the long vowel into a short one: dejero and pejero from juro ; cau- 
sidicus, fatidicus, maledxcus, veridlcus, from dicere ; aynitus and cognitus 
from nolus; innub(us), -a, and pronub(us), -a, from nubo. The case is 
reversed in imbecillus from bdculus. 

[§ 22."] In respect to Composition with Prepositions, it is to be re- 
marked, that prepositions of one syllable which end in a vowel are long, 
and those which end in a consonant are short : deduco, aboleo, perimo. Tra 
(formed from trans), as in trado, is long ; but the o (for ob) in omitto and 
operior is short. Pro, in Greek words, is short, as in propheta, but in 
Latin words it is long ; e. g. prodo, promitto : in many however it is short ; 
profugus, prqfiteor, profanus, projiciscor, profundus, and a few others. Se 
and di (for dls) are long ; the only exceptions are dlrimo and disertus. Re 
is short ; it is long only in the impersonal verb refert, being compounded 
of rem and fert : in all other cases where it appears long, the consonant 
which follows it must be doubled (in verse), as in reppuli, repperi, rettuli, 
reccido, redduco, relligio. The termination a in prepositions of two syl- 
lables is long, as in contrddico ; all the others are short, as antefero, 

[§ 23 '1 When the first part of a compound is not a preposition, it is 
necessary to determine the quantity of the final vowel (a, e, i, o, u, y) of 
the first word. 1) a is long, as in qudre and quapropter, except in quasi. 
2) e is mostly short, as in calefacio (notice especially neque, nequeo, 
nefas, nefastus, nefarius, nefandus), but long in nequam, nequidquam, 
nequaquam. and nemo (which is contracted from ne and homo) ; also in se- 
decim and the pronouns memet, mecum, tecum, and secum ; in veneficus, 
videlicet, vecors, and vesanus. 3) i is short, e. g. significo, sacrilegus, 
cornicen, tubicen, omnipotens, undique ; but long in compound pronouns, 
as qullibet, utrique, in ibidem, ubique, utroblque, ilicet and scilicet ; also in 
the compounds of dies, as blduum, triduum, meridies ; and lastly, in all 
those compounds of which the parts may be separated, such as lucrlfacio, 
agricultura, slquis, because the i at the end of the first word is naturally 
long, and remains so. 4) o is short, hodie, duodecim, sacrosanctus ; but 
long in compounds with contra, intra, retro, and quando (quandoquidem 
alone forms an exception) ; it is long in alioqui, ceterdqui, utroque, and in 
those Greek words in which the o represents the Greek eu, as in 
geometria. 5) u and y are short, as in quadrupes, Polyphemus, 

4. In regard to the quantity of Final Syllables, the follow- 
ing special rules must be observed : — 

b 5 


A. Monosyllabic Words, 

[§ 24.] 1) All monosyllables ending in a vowel are long; 
except the particles which are attached to other words : que, 
ve, ce, ne, te (tute), pse (reapse), and pte (suopte). 

2) Of the monosyllables ending in a consonant, the sub- 
stantives are long, as sol, ver, fur, jus ; and all those are 
short which are not substantives, as ut, et, in, an, ad, quid, 
sed, quis, quot The following substantives however are 
short: cor, fel, mel, vir, and os (gen. ossis), and probably 
also mas, a male being, and vas, a surety, since they have 
the a short in the genitive : maris, vddis. Some words, on 
the other hand, are long, although they are not substantives ; 
as en, non, quin, sin, eras, plus, cur, and par with its com- 
pounds, and also the adverbs in ic or uc, as sic, hie, hue. 
The monosyllabic forms of declension and conjugation follow 
the general rules about the quantity of final syllables, and 
das, fles, and scls accordingly are long, while ddt, flet, and 
scit are short ; his, hos, quds, quds are long, like the termi- 
nations is, os, and as in declension. So also the ablatives 
singular hoc and hdc. The nominative hie and the neuter 
hoc, on the other hand, although the vowel is naturally short, 
are commonly used as long, because the ancient form was 
hice, hoce. The abridged imperatives retain the quantity of 
the root, so that die and dice are long, while fdc and fer 
are short. 

Note. Ne, the interrogative particle, is always short, being attached to 
other words as an enclitic, as in videsne. The conjunction ne (lest, that 
not) is long. (See § 24. 1.) 

B. Final Syllables in Words of Two or more Syllables. 

[§ 25.] 1) Such as terminate in a Vowel. 

A is short in nouns, except in the ablative singular of the 
first declension and in the vocative of Greek proper names 
in as, e. g. jEnea, Palla. A is long in verbs and indeclinable 
words, such as ama, frustra, erg a, anted, and posted (unless 
it be separated into post ed), except ltd, quid, ejd. In the 
indeclinable numerals, as triginta and quadraginta, the a is 
sometimes long and sometimes short. 

E is short, as in patre, curre, nempe ; but long in the 
ablative of the fifth declension and in the imperative of the 


second conjugation. Adverbs in e formed from adjectives 
of the second declension are likewise long, as docte, recti; 
also fere, ferme, and ohe (but bene and male are always 
short), and Greek words of the first declension terminating 
in e, as Circe, Tempe. 

[§ 26.] / is long. It is short only in the vocative of 
Greek words in is, e. g. Alexi, and in nisi, quasi, and cm, 
when it is used as a dissyllable. The i is common or doubt- 

v-> \j V ~ v* \s 

ful in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi and ubi ; in compounds we com- 
monly find ibidem and ubique, whereas in ubwis and ubinam 
the i is always short. In uti for w£ the i is long, but short 
in the compounds utinam and utique. u w 

O is common in the present tense, as rc>#o, carco, awdio, 
and in the nominative of the third declension, as in sermo, 
virgo; the Greek words in o (to, Gen. ovg) however remain 
long in Latin, as Id, Dido. But o is long in the second 
declension, as in lecto, and in adverbs formed from nouns 
and pronouns by means of this termination, e. g.falso, merito, 
paulo, eo, quo, and also ergo, iccircb, quando and retro. 
The adverbs modo (with all its compounds), cito, illico, and 
immo, and also cedo (in the sense of die or da), ego, duo, 
and octo are always short, whereas ambo is generally long. 

U is always long, as in diu, vultu, cornu, 

Y in Greek words is always short. 

2) Suck as terminate in a Consonant. 

[§ 27.] All final syllables ending in a consonant are short, 
and special rules are required only for those ending in the 
sibilant s 

Note. Greek words retain their original quantity in their final syl- 
lables, except those in or, as Hector, Nestor, which are short in Latin, 
although in Greek they end in <ap. 

[§ 28.] As is long in Latin words, with the exception of 
anas, andtis ; but the Greek nominatives in as, which make 
their genitives in acoc and in Latin in adis, such as llias, 
Pallas, and the Greek accusatives plural oij the third declen- 
sion, are always short, as in herods. 

Es is long, e. g. ames, leges, audies, patres. But Latin 
nominatives in es, which increase in the genitive, and have 
their penultima short, are themselves short : e. g. miles, 
militis ; except abies, aries, paries, Ceres, and the compounds 

B 6 


of pes. The preposition penes and the second person of the 
verb sum, es, have the es short ; but the es (for edis) from 
edo is long. 

[§ 29.] Is is generally short, but long in all the cases of 
the plural, as armls, vobls; and also in the second person 
singular of verbs whose second plural is Itis, that is, in the 
fourth conjugation, and in possls, veils, noils, malls, and vis 
(thou wilt), with its compounds, mavis, quivls, quamvls. 

Os is long, as in nepbs, honbs, vivos, nos ; it is short only 
in compos and impos, and in Greek words in og, e. g. Delos. 

Us is short in verbs and nouns except monosyllables, but 
long in the genitive singular, in the nominative, accusative, 
and vocative plural of the fourth declension, and in the 
nominatives of the third, which have u in the genitive, as 
virtus, utis ; paliis, udis. 

Ys in Greek words is short, as Halps, chlamys. 

[§ so.] 5. Syllables (as was remarked in the beginning 
of this Chapter) may become long by their vowel being fol- 
lowed by two or more consonants, that is, by their position: 
x and z are accounted as two consonants. Aposition may be 
formed in three ways: — 1. When a syllable ends in two or 
three consonants, as in est, vult, mens, rex. — 2. When the 
first syllable ends in a consonant and the second begins with 
one, as in vel-le, ar-ma, vul-tis, or in two distinct words, as 
in silvis, et populus. — By these two kinds of position, a 
syllable is always lengthened, although its vowel may be 
naturally short. — 3. When the first syllable ends in a vowel, 
and the one following begins with two consonants, or a 
double consonant (x and z), we must distinguish as to 
whether the position occurs within a word or between two 
words. Within a word a syllable ending in a short vowel is 
regularly made long, as in a-ptus, fa-ctus, a-xis ; when., how- 
ever, the first consonant is a mute and the second a liquid 
(which is called positio debilis), they make the vowel, for poetical 
purposes, only common. Thus, we may pronounce either 
cerebrum, volucris, lugubris, mediocris, integri, or cerebrum, 
volucris, lugubris, mediocris, integri. But between two 
words the short vowel before a muta cum liquida is rarely 

Qu is not accounted as two consonants, for u is not a true 
consonant, though we usually pronounce it as such. But j 
alone is sufficient to make position within a word ; e. g., 
major, ejus, Troja. 




[§ 32.] 1. It is a general rule that every word has an 
accent on one particular syllable. This accent is twofold, 
either the circumflex ( A ), or the acute ('), for what is called 
the grave in Greek means only the absence of either accent. 
Some words, however, have no accent, viz., the enclitics ne, 
que, ve, ce, which never appear by themselves, but are 
attached to other words. Prepositions lose their accent when 
they precede the cases which they govern. 

[§ 33.] 2. Monosyllables are pronounced with the cir- 
cumflex, when their vowel is long by nature and not merely 
by position, as in dos, mos, flos, jus, lux, spes, fons and 
mons ; but when the vowel is naturally short, they are pro- 
nounced with the acute, although the syllable may be long 
by position ; e. g. drs, fax, dux, 

3. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, 
either as circumflex, when the vowel of that syllable is 
naturally long, and that of the second one short ; or as acute, 
when the vowel of the first syllable is short, and that of the 
second long ; or when the vowel of the first as well as that 
of the second is long ; e. g. Roma, musd, luce, juris ; but 
homo because both syllables are short ; deos, because the first 
is short and the second long ; arte, because the first is long 
only by position ; doti, for although the vowel of the first is 
naturally long, yet that of the second is likewise long ; and 
drti, because both syllables are long. 

4. Words of three syllables may have the accent either on 
the antepenultima or penultima ; the acute on the antepenul- 
tima, when the penultima is short, as in caedere, pergere, 
homines ; the accented syllable itself may be long or short. 
The circumflex is placed on the penultima on the conditions 
before-mentioned, as in amasse, Romanus ; and the acute 
when those conditions do not exist, and yet the penultima is 
long, as in Romdnis, Metellus. No word can have the 
accent further back than the antepenultima, so that we must 
pronounce Constantinopolis, solicitudinibus. 

[§ 34.] o. Words of two or more syllables never have 
the accent on the last. 


[§ 35.] 6. These rules concerning accentuation ought to 
lead us to accustom ourselves to distinguish accent from 
quantity ; to read, for example, homines and not homines, 
and to distinguish in our pronunciation lego (I read) from 
lego (I despatch) and in like manner mdlus (bad) from mains 
(an apple tree), palus, udis (a marsh), from palus, i (a post), 
and po'pulus (the people) from po'pulus (a poplar). In our 
own language accent and quantity coincide, but it is very 
wrong to apply this peculiarity to a language to which it is 





[§ 36.] The words of every language are either nouns, verbs, 
or particles. 

A noun serves to denote an object or a quality of an ob- 
ject, and may accordingly be either a substantive, as domus 
(a house), a pronoun, as ego (I), or an adjective, as parvus 
(small). Nouns are declined to indicate different relations. 

A verb expresses an action or condition which is ascribed 
to a person or a thing, as scribo, ire, dormire, amari. A 
verb is conjugated in order to indicate the different modes 
in which an action or condition is ascribed to a person or a 

Particles are those parts of speech, which are neither de- 
clined nor conjugated, and which are neither nouns nor verbs. 
They are divided into the following classes. 1) Adverbs 
express the circumstances of an action or condition, as scribit 
bene, he writes well ; diu dormit, he sleeps long. 2) Prepo- 
sitions express, either directly or indirectly, the relations of 
persons or things to one another or to actions and conditions ; 
as, amor meus erga te, my love towards thee ; eo ad te, I go 
to thee. 3) Conjunctions express the connexion between 
things, actions, or propositions ; as ego et tu ; clamavit, sed 
pater non audivit 4) Interjections are the expressions of 
emotion by a single word ; as ah, ohe, vae. 

These are the eight parts of speech in Latin ; all of them 
occur in the following hexameter : — 

Vae tibi ridenti, quia mox post gaudia flebis. 




[§ 37.] Nouns substantive are either proper, i. e. the names 
of one particular man or thing, or common, i. e. such as de- 
note a class of objects. 

All nouns have one of three genders : masculine, feminine, 
or neuter. 

The gender of substantives is determined partly by their termination, 
and partly by their signification. In reference to the latter point the 
following general rules must be observed. 

1. The names of men and of male beings, of rivers, winds, 
and months, are of the masculine gender. 

[§ 39.] 2. The names of women, female beings, and most 
trees, towns, countries, and islands, are feminine. 

Exceptions. The names of trees and shrubs in er, of the third declen- 
sion, are neuter ; as siler, cicer, papaver. Masculine are oleaster and 
pinaster, which belong to the second, and styrax which belongs to the 
third declension: also many shrubs and smaller plants in us, genit. i; 
e. g. amarantus, asparagus, calamus, dumus, helleborus, intubus, rhamnus, 
and spinus. 

Of the names of towns, the following are masculine : 1) All plurals in 
i, as Argi, Delphi, Veji ; 2) Five in o: Hippo (with the surname regius), 
Narbo Marcius, Frusino, Sulmo and Croto. 3) Tunes, etis, and Canopus. 
The following are neuter : 1 ) Those ending in urn, and the Greek names 
in on, as Tusculum, Ilion ; 2) The plurals in a, genit. orum, e. g. Susa, 
Ecbatana, Leuctra. 3) Those ending in e and ur, which follow the third 
declension, as Caere, Tergeste, Anxur, and Tibur ; Tuder is likewise neuter ; 
4) The indeclinable names in i and y, as Illiturgi, Asty, and some bar- 
barous names, the declension of which is defective. Argos, as a neuter, 
occurs only in the nominative and accusative, otherwise Argi, orum, is 
used. The poets occasionally use some of these names, according to the 
general rule, as feminines, the word urbs being understood ; this is the 
case especially with Praeneste. 

Names of countries in urn and plurals in a are neuter, as Latium, 
Bactra; the names Bosporus, Pontus, and Hellespontus, are masculine. 
The names of islands ending in um and the Egyptian Delta are neuter. 

Most names of precious stones are feminine as in Greek ; but beryllus, 
carbunculus, opdlus and smaragdus are masculine. 

[§ 40.] 3. There are many names of persons, which are 
common to both sexes, as they denote an occupation or quality 
which may belong either to a man or a woman. Such 
words are called common (communid). Those found in Latin 


with two genders are contained in the following hexameter 
lines : — 

Antistes, rates, adolescens, auctor et augur, 
Dux, judex, index, testis, cum cive sacerdos, 
Municipi adde parens, patrueli affinis et heres, 
Artifici conjux atque incola, miles et hostis, 
Par juvenis, martyr, comes, infans, obses et hospes, 
Interpres, praesul, custos, vindexque, satelles. 

Antistes, president. Heres, edis, heir. 

Vates, seer, prophet. Artifex, artist. 

Adolescens, a youth. Conjux, husband or wife. 

Auctor, author. Incola, inhabitant. 

Augur, augur. Miles, soldier. 

Dux, leader, commander. Hostis, enemy. 

Judex, judge. Par, colleague, partner. 

Index, indicator, denouncer. Juvenis, a young man or wo- 

Testis, witness. man. 

Civis, citizen. Martyr, martyr. 

Sacerdos, priest, priestess. Comes, companion. 

Municeps, a citizen of a mu- Infans, infant, child. 

nicipal town. Obses, hostage. 

Parens, parent ; in the plural, Interpres, interpreter. 

however, it is only mascu- Praesul, president. 

line. Custos, guard. 

Patruelis, aunt or uncle. Vindex, avenger. 

Affinis, relation. Satelles, satellite. 

[§ 41.] 4. Substantiva mobilia are those substantives 
which receive different terminations for the masculine 
and feminine genders. The termination for the feminine 
is always a or trix, and the latter occurs in those cases in 
which the masculine ends in tor, as in victor, vie trix ; prae- 
ceptor, praeceptrix ; inventor, inventrix. (See § 236.) The 
feminine is indicated by a when the masculine ends in us or 
er, or any other termination, e. g. coquus, coqua ; puer, 
puera ; magister, magistra ; rex, regina ; caupo, copa ; tibi- 
cen, tibicina. 

[§ 42.] o. Some names of animals have special terminations 
to distinguish the two sexes : cervus, cerva ; equus, equa ; 
gallus, gallina ; juvencus, juvenca ; lupus, lupa ; leo, lea and 
leaena ; vitulus, vitula ; ursus, ursa. In some cases the 
words are altogether different, as in taurus, vacca, a bull 
and cow ; aries, ovis, ram and sheep ; hoedus, capella. 


Most other names of animals are common (epicoend) ; that 
is, they have only one grammatical gender which comprises 
both sexes, e. g. passer, anser, corvus, cards are masculine ; 
and aguila, felis, anas, vulpes are feminine, though they may 
denote animals of either sex. If the sex of the particular 
animal is to be stated, the word mas or femina are added to 
the name; as, anas mas, anas femina, femina piscis. Instead 
of mas we may also use masculus or mascula, e. g, vulpes 
mascula, a male fox ; pavo masculus, a male peacock. 
Some of these nouns however, in which the difference of 
sex is more frequently noticed, are used as real common 
nouns (§ 40.), so that they are masculine when the male 
animal, and feminine when the female animal, is to be par^ 
ticularly specified. Of this kind are bos, canis, elephantus, 
lepus, mus, which are masculine when the difference of sex 
is not noticed ; but feminine when the female .is designated. 
Thus we generally find, e. g., elephanti prudentissimi haben- 
tur, lepores timidi sunt; but at the same time elephantus 
gravida, lepus fecunda. 

The following nouns are sometimes masculine and some- 
times feminine, without regard to difference of sex : anguis 
and serpens, a serpent ; dama, fallow-deer ; talpa, a mole ; 
also sus, a pig ; and tigris, tiger ; but sus is commonly femi- 
nine, while tigris is commonly masculine. Others are of un- 
certain gender, in as far as they have both a masculine and 
a feminine form, which, however, are used indiscriminately 
and without regard to sex. Thus we have the feminine forms 
colubra, lacerta, luscinia, and simia along with the mascu- 
lines coluber, lacertus, luscinius, and simius, without simia, 
for instance, having any reference whatever to a female 

[§ 43 *3 6. The following are neuter. All indeclinable 
substantives, as gummi, pascha, sinapi, and pondo which is 
used as an indeclinable noun in the sense of " pound ; " the 
names of the letters of the alphabet, as c triste, o longum, 
&c, and all words and expressions which, without being sub- 
stantives, are conceived and used as such, or quoted merely 
as words ; e. g. ultimum vale, scire tuum nihil est, hoc ipsum 
diu mihi molestum est, lacrimas hoc mihi paene movet, where 
the words diu and paene are quoted from the sayings of 
another person, and it is said that the very word diu or 
paene is painful. 




[§ 44.] The Latin language distinguishes, in nouns and 
verbs, the singular and plural (numerus singularis and plu- 
ralis) by particular forms ; it has also different forms to dis- 
tinguish six different cases (casus) in the relations and con- 
nections of nouns. The ordinary names of these cases are 
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative. 
The different forms of these cases are seen in the terminations 
which are annexed to the crude form of a word. Declension 
is the deriving of these different forms, both in the singular 
and plural, from one another, the nominative forming the 
starting point. The nominative and vocative are called 
casus recti, and the others casus obliqui. 

There are five declensions distinguished by the termina- 
tion of the genitive singular, which ends : — 

12 3 4 5 

ae I is us e'i 

All declensions have the following points in common : — 

1. In the second, third, and fourth declensions there are 
neuters which have three cases alike, viz. nominative, accu- 
sative, and vocative. 

2. The vocative is like the nominative, except in the 
singular of the second declension and in some Greek words 
in the first and third. 

3. Where no exception arises from neuters, the accusative 
singular ends in m. 

12 3 4 5 

am um em um em 

4. The genitive plural ends in urn. 

12 3 4 5 

drum drum um uum erum 

5. The dative plural is in all declensions like the ablative 

12 3 4 5 

is Is thus xbus (ubus) ebus 



The following table contains the terminations of all the 
five declensions: — 

Nom. a (e, as, 

Gen. ae (es) 
Dat. ae 
Ace. am (en) 
Voc. like nom. 
Abl. a (e) 


er, um 



e, er, 





i, a 









os, a 



i, a 




a, e, o, c, I, 

It, I, S, V, Jb 


em (im) 
like nom. 

es, a (ia) 
um (ium) 

es, a (ia) 
es, a (ia) 

us, u 

um, u 

like nom. 





like nom. 



us, ua 




ibus (ubus) 


us, ua 


us, ua 


ibus (ubus) 


chap. vin. 


[§ 45.] The first declension comprises all nouns which form 
the genitive singular in ae. The nominative of genuine 
Latin words of this kind ends in a. Greek words in a, as 
musa, Medusa, Thalia, follow the example of the Latin 
ones. Some Greek words in e, as, and es have peculiar ter- 
minations in some of their cases. (See Chap. IX.) 


Nom. vi-d, the way. Nom. 

Gen. vi-ae, of the way. Gen. 

Dat. vi-ae, to the way. Dat. 

Ace. vi-am, the way. Ace. 

Yoc. vi-d, O way ! Voc. 

Abl. vi-d, from the way. Abl. 

vi-ae, the ways. 
vi-arum, of the ways. 
vi-is, to the ways. 
vi-as, the ways. 
vi-ae, O ways ! 
vi-ls, from the ways. 

In like manner are declined, for example, the substantives barba, beard ; 
causa, cause ; cura, care ; epistola, letter ; fossa, ditch ; hora, hour ; mensa, 
table ; noverca, step-mother ; penna, feather ; porta, gate ; poena, com- 
pensation ; sagitta, arrow ; silva, wood ; stella, star ; uva, grape ; victoria, 



GREEK WORDS IN e, as, AND es. 

[§ 46.] 1. In the dative singular and throughout the plural, 
Greek words in e, as, and es do not differ from the regular 
declension. In the other cases of the singular they are de- 
clined in the following manner : — 

as es. 

ae ae. 

am (sometimes an) en. 

a e and a. 

a e 

Note. Words of this kind in e are : aloe, crambe, epitome, Circe, Danae; 
in as : Aeneas, Boreas, Gorgias, Midas, Messias, Satanas ; in es : anagnostes, 
cometes, dynastes, pyrites, sophistes, Anchises, Thersites, and patronymics, 
(i. e. names of persons derived from their parents or ancestors, see 
§ 245) ; e. g, Aeneades, Alcldes, Pelldes, Priamides, Tydides, 

Generally speaking, however, the patronymics in 77s, genit. ov, are the 
only Greek words that follow the second declension ; and the majority of 
proper names ending in es follow the third declension, as Alcibiades, MiU 
tiades, Xerxes. But many of them form the accusative singular in en, 
after the first declension. 









[§ 47.] Nouns in a and e are feminine, and those in as and 
es (being chiefly names of men) are masculine. 

Note. Nouns denoting male beings are of course masculine, though 
they end in a, as aurlga, coachman ; coUega, colleague ; nauta, sailor ; 
parriclda, parricide ; poeta, poet ; scriba, scribe. Names of rivers 
in a, such as Garumna, Trebia, Sequana, Himera, and Hadria (the 
Adriatic) are masculine, according to the general rule. (See Chap. VI.) 
The three rivers Allia, Albula, and Matrona, however, are feminine. 





[§ 48.] All nouns which form the genitive singular in a, 
belong to the second declension. The greater part of them 
end in the nominative in us, the neuters in um ; some end in 
er, and only one in ir, viz. vir with its compounds, to which we 
must add the proper name, Trevir. There is only one word 
ending in ur, viz. the adjective satur, satur a, saturum. 

The genitive of those in us and um is formed by changing 
these terminations into L The vocative of words in us ends 
in e ; in all other cases the vocative is like the nominative. 

Nom. gladi-us, the sword. 
Gen. gladi-i, of the sword. 

Dat. gladi-o, to the sword. 

Ace. gladi-um, the sword. 

Voc. gladi-e, O sword ! 

Abl. gladi-o, from the sword. 

Nom. gladi-i, the swords. 
Gen. gladi-brum, of the 

Dat. gladi-is, to the swords. 
Ace. gladi-os, the swords. 
Voc. gladi-i, O swords ! 
Abl. gladi-is, from the swords. 

The neuters in um are declined in the same way ; but in 
the plural they have the termination a, and the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative are alike in the singular as well as 
in the plural. 

Nom. scamn-a, the benches. 
Gen. scamn-orum, of the 

Dat. scamn-is, to the benches. 
Ace. scamn-a, the benches. 
Voc. scamn-a, O benches ! 
Abl. scamn-is, from the 


Nom. scamn-um, the bench. 
Gen. scamn-t, of the bench. 

Dat. scamn-o, to the bench. 
Ace. scamn-um, the bench. 
Voc. scamn-um, O bench! 
Abl. scamn-o, from the 

Vir and its compounds, as well as satur, simply add the 
terminations of the different cases to the nominative. 

Some of the words in er are likewise declined by merely 
adding the terminations to the nominative, as puer, puer-i, 
puer-d, puer-um, puer-orum, puer-is, puer-os ; others reject 


the short e in the oblique cases, as liber (a book), libr-i, 
libr-o, libr-um, &c. Those which retain the e are not very 
numerous, viz. adulter, gener, puer, socer, vesper, Liber (the 
god Bacchus), and liberi (the children, only in the plural) ; 
the adjectives asper, lacer, liber (free), miser, prosper, and 
tener. To these we must add the compounds of ferre and 
gerere, as Lucifer, armiger, and the words presbyter, Iber, 
and Celtiber (plural Celtiberi), The adjective dexter has 
both forms, dextera and dextra, dexterum and dextrum. 

[§ 49 1* The genitive of nouns in ius and ium, in the 
best age of the Latin language, was not ii, but i, as fill, 
Tulli, mancipi. 

2. The following nine adjectives or adjective pronouns, 
unus, solus, totus, ullus, uter, neuter, alter, nullus, and alius, 
together with their compounds, uterque, utervis, uterlibet, 
utercunque, and alteruter, form the genitive in all their 
three genders in ius, and the dative in i ; in addition to 
which uter and neuter eject the e preceding the r. The i of 
this genitive is long in prose, but in verse it is sometimes 
made short. Alterius alone has the i short both in prose 
and generally also in verse. Hence unus, Gen. unlus, Dat. 
uni ; alius, Gen. alius, Dat. alii; uter, Gen. utrius, Dat. utru 

[§ 50 *] 3. The vocative of proper names in his ends in i 
instead of ie, e. g. Antoni, Merciiri, Terenti, Tulli, Virgili, 
In like manner the proper names in jus, being sometimes 
softened down into ius, make the vocative in a simple i, as 
Gai, Pompei, But all common nouns and adjectives regu- 
larly form their vocative in ie, as fluvie, gladie, pie, even 
when such adjectives have become proper names, as Pius. 
Filius and genius, however, make their vocative fili, geni, 
and meus (though not mea or meum) makes mi, Deus in 
the vocative is like the nominative, as deus ! mi deus ! 

[§ 51 4. The genitive plural of some words, especially 
those which denote money, measure, and weight, is com- 
monly um instead of orum, particularly nummum, sestertium, 
denarium, medimnum, modium, jugerum, talentum. So also 
deum and liberum, instead of deorum and liberorum, 

5. Deus has three forms in the nom. dat. and ablat. plur., 
viz. dei, dii, and di, and deis, diis, and dis. 

The following words may serve as exercises of declension : — Annus, 
year ; corcus, raven ; hortus, garden ; lectus, bed ; medicus, physician ; 
morbus, illness ; nuntius, messenger ; populus, people ; rivus, brook ; 
taurus, bull ; ventus, wind. Neuters in um : — Astrum, star ; helium, war; 


collum, neck ; dolium, cask ; donum, present ; membrum, limb ; negotium, 
business ; ovum, egg ; poculum, cup ; proelium, battle ; sepulcrum, 
sepulchre ; signum, sign ; tergum, back ; vinculum, fetter. Those in er, 
genit. eri, have been mentioned above. The following are the most com- 
mon among those which reject the e before the r: Ager, field; aper, 
boar ; arbiter, arbitrator ; auster, south wind ; cancer, cancer or crab ; 
coluber, snake; culter, knife; faber, workman; liber, book; magister, 
teacher ; minister, servant. To these must be added the proper names in 
er, e. g. Alexander, gen. Alexandri. The adjectives which reject the e are 
aeger, ater, creber, glaber, macer, niger, piger, impiger, pulcher, ruber, sacer, 
scaber, sinister, taeter, vafer. 



[§ 52.] Greek words in os and neuters in ov, which make ov in the 
genitive, are commonly Latinized in the nominative by the terminations 
us and um, such as the common nouns taurus, antrum, theatrum, and the 
proper names Homerus, Pyrrhus, Codrus ; or by the termination er, e. g. 
Alexander, Maeander, Teucer. Others admit of both terminations in the 
nominative, as Delos, Paros, and Delus, Parus ; Ilion and Ilium. The 
genitive plural in on instead oiorum occurs in the titles of books, such as 
Bucolicon, Georgicon. 

Greek words in evs such as Orpheus, Idomeneus, Phalereus, were pro- 
nounced in Latin sometimes eus as one syllable, and sometimes eus. The 
best way is to make them follow entirely the second Latin Declension, as 
Orphe'i, Orpheo, Orpheum, with the exception of the vocative, which (ac- 
cording to the Greek third declension) ends in eu. 



[§ 53.] 1. Nouns in us, er, and ir are masculine ; those in 
um and the Greek nouns in on are neuter. 

2. Of those in us however the following are feminine : the 
names of plants and precious stones, as well as those of 
towns, countries, and islands, with a few exceptions. (See 
above, § 39.) It must be observed, that in many cases 


where the name of a tree ends in us fern., there is a form in 
um denoting the fruit of the tree, e. g. cerasus, a cherry tree ; 
cerasum, a cherry ; malus, malum ; morus, morum ; pirus, 
pirum ; prunus, prunum ; pomns, pomum ; but ficus signifies 
both the tree and the fruit. There are only four other genuine 
Latin words in us which are feminine, viz. alvus, humus, van- 
nus, and colus, which however is sometimes declined after the 
fourth declension, gen. us. Pampinus, a branch of a vine, is 
rarely feminine, but commonly masculine. Virus (juice or poi- 
son) and pelagus (to irekayoQ, the sea) are neuter. Vulgus (the 
people) is sometimes masculine, but more frequently neuter. 

[§ 54.] Note. With regard to the numerous Greek feminines in us 
(or os), which have been adopted into the Latin language, we notice 
especially the compounds of rj 080s : exodus, methodus, periodus, and 
synodus, and the words biblus, papyrus, dialectus, diphthongus, paragrdphus 
diametrus and perimetrus. 



[§ 55.] Nouns of the third declension form their genitive 
in is. 

The nominative has a great variety of terminations, for sometimes 
there is no particular ending, and the nominative itself is the crude form, 
such as it usually appears after the separation of the termination of the 
genitive ; frequently however the nominative has a special ending. 1.) The 
former is, generally speaking, the case with those words the crude form 
of which ends in I or r, so that the nominative ends in the same con- 
sonants, and the genitive is formed by simply adding is; e. g. sol, consul, 
calcar, agger, auctor, dolor, murmur. "Words like pater and imber, the 
crude form of which appears in the genitive and ends in r with a con- 
sonant before it, as patr-is, imbr-is, admit of a double explanation: either 
the nominative was increased for the purpose of facilitating the pro- 
nunciation, or the genitive rejected the short e (patris for pateris) ; the 
former however is the more probable supposition. In some words the 
nominative has s instead of r, as flos, gen. Jlor-is ; tellus, tellur-is ; in 
addition to which the vowel sometimes undergoes a change, as in corpus, 
corpor-is ; onus, oner-is. When the crude form ends in n with a vowel 
before it, the formation of the nominative is likewise accompanied by 
changes : on throws off the n, and in becomes en or is changed into o. 
Thus leo is made from leon (leon-is), carmen from carmin (carmin-is), and 
virgo from virgin (virgin-is). Only when the genitive ends in enis, the 
nominative retains en, as in lien-is, Ken. 2) The particular termination 
which the nominative receives in other cases is e for neuters, as mar-is, 
mar-e, and s or x which arises out of s, for masculines and feminines. 



This s is sometimes added to the final consonant of the crude form with- 
out any change, as in urb-is, urb-s ; due-is, dux (dues); leg-is, lex (legs); 
when the crude form ends in d or t, these consonants are dropped before 
the s; e. g. frond-is, frons ; mont-is, mons ; aetdt-is, aetds ; seget-is, seges ; 
in addition to this the vowel i also is sometimes changed into e, as in 
milit-is, miles; judic-is, judex. In all these cases where the nominative 
is formed by. the addition of an 5 to the final consonant of the crude form, 
the nominative has one syllable less than the genitive, or in other words, 
the s assumes an e or I before it, and then the nominative has the same 
number of syllables as the genitive, or in case the nominative assumes 1, 
both cases are quite the same ; e. g. nub-es, civ-is, pan-is. 

These are the most essential points in the formation of the nominative 
in the third declension. 

We shall take the nominative, as is the usual practice, as 
the case given, and shall point out in what way the genitive 
is formed from it. 

[§ 56.] 1. The nouns in a, which are neuters of Greek 
origin, make their genitive in dtis, as po'ema, poematis. 

2. Those in e change e into is, as mare, maris. 

3. The nouns in i and y are Greek neuters. Some of 
them are indeclinable, as gummi, and others have the regu- 
lar genitive in is, as sinapi, sinapis ; misy, misyis and misys 
or misyos. The compounds of meli (honey) alone make 
their genitive according to the Greek in itis, as melomeli, 
melomelitis ; oxymeli, oxymelitis. 

4. Those in o (common) add nis to form the genitive, 
sometimes only lengthening the o, and sometimes changing it 
into 1. Of the former kind (genit. onis) are car bo, latro, leo, 
ligo, pavo, praedo, sermo; and all those ending in io, as actio, 
dictio, pugio. Of the latter kind (genit. mis) are all abstract 
nouns in do, as consuetudo, mis ; most nouns in go, as imago, 
virgo, origo ; and a few others, as cardo, hirundo, turbo, 
homo, nemo. Caro has car nis. The names of nations in 
o have this vowel mostly short, as Macedones, Senones, 
Saxones ; it is long in Lacones and a few others. 

5. The only nouns ending in c are alec, gen. alecis ; and 
lac, gen. lactis. 

6. Nouns ending in I form the genitive by merely adding 
is, such as sol, sal, consul, pugil, animal. Mel has mellis, 
and plur. mella ; fel has fellis, but has no plural. 

7. Those in en (which are all neuters, with the exception 
of pecten, a comb,) make mis, as carmen, fiumen, lumen, 
nomen. Those in en retain the long e and have enis ; but 
there are only two genuine Latin words of this kind, ren and 
lien ; for lichen, splen, and attagen are of Greek origin. 


Greek words in an, en, in, fin, and on follow the Greek 
rules in regard to the length or shortness of the vowel and 
also in regard to the insertion of a t: Cimon, Cimbnis ; 
Xenophon, Xenophontis. It is, however, to be observed 
that most Greek words in «v, tovog have in Latin the nomina- 
tive o ; e. g. Laco, Plato, Zeno. The name Apollo is com- 
pletely Latinized, and makes the genitive Apollinis. 

[§ 57# ] 8. Those ending in r must be distinguished 
according to the vowel which precedes it : they may end in 
ar, er, yr, or, or ur. 

a) Those in ar have sometimes arts, as in calcar, pulvinar, 
torcular ; and sometimes aris, as jubar, nectar, lar (plur. 
lares), par and its compounds (e. g. impar, imparls), and the 
proper names Caesar, Hamilcar. But far makes farris, 
and hepar, hepatis. 

b) Latin words in er sometimes make eris, as mulier, 
mulieris, career, vomer; and sometimes they drop the short 
e, as, for instance, all those ending in ter (e. g. venter, uter, 
pater), with the exception of later, and the words imber, 
September, October, November, December. Iter makes its 
genit. (from a different nominat.) itineris. Juppiter {JovV 
pater) makes the genitive Jovis. Greek words in er follow 
the rules of the Greek language, whence we say crater, eris; 
aer, aeris. Ver (the spring), gen. veris, originally belonged 
to the same class. 

c) Nouns ending in yr are Greek, and follow the rules of 
the Greek grammar : martyr, martyris. 

d) Those in or have oris, as amor, error, soror, uxor; 
but arbor, the three neuters ador, aequor, marmor, and the 
adjective memor, have oris. Cor has cordis, and so also 
in the compound adjectives concors, discors, misericors. 
Greek proper names, such as Hector, Nestor, and others, 
have oris, as in Greek. 

e) Those in nr have uris, e. g. fulgur, murmur, sulphur, 
vultur, and the adject, cicur. Fur (a thief) alone has Juris ; 
and the four neuters, ebur, femur, jecur, and robur have oris, 
as eboris, roboris. Jecur has, besides jecoris, also the forms 

jecinoris, jocinoris, and jocineris. 

[§ 58 -] p- ^ou 118 ending in s are very numerous ; they 
may terminate in as, es, is, os, us, aus> or in s with a con- 
sonant preceding it. 

a) Those in as form their genitive in atis, as aetas, aetatis. 
Anas alone has anatis ; mas has maris; vas (a surety), 

c 2 


vddis ; vas (a vessel), vasis, and as, assis. The Greek words 
vary according to their gender ; the masculines make antis, 
the feminines ddis, and the neuters dtis. 

b) Those ending in es must be divided into two classes. 
Those belonging to the first increase in the genitive, the 
letters d or t, which were dropped in the nominative, being 
restored to their place, and their genit. termination is either 
itis, etis, etis, or Mis, edis, edis. 

The genitive in itis occurs in most of them, as in antistes, 
comes, eques, hospes, miles, pedes, satelles, caespes, fames, 
gurges, limes, merges, palmes, stipes, and trames, together 
with the adjectives ales, codes, dives, sospes, and super stes. 

The following make their genitive in etis : abies, aries, 
paries, interpres, seges, teges, and the adjectives hebes, in- 
diges, praepes, and teres. 

The genit. in etis occurs in the Greek words lebes, tapes, 
Magnes; in the words quies, inquies, requies, and the adjec- 
tive locuples. 

Those which make idis are obses, praeses, and the adject. 
deses and reses. 

The genitive in edis occurs in pes, pedis, and its compounds, 
e. g. the plural compedes. Heres and merces, lastly, make 
their genitive in edis. 

The following words must be remembered separately: bes, 
bessis ; Ceres, Cereris ; pubes, and impubes, puberis and im- 

The second class of words in es change the es of the nomi- 
native into is, without increase, such as caedes, clades, fames, 
nubes, rupes ; it must also be observed, that several words 
belonging to this class vary in the termination of the nomi- 
native between es and is, so that along with feles, vulpcs, 
vehes, aedes, we also have vulpis, vehis, aedis. 

c) Most words in is form their genitive in is, without any 
increase, as avis, civis, panis, piscis, and a great many others, 
together with the adjectives in is, neut. e. Others increase by 
one syllable, and make their genitive in Mis, Itis or eris : Mis 
occurs in cassis, cuspis, lapis, and in the Greek words aegis 
and pyramis : itis occurs only in lis, Quiris, and Samnis, 
plur. Quirites, Samnites ; and eris only in cir^s, cucumis, 
and pulvis, gen. pulveris, cucumeris, and cineris. Glis has 
gllris ; and sanguis has sanguinis (but the compound exsan* 
guis remains in the genit. exsanguis) ; semis, being a com- 
pound of as, makes semissis. 


Greek words which have the genit. in loq or eojq form 
their genit. in Latin in is, without increase ; but if their 
genit. is idog, they increase in Latin and have idis. (See 

[§ 59.] d) Nouns in os sometimes have otis, as cos, dos, 
nepos, sacerdos, and sometimes oris, like os (the mouth), fios, 
glos, mos, ros, and in like manner honos, and lepos, the more 
common forms for honor and lepor. Custos makes custodis; 
os (bone), ossis ; bos, bovis. The adjectives compos and 
impos have potis. 

e) Of the words in us, the feminines in us make their 
genitive in utis, as virtus, virtutis ; or iidis, as the three 
words incus, palus, and subscus. Tellus alone has telluris, 
and Venus, Veneris. The neuters in us have sometimes 
eris, viz. foedus, funus, genus, latus, munus, olus, onus, opus, 
pondus, scelus, sidus, ulcus, vulnus ; and sometimes oris, as 
corpus, decus, dedecus, f acinus, fenus, frigus, litus, nemus, 
pectus, pecus (which in another sense has pecudis), pignus, 
stercus, tempus, and the common noun lepus, leporis, a hare. 
All monosyllables which have a long u, form their genitive 
in uris, as crus, jus, pus, rus, tus, and mus. Grus and sus 
have gruis, suis ; the adjective vetus has veteris, and inter- 
cus, intercutis. 

f) Greek words in ys make the genitive yis, contracted 
ys, or altogether in the Greek form yos. Some few, as 
chlamys, have ydis. 

g) The only nouns ending in aes are aes, aeris, and praes, 

h) There are only two words in aus, viz. laus and fraus, 
of which the genitives are laudis, fraudis. 

i) Among the nouns ending in s preceded by a consonant, 
those in Is (except puis), ns (consequently all participles in 
ns), and rs change the s into tis, e. g. fons, mons, pons, ars, 
pars, Mars — fontis, partis, &c. There are only a few, such 
as frons (a branch), glans, juglans, and some others, which 
make dis — frondis ; but frons (the forehead) makes fronds. 
The other words in s with a consonant before it, that is, 
those in bs, ps, and ms, form their genitive in bis, pis, ?nis, 
e. g. urbs, urbis ; plebs, plebis ; stirps, stirpis ; hiems, hiemis, 
which is the only word of this termination. Caelebs has 
caelibis ; the compounds of capio ending in ceps have tpis, 
as princeps, particeps — principis, participis. The compounds 

c 3 


of caput, which likewise end in ceps, such as anceps, make 
their genitive in cipitis, like caput, capitis. 

10. The termination t occurs only in caput and its com- 
pounds, gen. capitis. 

[§ 60.] 11. The genitive of words in x varies between 
cis and gis, according as the x has arisen from cs or gs, which 
may be ascertained by the root of the word. The former is 
more common, and thus the following monosyllables with a 
consonant before the x make their genit. in cis : arx, calx, 
falx, lanx, merx ; gis occurs only in the Greek words pha- 
lanx, sphinx, and syrinx. 

But when the x is preceded by a vowel, it must be ascer- 
tained whether this vowel remains unchanged, and whether 
it is long or short. The Latin words in ax have acis, as pax, 
fornax, and the adjectives, e. g. audax, efficax. Fax a'lone 
has a short a, fads. Greek words too have mostly acis, as 
thorax, Ajax, and only a few have acis, as corax, climax, 
while the names of men in nax have nactis, such as Astya- 
nax, Demonax. Words in ex generally make their genitive 
in ids, as judex, artifex, supplex : but egis occurs in rex and 
lex, and egis in aquilex, grex ; ecis in nex, foenisex, and in 
precis (from prex which is not used) ; ecis in vervex, Myi*~ 
mex. Remex has remigis ; senex, senis ; and supellex, supel- 
lectilis. The words in ix sometimes make their genitive in 
wis and sometimes in wis. Of the former kind are cervix, 
cicatrix, comix, coturnix, lodix, perdix, phoenix, radix, vibix, 
and all the words in trix denoting women, such as nutrix, 
victrix, and the adjectives felix, and pernix, and probably 
also appendix ; icis occurs in calix, choenix, coxendix, filix, 
fornix, fulix, hystrix, larix, natrix, pix, salix, varix, and Ci- 
lix. Nix has nivis, and strix, strigis. The words ending in 
ox have ocis, e. g. vox, vocis ; ferox, ferocis ; but two words 
have ocis, viz. Cappadox and the adjective praecox. JVox 
has noctis ; Allobrox, Allobrogis. The following words in 
ux form the genitive in ucis : crux, dux, nux, and the adjec- 
tive trux ; the u is long only in two words, viz. lux and Pollux, 
genit. lucis, Pollucis. Conjux (or conjunx) has conjugis, and 
frux (which, however, does not occur), frugis. There is only 
one word ending in aex, viz. faex, gen. faecis, and in aux 
only faux, gen.faucis. The words in yx are Greek, and vary 
very much in the formation of their genitive : it may be yds 
(Eryx), ycis (bombyx), ygis (Japyx, Phryx, Styx), ygis (coc- 
cyx), and ychis (onyx). 




[§ 61.] All the remaining cases follow the genitive in regard 
to the above mentioned changes. It should be remarked 
that any other of the oblique cases might have been chosen, 
instead of the genitive, for the purpose of showing the changes 
in which all participate ; but we have followed the common 
practice. The following is a tabular view of the termina- 




— , Nom. 

es, neut. a (some id) 


is Gen. 

um (some turn). 


i Dat. 



em (neut. like nom.). Ace. 

like nom. 


like nom. Voc. 

like nom. 


e (some I ). Abl. 


We subjoin some examples of the complete declension, in 
which it will be seen how the nominative either remains un- 
changed before the terminations, or undergoes a modifica- 
tion. Many more examples may be taken from the preceding 

Nom. agger, the mound. Nom. pater, the father. 

Gen. agger-is, of the mound. Gen. patr-is, of the father. 
Dat. agger -i, to the mound. Dat. patr-i, to the father. 
Ace agger-em, the mound. Ace. patr-em, the father. 
Voc. agger, O mound ! Voc. pater, O father ! 

Abl. agger-e, from the mound. Abl. patr-e, from the father. 

Nom. agger-es, the mounds. Nom. patr-es, the fathers. 
Gen. agger -um, of the mounds. Gen. patr-um, of the fathers. 
Dat. agger-ibus, to the mounds.Dat. patr-ibus, to the fathers. 
Ace. agger-es, the mounds. Ace. patr-es, the fathers. 
Voc. agger-es, mounds ! Voc. patr-es, O fathers ! 
A.#^er-^ws,fromthemounds.A. patr-ibus, from the fathers. 

c 4 





. leo, the lion. 

Nom. homo, the man. 



Gen. homin-is. 



Dat. homin-i. 



Ace. homin-em. 



Voc. homo. 



Abl. homin-e. 


leon-es, the lions. 

Nom. homin-es, the men. 



Gen. homin-um. 



Dat. homin-ibus. 



Ace. homin-es. 



Voc. homin-es. 



Abl. homin-ibus. 


miles, the soldier. 

Nom. fios, the flower. 



Gen. fior-is. 



Dat. fior-i. 



Ace. flor-em. 



Voc. fios. 



Abl. fior-e. 


milit-es, the soldiers. Norn, fior-es, the flowers. 



Gen. fior-um. 



Dat. fior-ibus. 



Ace. fior-es. 



Voc. fior-es. 



Abl. fior-ibus. 


lex, the law. 

Nom. dux, the commander. 



Gen. due-is. 



Dat. duc-i. 



Ace. due -em. 



Voc. dux. 



Abl. duc-e. 



Nom. leg-es, the laws. Nom. duc-es, the commanders. 

Gen. leg-um. Gen. duc-um. 

Dat. leg-ibus. Dat. duc-ibus. 

Ace. leg-es. Ace. duc-es. 

Yoc. leg-es. Yoc. duc-es. 

Abl. leg-ibus. Abl. duc-ibus. 



Nom. fulgur, lightning. Nom. opws, the work. 

Gen. fidgur-is. Gen. oper-is. 

Dat. fugur-i. Dat. oper-i. 

Ace. fulgur. Ace. opws. 

Voc. fulgur. Voc. opws. 

Abl. fulgur-e. Abl. oper-e. 


Nom. fulgur-a, lightnings. Nom. oper-a, the works. 

Gen. fulgur-um. Gen. oper-um. 

Dat. fulgur -ibus. Dat, oper-ibus. 

Ace. fulgur-a. Ace. oper-a. 

Voc. fulgur-a. Voc. oper-a. 

Abl. fulgur -ibus. Abl. oper-ibus. 

Remarks on the separate Cases. 

1. The genitive of some Greek proper names in es is £ 
instead of & ; e. g. Themistocles Neocli filius, instead of 

[§ 62.] 2. Many words in & make the accusative singular 
im instead of em, viz. — 

a) All Greek nouns which form the accusative in that 
language in ii>: basim, poesim, paraphrasim, Charybdim, 
Neopolim, Persepolim, Tanaim ; those which have in Greek 
both terminations iv and toa (i. e. the barytons in ig, gen. iCoq) 
prefer in Latin the accusative in im, e. g. Memphim, Osirim, 
Phalarim, Serapim, Zeuxim. But those which in Greek 
end in lg, gen. idog (oxytona), have in Greek only Ida, and in 
Latin only idem : e. g. aegis, pyramis, tyrannis, Aeneis. 

c 5 


b) Many proper names (not Greek) of rivers and towns in 
is which do not increase in the genitive, make, according to 
the analogy of the Greek, the accusative in im instead of 
em, e. g. Albim, Athesim, Baetim, Tiberim, Bilbilim, His- 

c) The following Latin common nouns : amussis, ravis, 
sitis, tussis, and vis. In the following the termination em is 
less common than im : febris, pelvis, puppis, restis, turris, 
and especially securis, 

[§ 63.] 3. The ablative singular terminates in i instead 
of e : 

a) In all words which form their accusative in im instead 
of em, with the exception of those Greek words which make 
the genitive in idis. Thus we have poesi, Neapoli, Tiberi, 
and among Latin common nouns not only ravi, tussi, and vi, 
but febri, pelvi, puppi, turri, and securi. But restim has 
more commonly reste, and navem on the contrary more 
usually navi than nave. Clave and clavi, and semente and 
sementi, are equally in use. 

b) In neuters in e, al, and ar, e. g. mari, vectigali, calcari, 
&c ; but far, f arris, and baccar, jubar, hepar, nectar, and 
sal, which have a short a in the genitive, form the ablative 
in e. Names of towns in e always make their ablative in e, 
as Praeneste. 

c) In adjectives and names of months ending in is and er ; 
hence facili, celebri, celeri, Aprili, Septembri, and generally 
also in those substantives in is which are properly adjectives, 
e. g. aequalis, affinis, annalis, bipennis, canalis, familiaris, 
gentilis, popularis, sodalis, vocalis, triremis, and quadri- 
remis. But juvenis always makes juvene, and aedilis com- 
monly aedile. 

[§ 64.] 4. The ablative singular in i or e indiscriminately 
occurs, generally speaking, in adjectives of one termination 
and in comparatives, as prudens prudente, and prudenti ; 
elegans, elegante and eleganti ; vetus, vetere and veteri ; 
locuples, locuplete and locupleti ; dives, divite and diviti ; 
felix, felice and felici ; major, majore and majori. But i 
is preferable in adjectives of one termination, and e in com- 

Note. It should however be observed that the majority of adjectives in 
es, viz. hospeSf sospes, deses, pubes, impubes, and superstes, pauper, senex, and 
princepsy form the ablative exclusively in e. It must further be observed, 
that the words in ans and ens, when used substantively, as infans, sapiens, 


and when they are real participles, always have e. Hence we regularly 
find it in the ablative absolute, e. g. Tarquinio regnante. 

[§ 65] 5. The nominative, accusative, and vocative plural 
of neuters end in a ; but neuters in e, al, and ar, which also 
form the ablative singular in i, and all participles and adjec- 
tives which make the ablative singular either in i alone, or 
vary between e and i, have ia instead of a, except the 
adjective vetus and all comparatives ; e. g. maria, vectigalia, 
calcaria, paria, facilia, sapientia, ingentia, victricia ; 
amantia, sedentia, audientia; but major a, doctiora, &c. 

Note. Sal has no neuter plural, but only sales with masculine gender. 
All adjectives of one termination, make the plural in ia, for of those 
which form the ablative singular in e exclusively, the neuter does not 
occur. Thus there remains only vetus, vetera, although the ablative sing, 
is vetere or veteri. Complures (several or some) makes both compluria and 

[§ 66.] 6. The following words make their genitive 
plural in ium instead of um : 

a) All neuters which have ia in the nominative plural, 
that is, those in e, al, and ar, and all participles and adjec- 
tives which follow the third declension. Comparatives there- 
fore (with the exception of plurium and complurium) and 
those adjectives which have only e in the ablative singular, 
retain the termination um in the genit. plur., as pauperum> 
super stkum. To these we must add the adjectives caelebs, 
celer, cicur, compos, impos, dives, memor, immemor, supplex, 
uber, vetus, and vigil; all compounds of facto and capio, 
and of such substantives as make the genitive plur. in um, 
e. g. degenerum, bicorporum, inopum, quadrupedum, trici- 
pitum, versicolorum. 

b) Words in es and is, which do not increase in the 
genitive singular (e. g. nubes, nubium; civis, civium ; but 
militum and lapidum from miles and lapis, gen. militis, 
lapidis) ; the following words in er : imber, linter, venter f 
uter, and the word caro, carnium. Vates, strues, the plural 
ambages, and generally also sedes, together with apis, canis, 
juvenis, and volucris, form exceptions, and make their 
genitive plur, in um. Panis is uncertain. 

c) Many monosyllabic substantives, and without exception 
those ending in s and x preceded by a consonant, make ium, 
as montium, dentium, arcium, mercium, from mons, dens, 
arx, merx. Lynx however has lyncum ; and opes, from ops, 
has opum. But the greater number of monosyllabic words 

c 6 


ending in s and x preceded by a vowel make their genitive 
plur. more frequently in um than in turn. The latter occurs 
only in as, assium ; glis, glirium ; lis, litium ; mas, marium ; 
os, ossium ; vis, virium ; and generally also in /rates, frau- 
dium, and mus, murium. To these we must add faux, 
faucium ; nix, nivium ; strix, strigium ; and nox, noctium. 
Fur and ren have furum, renum ; lar has more frequently 
larum than larium. Of cor we only find cordium. 

d) Substantives of two or more syllables ending in ns and 
rs have ium and um, though the latter occurs more rarely ; 
as in cliens, cohors, Picens, Vejens, Camers ; and in like 
manner those which, like adolescens, infans, parens, sapiens, 
serpens, are properly participles, and admit um only because 
they are substantives (whence we frequently find parentum 
from parentes), commonly make their genitive in ium: 
adolescentium, sapientium, &c. The names of people in as, 
atis, such as Arpinas, Fidenas, form their genitive almost 
exclusively in ium : Arpinatium, Fidenatium. Penates and 
optimates, which usually occur only in the plural, follow 
their analogy. Other substantives (common nouns, appel- 
lativd) in as generally have um : e. g. aetatum, civitatum ; 
but ium also is correct, and civitatium in particular occurs 
frequently. Quiris and Samnis, contrary to the rule, gene- 
rally make Quiritium, Samnitium. 

[§ 67 -] ?' Names of festivals in alia which are used only 
in the plural, as Bacchanalia, Compitalia, make their 
genitive plural in ium or orum, as Bacchanalium or Baccha- 

8. In the dative and ablative plural, the Greek words in 
ma prefer the termination is of the second declension to 
ibus ; e. g, poematis, epigrammatis, for poematibus and epi- 

[§ 68.] 9. The accusative plural of words which make 
the genitive plur. in ium ended, in the best age of the Latin 
language, in Is, instead of es ; hence we ' find artis, civis, 
omnis, tris. 

[§ 69.] 10. Juppiter (see § 12.) is declined as follows : 
genit. Jovis, dat. Jovi, accus. Jovem. voc. Juppiter, abl. Jove. 
In the plural Joves only is found. 

Bos, bovis, makes the nominat. and accus. plur. boves, gen. 
bourn, dat. and ablat. bubus, and less frequently bobus. Sus 
makes the dat. and ablat. plur. subus, which is a contraction 
of suibus. 



We have, in the preceding chapter, arranged the deviations 
from the regular or ordinary declension, according to the 
order in which the cases follow one another in the paradigm : 
but for the purpose of assisting the learner, we shall here 
arrange the same observations according to the terminations 
of the nouns, viz. : — 

a. Substantives. 

1. The neuters in e, al, and ar, make the ablat. sing, in i 9 
the nom. accus. and vocat. plur. in ia, and the genit. plur. in 

2. Substantives in es and is, which do not increase in the 
genit., as well as several ending in er, make the genit. plur. 
in ium. 

3. Greek words in is, together with the names of rivers 
and towns of the same termination, though they may not be 
Greek, and a few Latin words in is, make the accus. sing, in 
im, the ablat. in i, and the genit. plur. (if they occur in the 
plural) in ium. 

4. Monosyllabic words in s and x, preceded by a consonant, 
and several in which s or x is preceded by a vowel, form the 
genit. plur. in ium. 

5. Polysyllabic words in ns and rs commonly make the 
genit. plur. in ium ; the same is the case with the appellatives 
in as, though more rarely. 

b. Adjectives* 

1. Adjectives in is, e, and er, is, e, make the ablat. sing, in 
i, the neuter plur. in ia, and the genit. plur. in ium. 

2. Adjectives of one termination make the ablat. sing, on 
the whole more commonly in i than in e, the neuter plural in 
ia, and the genit. plur. in ium. (Comparatives, however, make 
the ablat. sing, in e, the neuter plur. in a, and the genit. plur. 
in um.) 

We subjoin a few of these nouns as models for the de 
clension of the rest. 



Neuters in e, al, and ar. 



mare, the sea. 

Nom. animal, the animal. 



Gen. animal-is. 



Dat. animal-i. 



Ace. animal. 



Yoc. animal. 



Abl. animal-i. 


mar-ia, the seas. 

Nom. animal-ia, the animals 



Gen. animal-ium. 



Dat. animal-ibus. 


& Voc. mar-ia. 

Ace. & Voc. animal-ia. 



Abl. animal-ibus. 


in es, is, and er. 

Nom. & Voc. nubes, a cloud. N. & V. imber, a shower of rain. 
Gen. nub-is. Gen. imbr-is. 

Dat. nub-i. Dat. imbr-i. 

Ace. nub-em. Ace. imbr-em. 

Abl. nub-e. Abl. imbr-e. 


Nom, & Voc. nub-es, clouds. ~N.&Y.imbr-es, showers of rain. 

Gen. nub-ium. Gen. imbr-ium. 

Dat. nub-ibus. Dat. imbr-ibus. 

Ace. nub-es. Ace. imbr-es. 

Abl. nub-ibus. Abl. imbr-ibus. 


Nom. & Voc. c?ws, citizen. Nom. & Voc. securis, axe. 

Gen. civ-is. 

Dat. czv-i. 

Ace. civ -em. 

Abl. ceW. 

Gen. secur-is. 
Dat. secur-L 
Ace. secur-im. 
Abl. secur-i. 



Nom. & Voc. civ-es, citizens. Nom. & Voc. secur-es, axes. 

Gen. civ-ium. Gen. secur-ium. 

Dat. civ-ibus. Dat. secur-ibus. 

Ace. civ-es. Ace. secur-es. 

Abl. civ-ibus. Abl. secur-ibus. 

Nouns in s and x, with a Consonant preceding. 


Nom. & Voc. ars, art. N. & V. sapiens, a wise man. 

Gen. art-is. Gen. sapient-is. 

Dat. art-i. Dat. sapient-i. 

Ace. art-em. Ace. sapient-em. 

Abl. artf-e. Abl. sapient-e. 


Nom. & Voc. art-es, arts. N. & V. sapient-es, wise men. 

Gen. art-ium. Gen. sapient-ium. 

Dat. art-ibus. Dat. sapient-ibus. 

Ace. art-es. Ace. sapient-es. 

Abl. art-ibus. Abl. sapient-ibus. 



[ § 70.] A great number of Greek words, especially proper names, 
belong to the third declension ; as their genitive terminates in os (ecus, 
ous), they follow the third declension in their own language also. 
Among the terminations of the nominative mentioned above, some belong 
exclusively to Greek words, viz. ma, i, y, an, In, on, yn, er, yr, ys, eus, yx, 
inx, ynx, and the plurals in e ; but there are also Greek words with other 
terminations, most of which, however, are quite treated as Latin words, 
and the Greek forms are used by Latin writers, especially the poets, only 
in some cases. 

1. In the genitive singular, the poets frequently use the Greek ter- 
mination os instead of the Latin is, e. g. Panos, Tethyos. 

The feminines in o, however, as echo, Calypso, Dido, Sappho, have 
usually the Greek genitive in us, as echus, Didus, Sapphus, the Latin 


termination onis being less common. Their dative, accusative, and 
ablative end in o, and the Latin terminations owz, onem, one, are but rarely 

[§ 71 -1 2. The Greek accusative of the third declension in a is very 
often used by the Latin poets instead of em ; e. g. hebdomada from heb- 
domas, Pana, aethera, Lacedaemona, Babylona. 

[§ 72 «] 3. The vocative singular in most Greek words ending in s 
is formed by rejecting that consonant both in Greek and Latin ; e. g. 
Daphni, Phylli, Thai, Tiphy, Orpheu, Perseu. Nouns in as, antis, make 
their vocative in Greek dv and a, but the latter only is used in Latin; e. g. 
Atla, Calcha. 

[§ 73 -] 4 « 1° tne genitive plural only a few words retain the Greek 
termination on (wy), but on the whole only in titles of books ; e. g. meta- 
morphoseon, epigrammaton. 

[§ 74 «] 5. The Greek accusative plural in as often occurs in proper 
names ; e. g. Cyclopas, Macedonas. 



[§ 75.] Masculine are those which end in o, or, os, and er, 
and those in es which increase in the genitive, especially 
those in es, itis, e. g. sermo, error, sudor, flos, mos, venter, 

Exceptions in o, "Words ending in do, go and to are 
feminine, e. g. consuetudo, grando, legio, contio, natio, &c, 
also caro. The following, however, are masculine : in do, 
the words cardo and ordo, together with ado and cudo or 
cudon ; in go : ligo, margo, and harpago ; and all words in 
to, which are not abstract nouns, but common names of 
things, such as pugio (a dagger), scipio (a staif), septentrio 
(north pole), titio (a fire-brand) ; several names of animals, 
as curculio, papilio, scorpio, stellio, vespertilio, and a few 
others of rare occurrence ; and lastly, unio, in the sense of a 
particular pearl (margarita). 

[§ 76.] Exceptions in or. The following words in or, 
oris, are neuter : ador, aequor, marmor, and cor, cordis. 
Arbor is feminine according to the general rule. 


Exceptions in os. Cos, dos, and the Greek eos are femi- 
nine ; os, ossis, and os, oris, are neuter. 

Exceptions in er. A great many words in er are neuter, 
viz. cadaver, iter, spinther, tuber (a hump), uber, ver, and 
verber (rarely used in the singular), and ail the names of 
plants in er : cicer, laser, papaver, piper, siler, siser, suber, 
and zingiber. Tuber (a kind of peach tree) is feminine ; but 
when it denotes the fruit, it is masculine. 

Exceptions in es increasing in the genitive. The follow- 
ing are feminine : merges, itis ; seges and teges, etis ; merces, 
edis ; quies, etis, with its compounds inquies and requies. 
Compes, which, however, does not occur in the nominative 
sing., but only in the plural compedes, is feminine. Aes, 
aeris, is neuter ; ales and quadrupes are properly adjectives, 
but as substantives they are mostly used as feminines. 

CHAP. xvni. 


[§ 77.] Feminine are those which end in as, is, ys, aus, and 
x, those in es, which do not increase in the genitive, and 
those in s preceded by a consonant, e. g. aetas, navis, chlamys, 
laus and fr aus, pax, radix, arx, nubes, pars, mors, hiems. 

Exceptions in as. The following are masculine : — as, 
gen. assis, and its compounds, though they have different 
terminations, as quadrans, a fourth of an as ; bes, two-thirds 
of an as ; and the Greek words which make their genitive in 
antis, as adamas, elephas, and the names of mountains : 
Acragas, Atlas, Mimas. Mas, maris, and vas, vadis, are, 
of course, masculine. The following are neuters : vas, vasis, 
and fas and nefas, which, however, occur only in the nom. 
and accus. 

Exceptions in is. The following are masculine : — 1) 
Those in is, gen. eris, as cinis, cucumis, pulvis, and vomis 
(commonly vomer) ; 2) The following which increase in the 
genitive : glis, lapis, pollis, and sanguis ; 3) The following 


which do not increase: amnis, axis, callis, canalis, cassis 
(used especially in the plural casses, a hunter's net, and not 
to be confounded with cassis, idis, a helmet, which is femi- 
nine) ; caulis or colis, collis, crinis, ensis, fascis (generally in 
the plural fasces), finis, follis, funis, fustis, ignis, mensis, 
or bis, panis, piscis, postis, scrobis, sends, torquis, torris, un- 
guis, vectis, vermis. 

As mensis is masculine, Aprilis, Quintilis (Julius), and 
Sextilis (Augustus), have the same gender. Some substan- 
tives in is are properly adjectives, and a substantive mascu- 
line being always understood, they are themselves used as 
masculines : e. g. annalis, commonly in the plural annates 
(libri), annals ; jugales (equi), two horses yoked together ; 
molaris (lapis), a millstone, or if dens is understood, a back- 
tooth or grinder ; natalis {dies), birth-day ; pugillares (libelli), 
a tablet for writing. 

Note. All the masculines in is, whatever may be their genitive, are 
contained in the following hexameter lines : 

Mascula sunt panis, piscis, crinis, cinis, ignis, 
Funis, glis, vectis, follis, fascis, lapis, amnis, 
Sic fustis, postis, scrobis, axis, vermis et unguis, 
Et penis, collis, callis, sic sanguis et ensis, 
Mugilis et mensis, pollis, cum caule canalis, 
Et vomis, sentis, pulvis, finis, cucumisque, 
Unguis, item torquis, torris, cum cassibus orbis. 

Exceptions in ys. All words of this termination are 
Greek. Names of rivers and mountains in ys are masculine, 
according to the general rule ; e. g. Halys, Oihrys. 

[§ 78.] Exceptions in x. The following are masculine : 
1) The Greek words in ax : as cordax, thorax. 2) The ma- 
jority of those in ex, so that only lex, nex,faex, and supellex, 
are feminine. 3) Some in ix : viz. calix, fornix, phoenix, 
sorix ; and generally also varix. 4) One word in ux : viz. 
tradux, properly an adjective, palmes being understood. 
5) The following Greek words in yx : calyx, coccyx, onyx, 
oryx and bombyx (in the sense of silkworm; it is femin. 
when it signifies silk) ; and the names of mountains, such as 
Eryx. 6) The subdivisions of an as which end in unx : as 
quincunx, septunx, deunx. 

Note. Many words in ex commonly enumerated in these lists are mas- 
culine from their signification, such as rex, pontifex, carnifex, foenisex, 
vervex. The other masculines in ex are : apex, caudex, codex, cimex, 


cortex, culex, frutex, grex, irpex, latex, murex, obex, podex, poUex, pulex, 
pumex, ramex, silex, sorex, ulex, vertex or vortex. 

Exceptions in es, gen. is without increase. The Greek 
word acinaces alone (aiuv&Kifc, ov) is masculine. Vepres, 
which rarely occurs in the singular, and palumbes, though 
commonly masculines, are found also as feminines. 

Exceptions in s preceded by a consonant. The following 
are masculine : dens, fons, mons, and pons, and commonly 
also adeps. Some words are properly adjectives, but are 
used as masculine substantives, because a substantive of that 
gender is understood : confluens or confluentes (amnes), tor- 
rens (amnis), oriens and occidens (sol), rudens (funis), bidens 
and tridens ; and several Greek words, such as ellops, epops, 
merops, gryps, hydrops, chalybs. 



[§ 79.] Words ending in a, e, i, y, c, I, n, t, ar, ur, us are 
neuter : e. g. poema, mare, sindpi, misy, lac, animal, mel, 
carmen, fiumen, caput (the only word of this termination), 
calcar, pulvinar, fidgur, f acinus, opus, tempus. 

1. Exceptions in I. The following are masculine: sol, sal, 
and mugil. Sal in the singular is sometimes found as a 
neuter, but in the plural the ancients use only sales, 

2. Exceptions in n. There are only three Latin words in 
en which are masculine, viz. pecten, pectinis, ren, and lien 
(or lienis) ; the others in en are of Greek origin : e. g. atta- 
gen, lichen and splen. In an, paean; in on, agon, canon, 
gnomon, horizon, and the names of mountains in on, as Ci- 
thaeron, Helicon, The following in on are feminine : a'edon, 
icon, and sindon ; and many Greek names of towns. 

3. Exceptions in ar. Par is common in the sense of 
" mate," but neuter in the sense of " a pair." 

4. Exceptions in ur, Astur, turtur, vultur, and furfur 
are masculine, and/wr on account of its meaning. 

o. Exceptions in us. All words of two or more syllables 


which retain the u in the genitive, that is, which end in utis 
or udis, are feminine : e. g. juvenilis* salus, senectus, servitus, 
virtus ; incus, palus, and subscus ; also tellus, telluris, and 
pecus, pecudis, a sheep. The monosyllables, such as tus, 
turis ; jus, juris, and those polysyllabic words which change 
their vowel (see § 59.), are neuter according to the general 
rule. Respecting the names of animals in us, see above, 
§ 42. Lepus and mus are masculine ; grus and sits are femi- 
nine, when the particular sex is not to be specified. 



[§ 80 -] The fourth declension is only a particular species 
of the third, which has arisen from contraction and elision. 
The nominative of masculine and feminine words ends in us, 
and of neuters in u. The following is the form of their 
declension : . — 


Nom. fruct-us, fruit. 

corn-u, horn. 

Gen. fruct-us. 


Dat. fruct-ui. 

(corn-ui) corn-u. 

Ace. fruct-um. 


Voc. fruct-us. 


Abl. fruct-u. 



Nom. fruct-us. 


Gen. fruct-uum. 


Dat. fruct-ibus. 


Ace. fruct-us. 


Voc. fruct-us. 


Abl. fruct-ibus. 


The following words may be used as exercises : actus, 
coetus, cursus, gradus, lusus, magistratus, motus, sensus, 
sumptus, vultus : the only neuters are genu, gelu, veru, pecu 
(the same as pecus, oris). Tonitrus and tonitruum, plur. toni- 
trua, are more commonly used than tonitru. 


[§ 82.] Note. Some words make the dative and ablative plural in 
ubus instead of ibus. They are contained in the following two 
hexameters : — 

Arcus, acus, portus, quercus, ficus, lacus, artus, 
Et tribus et partus, specus, adde veruque pecuque. 

But it must be observed, that instead of jicubus a better form is ficis, 
from Jicus, i, and portus has both forms, ubus and ibus. 

[§ 83.] Domus takes, in some of its cases, the forms of the second de- 
clension; especially in the genit. domi in the sense of "at home :" in the 
abl. domo in the sense of " from home ; " and in the ace. plur. domos in 
the sense of " home," when several places are alluded to. In the other 
signification, the forms of the fourth declension prevail. 

Gender of Words of the Fourth Declension. 

[§ 84.] The words in us are masculine. The following 
only are feminines : acus, domus, mantis, porticus, tribus, 
and the plurals idus, iduum, and quinquatrus, quinquatruum. 
To these must be added colus, which however also follows 
the second declension. The words anus, nurus, socrus, and 
quercus are feminine, according to the general rule, on ac- 
count of their signification. 

The few words in u are neuter, without exception. 



[§ 85.] The fifth declension, like the fourth, may, with a 
few changes, be traced to the third. The nominative ends 
in es, and the declension is as follows : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. di-es, a day. Nom. di-es, days. 

Gen. di-ei. Gen. di-erum. 

Dat. di-ei. Dat. di-ebus. 

Ace. di-em. Ace. di-es. 

Voc. di-es. Yoc. di-es. 

Abl. di-e. Abl. di-ebus. 

The following may serve as examples for declension : res and species 
have their plural complete^ The words acies, fades, effigies, series, and 


spes, are found in good prose writers only in the nominative sing, and in 
the nom. and accusative plural ; the others, fides, macies, pernicies and 
scabies have, from their signification, no plural. 

Note. The e in the termination of the genitive and dative singular is 
long when preceded by a vowel, as in diet, maciei, but short after a 
consonant, as in Jidei, rei. 

Gender of Words of the fifth Declension. 

[§ 86 -] The words of the fifth declension are feminine, 
with the exception of dies, which is mascul. and femin. in 
the singular, and masculine only in the plural. The com- 
pound meridies is masculine only, but does not occur in the 



[§ 87.] The irregularities in the declension of substantives 
may be comprised under two general heads : A. Indeclinables 
and defectives ; B. Heteroclita and heterogenea. 

A. Some substantives have a defective declension, inas- 
much as they have either no terminations at all to mark the 
different cases (indeclinables), or want particular cases, or 
even a whole number (defectives). 

I. Indeclinables, or words which retain the same form in 
all cases, are chiefly the names of the letters of the Greek 
and Latin alphabets, e. g. alpha, beta, gamma, delta, iota, 
a, v, &c. Further, a number of foreign words, such as 
manna, pascha, and a few Greek substantives in i and y, 
such as gummi. Hebrew proper names, which differ in their 
terminations from Greek and Latin words, are -either not 
declined at all, as Bethleem, Gabriel, Ruth, or they take a 
Latin termination in the nominative also, e. g. Abrahamus, 
Jacobus, Josephus, Juditha. David and Daniel are the 
only names which, without taking any termination in the 
nominative, make the genitive Davidis, and Danielis. 
Others, as Joannes, Moses, Judas, Maria, have already 


acquired through the Greek a declinable termination, and 
are accordingly declined after the first or third declension. 
Jesus makes the accusat. Jesum, but in the other cases it 
remains unchanged, Jesu. 

Among the genuine Latin words we must notice pondo 
(properly an ancient ablative), which is used only as a plural, 
and remains unchanged in all its cases, e. g. auri quinque 
pondo, five pounds of gold. 

[§ 88.] II. Defectives in case are those substantives which 
want one or more cases. There are many words of which 
the nominative singular cannot be proved to have existed, as 
for instance, of the genitives dapis, dicionis, frugis, opis, vicis, 
and of the plurals preces and verbera (for which we use as a 
nom. sing, plaga or ictus). The genitive neminis from nemo 
occurs very rarely, and its place is supplied by nullius. The 
genitive plural is wanting, that is, does not occur in our au- 
thorities, in several monosyllabic words, as os, oris ; vas, 
vadis ; glos, pax, and others. The genit. and dat. sing, of 
vis is very rare, but the plural vires, virium, &c, is complete. 

[§ 89.] With regard to words which want several cases, 
it most frequently happens, that only those cases exist which 
are alike (i. e. especially the nominat., accusat., and vocat., 
all the others being wanting). Thus /as, nefas, nihil, parum 
(too little), and instar, are used only as nom. and accus. 
This is the case especially with the plural of such words as 
neces, kinds of death ; jura, rights ; rura, fields ; silentia, 
grates, and munia. 

The following must be remembered separately : fors occurs 
only in the nom. and abl. singular {forte by chance) ; mane, 
in the nom., ace, and abl. singular, and is alike in all of them, 
but it is generally used only as an adverb. 

[§ 90.] Some words occur only in particular combinations 
and in a particular case : dicis with causa, and gratia ; nauci 
in the phrase non nauci facere or esse ; derisui and despica- 
tui, in combination with duci or esse ; infitias with ire ; venum 
with ire and dare, whence venire and vendere ; diu et noctu 
(for which, however, noctu et inter diu is more common); natu 
with major and minor ; in promptu and in procinctu com- 
monly with esse and stare ; sponte with a pronoun, as mea, 
tua, sua, or a genitive. We must particularly notice some 
verbal substantives, which rarely occur in any other form 
than the ablat. sing, in combination with a genitive or a pro- 
noun, such as meo, tuo, &c, e. g. concessu and permissu; 


admonitu, rogatu, oratu, arbitratu, jussu bxi& injussu ; coactu 
and efflagitatu. 

[§ 91.] III. Defectives in number are words which have 
either no plural or no singular. 

1. Many words from their signification can have no plural, 
and are termed singularia tantum. This is the case : a) 
With abstract nouns which have a simple and universal 
meaning, e. g. justitia, temper antia, pueritia, fames, sitis ; 
b) With words which denote a substance or mass without di- 
vision or subdivision, as aurum, argentum, sabulum, coenum, 
sanguis, and panis, inasmuch as we thereby do not understand 
a single loaf but the substance of bread in general. Some 
words of this kind however, when used in the plural, denote 
separate objects, consisting of the substance indicated by the 
name, as aera, works in bronze ; cerae, wax-tablets ; ligna, 
pieces of wood ; c) Collective words, as indoles, the whole 
natural abilities of a person ; plebs and vulgus, victus, supel- 
lex. Proper names should strictly have no plural, but cases 
often occur where a plural is necessary, viz. when persons of 
the same name or character are spoken of, and it may be 
remarked in general, that in such cases the person who 
speaks or writes must decide for himself. It is surprising 
that there exists no plural of the words vesper (vespera), 
meridies, ver, and specimen. 

[§ 93.] 2. Other words (pluralia tantum) occur only in 
the plural. This is the case : a) With the following collective 
names of personal beings: liberi, gemini, majores, posteri, 
primores and proceres, superi and inferi, coelites, consentes, 
penates, lemures, excubiae, operae. When in any of these 
cases an individual is to be indicated, it can be done only by 
making it a part of the collective, e. g. one child, unus or una 
liberorum or ex liberis. Manes or dii manes however is used 
in the plural also to denote the departed soul of an individual. 
b) A great number of other pluralia tantum denote a com- 
plex of things, the constituent parts of which are not con- 
ceived separately, or at least are not designated by the same 
word as the whole complex itself. Such words are rendered 
in English either by plurals or collective words. The most 
important among them are: — a) Artus, exta, intestina and 
viscera, foria (orum), tormina, ilia, armamenta, impedimenta, 
utensilia, induviae, exuviae, manubiae, parietinae, reliquiae, 
sentes, vepres, virgulta, bellaria, crepundia, scruta, donaria, 
lautia, inferiae, justa, serta> compedes, verbera, grates, la- 


menta, minae, preces, dirae, ambages, argutiae, deliciae, divi- 
tiae, facetiae, nttgae, gerrae, quisquiliae, insidiae, praestigiae, 
tricae. To these we may add some other but similar ideas, 
which are more frequently expressed by the plural than the 
singular, as angustiae, blanditiae, illecebrae, ineptiae, minu- 
tiae, latebrae, salebrae. 

[§ 94.] /3) The following words are used in Latin in the 
plural, because they denote things composed of several parts, 
whereas we frequently express the same things in the singu- 
lar : — Altaria (altare is less common), anna, moenia, bigae, 
trigae, quadrigae, cancelli and clathri, casses and plagae, exe- 
quiae, fides (a lyre, properly the strings which were called 
nervi), fores and valvae, loculi, phalerae, salinae, scalae, 
scopae, codicilli, pugillares, tabulae, cerae, dunes and nates. 
The meaning of the plural is to us more obscure in the fol- 
lowing words : cervices, fauces, cliteUae, cunae, cunabuln 
and incunabula, inimicitiae, induciae, nuptiae, obices, panti- 
ces, praecordia ioruni), sordes, tenebrae. 

[§ 95.] The names of certain days in the Eoman calendar 
are plurals, as calendae* nonae, idus, nundinae and feriae ; 
so also the names of festivals and festive games (like ludi it- 
self), e. g. Bacchanalia, Floralia, Saturnalia, Olympia, 
and natalicia, sponsalia and repotia ; further, many names of 
towns, such as Athenae, Thebae, Gades, the neuters Arbela, 
Bactra, Leuctra, and a considerable number of names of 
towns which are properly names of the people, as Delphi, 
Leontini, Parisii, Treviri. 

[§ 96 ] Some words which are apparently the same vary in meaning 
according to their number, which is sometimes accompanied by a differ- 
ence of gender. Lustrum is a period of five years, and lustra, dens of 
wild beasts ; fastus, us, plur. fastus, pride ; and fasti, the calendar ; 
forum, market, and fori, passages ; tempus, time, and tempora (sometimes 
tempus also), the temples of the head. 

In other words the plural has a different meaning from the singular, 
though one nearly allied to it, and without giving up the meaning of the 
singular for the plural, e. g. 

Singular. Plural. 

Aedes, a temple. Aedes, a house. 

Aqua, water. Aquae, medicinal springs. 

Auxiiium, help. Auxilia, auxiliary troops. 

Bonum, something good. Bona, property. 

Career, a prison. Carceres, the barriers of a race-course. 

Castrum, a fort. Castra, a camp. 



Comitium, a part of the Roman forum. Comitia, assembly of the people. 

Copia, abundance. Copiae, troops. 

Capedia, daintiness. Cupediae, or cupedia, dainties. 

Epulum, a solemn feast. Epulae, a feast, a meal. 

Facultas, power to do something. Facidtates, property. 

Fortuna, fortune. Fortunae, goods of fortune. 

Hortus, a garden. Horti and hortidi, pleasure-grounds. 

Littera, letter of the alphabet. Litterae, an epistle. 

Ludus, pastime. Ludi, public games. 

Naris, nostril. Nares, turn, nose = nasus. 

Natalis (dies), birth-day. Natales, birth, high or low. 

( Ops, obsol.) Opis, help. Opes, power, wealth. 

Opera, labour. Operae, workmen. 

Pars, a part. Partes, (commonly) a party. 

Rostrum, a beak, pointed head of Rostra, the raised place from which 

a ship. the orators spoke. 

Sal, salt. Sales, witticisms. 



[§ 97.] B. The second kind of irregularity in the declension 
of substantives consists in too great an abundance of forms. 
It happens either, that although there is but one nominative, 
the other cases have two forms after different declensions, or 
that both the nominative, and all the other cases have two 
different forms. If, owing to the different terminations, such 
a word has at the same time different genders, it is called a 
heterogenes ; if it has merely different forms, it is called a 
heterocliton. It must however be observed that there are 
only very few words in which the practice of good prose does 
not give preference to one of the forms, and in the following 
list we shall always put the preferable form first. 

Forms of different declensions are found with the word 
jugerum ; for, besides the ablative sing, and plur. jilgero and 
jugeris, poets use jugere and jug eribus. Some names of trees 
in us, viz. cupressus, ficus, laurus, pinus, besides the forms 
of the second declension, also take those of the fourth in us 
and u, i. e. in the genit. and ablat. singular, and in the nom. 
and accus. plural, e. g. laurus (after the second and fourth 



declension), gen. lauri and laurus, dat. lauro, ace. laurum, 
voc. laure, abl. lauro and lauru. Nom. plur. lauri and Z<^- 
rws, gen. laurorum, dat. and abl. lauris, accus. lauros and 
laurus, voc. lauri. The same is the case with colus, a dis- 
taff; but the cases in i, orum, is, do not exist. Vas, vasis, 
a vessel, makes the plural vasa, vasorum, vasis. 

[§ 98.] Words which have different forms in the nomina- 
tive as well as in the other cases may follow the same declen- 
sion in either case, as halteus and balteum, callus and callum, 
clipeus and clipeum (especially a consecrated shield), carrus 
and carrum, commentarius and commentarium, cubitus and 
cubitum, pileum and pileus, baculum and baculus, palatum 
and palatus, jugulum and jugidas, catinus, catillus, and 
catinum, catillum ; and some names of plants, as lupinus and 
lupinum, papyrus and papyrum, porrum and porrus : or 
they follow different declensions ; as 

Alimonia, ae. 
Amygdala, ae. 
Vespera, ae. 

Cingulum. i. 
Essedum, i. 
Incestum, i. 
Delphinus, i. 
Elephantus, i. 
Consortio, onis. 
Mendum, i. 
Penum, i. 
Tergum, i. 
Pavo, onis. 
Scorpio, onis. 
Palumbes, is. 
Colluvio, onis. 
Crater, eris. 
Plebs, is. 
Paupertas, atis. 
Juventus, utis. 
Senectus, utis. 

■ alimonium, i. 

■ amygdalum, i. 

• vesper, i, the evening star, is regular. In 
the sense of evening, we find the nom. 
vesper and accus. vesperum, but the 
ablative vespere and vesperi, from ves- 
per, is. 
cingula, ae. 

■ esseda, ae. 

- incestus, us. 

- delphin, inis. 

- elephas, antis. 

■ consortium, i. 

- menda, ae. 

- penus, us , and penus, oris. 

- tergus, oris. 

- pavus, i. 

- scorpius, i. 

- palumbus, i; vcoApalumba, ae. 

- colluvies, ei. 

- cratera, ae. 

- plebes, ei. 

- pauperies, ei. 

-juventa, ae ; and juventas, atis. 

- senecta, ae. 

D 2 


Gausape,is(&\so — gausapum, i; and gausapa, ae. 

gausapes, is, 

Praesepe, es(also — praesepium, i. 

praesepes, is, 

Tapete, is. — tapetum, i ; and tapes, etis. 

Angiportus, us. — angiportum, L 
Rictus, us. — rictum, i. 

Arcus, us. — arcus, i (in Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 20.). 

Tonitrus, us — tonitruum. 


It is of comparatively frequent occurrence that substantives 
have two different forms, one belonging to the first and the 
other to the fifth declension, as barbaria, barbaries ; luxuria, 
es ; duritia, es ; materia, es ; mollztia, es ; segnitia, es ; and 
that verbal substantives of the fourth declension have a 
second form in um, genit. i, like the participle of the perfect, 
as conatus and conatum, eventus and eventum, praetextus and 
praetextum, suggestus and suggestum. 

[§ 99.] To this class belong those substantives which, in 
the plural, assume a different gender and a different form, in 
some instances, along with the regular one : — 

1. Masculines, which in the plural become also neuters: 
jocus, -phir.joci smdjoca; locus, plur. loci (passages in books 
or subjects for investigation and discussion = topics) and 
loca (in the common sense of "places"). 

2. Feminines which in the plural become also neuters : 
carbasus, a species of flax, plur. carbasi and carbasa, sails 
made of it; ostrea, plur. ostreae and ostrea, orum ; marga- 
vita, plur. margaritae, but also margarita, orum. 

3. The following neuters become — a) Masculines : coelum, 
coeli ; siser, siseres ; porrum, porri ; b) Feminines : delicium, 
deliciae ; epulum, epulae ; balneum, balneae (in the sense of 
a public bath balnea is more frequent) ; c) Both masculines 
and neuters : rastrum, rastri and rastra ; frenum, fren and 





[§ loo.] 1. The noun adjective denotes a quality of a per- 
son or a thing, expressed either by a substantive or a pronoun. 
The participle is an adjective formed from a verb, and, as 
far as its form is concerned, is an adjective. An adjective 
has three genders, and can thus be joined with substantives 
of different genders. But there are only two classes of ad- 
jectives in which the three genders are indicated by three 
different terminations ; namely, the adjectives and participles 
in us, a, um, such as bonus, bona, bonum ; amatus, amata, 
amatum; and those in er, a, um, such as liber, libera, liberum ; 
and the isolated satur, satura, saturum. 

To these adjectives of three terminations the following 
thirteen in er, is, e must be added : acer, acris, acre ; alacer, 
alacris, alacre ; campester, campestris, campestre ; celeber, 
Celebris, celebre ; celer, celeris, celere; equester, equestris, 
equestre ; paluster, palustris, palustre ; pedester, pedestris, 
pedestre; puter, putris, putre; saluber, salubris, salilbre ; 
Silvester, silvestris, silvestre ; terr ester, terrestris, terrestre ; 
volucer, volucris, volucre. Originally they had only two 
terminations, is for the masculine and feminine, and e for 
the neuter. The termination er for the masculine exclusively 
was afterwards added to them. 

[§ 101.] 2. Other adjectives have in reality only two 
forms, the one for the masculine and feminine in common 
(generis communis), and the other for the neuter. This 
class consists of those in is, neut. e, as levis (masc. and fern.), 
leve, and the comparatives in or (masc. and fern.), us (neut.), 
as levior, levius. 

[§ 102.] 3. All other adjectives have only one termination 
for all three genders ; as felix, prudens, anceps, sollers, 
pauper, dives, vetus. So also the present participles in ns, 
as laudans, monens, leg ens, audiens. But all the adjectives 
of this class have the termination ia in the nom., accus., and 
vocative plural of the neuter gender. Very few, and pro- 
perly speaking only vetus, veteris, have the termination a, 
(respecting which see above, § 65.) E. g. felicia, prudentia, 
ancipitia, sollertia, laudantia, Vetera, 

d 3 


[§ 103.] 4. With regard to the declension of adjectives, 
it must be observed that the feminines in a follow the first 
declension ; the masculines in us and er, which make the 
feminine in a, and the neuters in um, follow the second. 
All other terminations belong to the third declension. As 
therefore adjectives follow the same declensions as substan- 
tives, they have been treated of above, and their irregu- 
larities have been already pointed out (see §§51. and 66., 
&c.) ; especially that many in er, a, um, throw out the e, and 
that the adject, of the third declension commonly make the 
ablat. sing, in i, the neuter plur. in ia, and the genit. plur. 
in ium. 

Note. We say commonly, for the abl. sing, in i occurs in all the ad- 
jectives in is, e, and in er, is, e, and also in the majority of those which 
have only one termination ; e exclusively occurs only in very few, but 
several have i alone, or e and i indiscriminately. With regard to the 
neuter plural in ia, it should be remembered that only the comparatives 
and vetus, vetera form an exception. The neuter plural however occurs 
only in adjectives ending in ans, ens, rs and x, and a few others. The 
genitive plur. in um is more frequent. 

5. Indeclinable adjectives are: nequam ; frugi (properly 
a dative of the obsolete frux, but is used quite as an ad- 
jective), praesto, and semis, which is always added to other 
numerals in the sense of " and a half," e. g. recipe uncias 
quinque semis, take five ounces and a half. It must not be 
confounded with the substantive semis, gen. semissis. 

Adjectives defective in number are pauci and plerique, 
which, in ordinary language, have no singular. Of mactus, 
a, um, we have only made and macti, joined with the im- 
perative of esse. 

Parum, too little, is the neuter of the obsolete parus, and 
is used as a substantive only in the nom. and accusative. 
Necesse exists only as a neuter in connection with est, erat, 
&c, and with habeo, habes, &c, the adjective necessarius, a, 
um, being used in its stead. 


As in Chapter XV. we confined ourselves to giving speci- 
mens of the declension of substantives, we here subjoin 
some examples of adjectives which follow the first, second 
and third declensions. 


Altus, a, urn, high. 


Nom. alt-us, alt-d, alt-um. 
Gen. alt-i, alt-ae, alt-i. 
Dat. alt-o, alt-ae, alt-o. 
Ace. alt-wn, alt-am, alt-um. 
Yoc. alt-e, alt-a, alt-um. 
Abl. alt-o, alt-a, alt-o. 

Nom. alt-i, alt-ae, alt-a. 
Gen. alt-orum, alt-arum, alt-orum. 
Dat. alt-is, alt-is, alt-is. 
Ace. alt-os, alt-as, alt-a. 
Yoc. alt-i, alt-ae, alt-a. 
Abl. alt-is, alt-is, alt-is. 

Miser, era, erum, wretched. 


Nom. miser, miser-d, miser-um. 
Gen. miser-i, miser-ae, miser-i. 
Dat. miser-o, miser-ae, miser-o. 
Ace. miser-um, miser-am, miser-um. 
Voc. miser, miser-d, miser-um. 
Abl. miser-o, miser-d, miser-o. 


Nom. miser-i, miser-ae, miser-d. 

Gen. miser-orum, miser-arum, miser-orum. 

Dat. miser-is, miser^is, miser-is. 

Ace. miser-os, miser-as, miser-a. 

Yoc. miser-i, miser-ae, miser-a. 

Abl. miser-is, miser-is, miser-is. 

Aeger, aegra, aegrum, z7/. 


Nom. aeger, aegr-d, aegr-um. 
Gen. aegr-i, aegr-ae, aegr-i. 
Dat. aegr-o, aegr-ae, aegr-o. 
Ace. aegr-um, aegr-am, aegr-um. 
Yoc. aeger, aegr-d, aegr-um. 
Abl. aegr-o, aegr-d, aegr-o. 

D 4 



Nom. aegr-i, aegr-ae, aegr-a. 

Gen. aegr-orum, aegr-arum, aegr-orum. 

Dat. aegr-is, aegr-is, aegr-is. 

Ace. aegr-os, aegr-as, aegr-a. 

Voc. aegr-i, aegr-ae, aegr-a. 

Abl. aegr-is, aegr-is, aegr-is. 

Celer, celeris, celere, quick. 

Nom. celer, celer-is, celer-e. 
Gen. celer-is for all genders. 
Dat. celer-i for all genders. 
Ace. celer-em, celer-em, celer-e. 
Voc. celer, celer-is, celer-e. 
Abl. celer-i for all genders. 

Nom. celer-es, celer-es, celer-ia. 
Gen. celer-ium for all genders. 
Dat. celer-ibus for all genders. 
Ace. celer-es, celer-es, celer-ia. 
Voc. celer-es, celer-es, celer-ia. 
Abl. celer-ibus for all genders. 



grave, heavy. 



. grav-is, 









, neut 

. grav-e. 








Nom. grav-es, neut. grav-ia. 

Gen. grav-ium. 

Dat. grav-ibus. 

Ace. grav-es, neut. grav-ia. 

Voc grav-es, neut. grav-ia. 

Abl. grav-ibus. 


Comparative altior, neut altius, higher. 

Nom. altior, neut. altius. 

Gen. altior -is. 

Dat. altior-i. 

Ace. altior-em, neut. altius. 

Yoc. altior, neut. altius. 

Abl. altior-e, or altior-i. 


Nom. altior-es, neut. altior-a. 
Gen. altior-um. 




altior-es, neut. altior-a. 


altior-es, neut. altior-a. 



Adjectives of one Termination, 

Dives, rich. Felix, happy. 



. dives. 






divit-em, neut. dives. 




divit-e, or divit-i. 



. divit-es, neut. dit-ia (divit-ia). 






divit-es, neut. dit-ia. 


divit-es, neut. dit-ia. 











felic-em, neut. felix. 




felic-i, or felic-e. 



Nom. felic-es, neut. felic-ia. 
Gen. felic-ium. < 

Dat. felic-ibus. 
Ace. felic-es, neut. felic-ia* 
Yoc. felic-es, neut. felic-ia. 
Abl. felic-ibus. 



[§ 104.] 1. Adjectives (also the present and past par- 
ticiples when used as adjectives) may, by means of a change 
in their termination, be made to indicate that the quality 
they denote belongs to a subject in a higher or in the highest 
degree. The degrees of comparison (gradus comparationis), 
as this change is called, are, the comparative, when a com- 
parison is made between two (persons, things, or conditions), 
and the superlative, when a comparison takes place among 
three or more. The fundamental form of the adjective in 
this respect is called the positive. 

Note. The comparative is also used, in an elliptic mode of speaking, 
instead of our " too " (nimis) ; e. g. homo tristior, more sad, viz. than is 
right or natural, hence too sad. In like manner the superlative, when 
used without the objects of comparison being mentioned, indicates only 
that the quality exists in a high degree, which we express by the adverb 
very , e. g. homo doctissimus, does not always mean " the most learned," 
but very often " a very learned man ;" and intemperantissime vixit, he lived 
very intemperately. 

2. The comparative has the termination tor for the mas- 
culine and feminine, and ius for the neuter ; and these ter- 
minations are added to the stem of the word such as it 
appears in the oblique cases. The rule may be practically 
expressed thus : to form the comparative add or or us to 
that case of the positive which ends in i, that is, in adjectives 
of the second declension to the genitive, and in those of the 
third to the dative, e. g. doctus (docti), doctior; liber (liberi), 
liberior ; pulcher (pulchri), pulchrior ; levis, levior ; acer 
{acri), acrior; prudens, prudentior; indidgens, indidgentior ; 
audaXy audacior; velox, velocior. 


3. The superlative ends in issimus, a, um, and is formed 
as the comparative by adding this termination to the stem of 
the positive, such as it presents itself in the genitive and the 
other oblique cases, after the removal of the terminations, 
e. g. doct-issimus, prudent-issimus, audac-issimus, concord- 

[§ 105.] 4. The following adjectives must be noticed as 
exceptions : 

a) All adjectives in er (those in er, a, um, as liber and 
pidcher, as well as those in er, is, e, as acer, celeber, and those 
of one termination, as pauper, gen. pauperis) make the su- 
perlative in er rimus, by adding rimus to the nominative of 
the masculine gender, as pulcher -rimus, acer-rimus, celeber- 
rimus, pauper-rimus. Vetus and nuperus, too, have veter- 
rimus, nuperrimus. Maturus has both forms, maturissimus 
and matur rimus, though the latter chiefly in the adverb. 

b) Some adjectives in His, viz. facilis, difficilis, similis, 
dissimilis, gracilis, and humilis, make the superlative in illi- 
mus, by adding limus to the positive after the removal of the 
termination is, as, facil-limus, humil-limus. Imbecillus has 
two forms, imbecillissimus and imbecillimus. 

c) Adjectives compounded with dicus, ficus and volus 
(from the verbs dicere, facere, velle) make the comparative 
in entior and the superlative in entissimus, from the unusual 
and obsolete forms dicens, volens, faciens, e. g. maledicentior, 
benevolentior, munificentior, munific entissimus, magnificen- 



[§ 106.] 1. Instead of the peculiar forms of the compara- 
tive and superlative, we sometimes find a circumlocution, 
magis and maxime, or summe, being added to the positive. 
This rarely occurs in the case of adjectives which form their 
degrees of comparison in the regular way ; but where the 
regular or grammatical comparison cannot be used, its place 
is supplied by circumlocution. (See below, § 114.) 

D 6 


[§ 107.] 2. A degree is also expressed by the adverbs 
admodum, bene, apprlme, imprimis, sane, oppido, valde, and 
multum, and by the particle per, which is united with the 
adjective into one word, as in perdifficilis, permagnus, and is 
made still more emphatic by the addition of quam, e. g. locus 
perquam difficilis, an extremely difficult passage. Some few 
adjectives are increased in the same way by being compounded 
with prae, e. g. praedives, praepinguis, praelongus. 

[§ 108.] 3. When the adverb etiam (still) is added to the 
comparative, and longe or multo (by far) to the superlative, 
the meaning of the degrees is enhanced. Vel, even, and quam, 
as much as possible, likewise serve to denote an increase of 
the meaning expressed by the superlative, e. g. Cicero vel 
optimus oratorum Romanorum ; i. e. Cicero, a good or rather 
the very best of Roman orators ; gratias tibi ago quam maxi- 
mas, or quam maximas possum tibi gratias ago. As these 
words increase the meaning, so paulum or paulo, paululum or 
paululo, on the other hand, diminish it, as paulo doctior, only 
a little more learned. Aliquanto increases the sense, and has 
an affirmative power; it maybe expressed by "considerably" 
or "much." 



[§ 109.] 1. Some adjectives make their degrees of com- 
parison from obsolete forms, or take them from other words 
of a similar signification. 

Bonus, good, melior, optimus. 

Malus, bad, pejor, pessimus. 

Magnus, great, major, maximus. 

Multus, much, neut. plus (pi. plures, plurimus (equivalent in 
plurd), the plural to plerique). 

Parvus, little, minor, minimus. 

Nequam\ See §103. f nequior, nequissimus. 

Frugi J indeclin. \frugalior, frugalissimus. 
Egenus, needy, egentior, egentissimus (egens). 

Providus, provident, providentior, providentissimus (pro- 



Dives makes the comparative divitior and ditior, and the 
superlative divitissimus and ditissimus. 

[§ no.] 2. The following adjectives have a double irregu- 
lar superlative : — 

Exter or extents, a, itm, exterior, extremus and extimus. 
[Infer or inferus), a, um, inferior, infimus and imus. 
{Super cr superas), a, um, superior, supremus and summits, 
{Poster or posterus), a, um, posterior, postremus and postu- 


[§m.] 3. There are some forms of the comparative and 
superlative which have no adjective for their positive, but an 
adverb which is derived from an adjective. 













The following, on the other hand, have neither an adjec- 
tive nor an adverb for their positive : — 

deterior, deterrimus. 

ocior, ocissimus. 

potior, potissimus. 

prior, primus. 

[§ 112,] 4. The following adjectives have a superlative, 
but no comparative : — 

Falsus, falsissimus ; diversus, diversissimus ; inclltus, in- 
ditissimus ; novus, novissimus ; sacer, sacerrimus ; vetus 
(the comparative is supplied by vetustior), veterrimus {vetus- 
tissimus), and some participles which are used as adjectives, 
as meritus, meritissimus. 

[§ 113.] 5. Most adjectives in ilis and bilis derived from 
verbs, together with those in ilis derived from substantives, 
have no superlative. To these we must add the following : 
agrestis, alacer, ater, caecus, longinquus, propinquus, salu- 
taris, surdus, vulgaris, and some others. In like manner 
there is no superlative of adolescens, jitvenis (comparative 
junior contracted from juvenior), and senex (comparative 
senior), though these words must be regarded as adjectives. 

6. The two adjectives, anterior and sequior, exist only as 
comparatives. The neuter of the latter is sequius. 

[§ 114.] 7. Many adjectives have no degrees of compari- 


son at all, because their signification precludes comparison * 
e. g. those which denote a substance, origin, possession, or 
a definite time ; e. g. aureus, peregrinus, paternus, aestivus, 
hibernus, vivus. 

Others do not form the comparative and superlative in the 
usual grammatical manner by the terminations ior and issi- 
mus, but by the adverbs magis and maxime, which are put 
before the adjective, and by the particles mentioned above. 
Such ad ectives are : — 

a) Those in which the termination us is preceded by a 
vowel, as idoneus, dubius, necessarius, arduus : comparative 
magis necessarius, superlative maxime necessarius, &c. In 
qu however, the u is not regarded as a vowel ; hence an- 
tiquus, e. g., has its regular comparative, antiquior, and 
superlative antiquissimus. 

b) Many adjectives compounded with substantives and 
verbs, e. g. inops, magnanimus, pestifer ; and those which 
have the derivative terminations icus, idus, ulus, alis, llis, 
bundus, e. g. modicus, credulus, rubidus, exitialis, hostilis, 


c) A great number of adjectives which cannot be clas- 
sified ; their want of the degrees of comparison is surpris- 
ing, and they must be carefully committed to memory : 
albus, almus, caducus, calvus, canus, curvus, ferus, gnarus, 
lacer, mutilus, lassus, mediocris, memor, merits, mirus, 
mutus, navus, nefastus, par, parilis, dispar, properus, 
rudis, trux (the degrees may be formed from truculentus), 



[§ 115.] Numerals (nomina numeralia) are partly adjec- 
tives and partly adverbs. The adjectives are: 1) Cardinal, 
denoting simply the number of things, as tres, three ; 2) 
Ordinal, indicating the place or number in succession, as 
tertius, the third ; 3) Distributive, denoting how many each 
time, as terni, each time three, or three and three together ; 
4) Multiplicative, denoting how manifold, as triplex, three- 


fold ; 5) Proportional) denoting how many times more, as 
triplum, three times as much ; and 6) Adverbial numerals, 
denoting how many times, as ter, thrice or three times. 


The cardinal numerals form the roots of the other nume- 
rals. The first three, unus, duo, tres, are declined, and have 
forms for the different genders ; the rest, as far as one hun- 
dred, are indeclinable. The hundreds, as 200, 300, &c, are 
declinable, and have different terminations for the genders. 
Mille, a thousand, is indeclinable, but has a declinable plural 
(millia, or better milia,) for the series of numbers which 
follow. A higher unit, such as a million or billion, does not 
exist in Latin, and a million is therefore expressed by the 
form of multiplication : decies centena milia, i. e. ten times a 
hundred thousand, or decies alone, with the omission of cen- 
tena milia, and in like manner vicies, two millions ; octogies, 
eight millions ; centies, ten millions ; millies, a hundred mil- 
lions ; bis millies, two hundred millions. 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. unus, una, unum, one. Nom. uni, unae, una. 

Gen. unius. Gen. unorum, unarum, uno- 

Dat. uni. Dat. unis. 

Ace. unum, unam, unum. Ace. unos, unas, una. 
Abl. uno, una, uno. Abl. unis. 

Note. The Plural uni, unae, una, occurs as a numeral only in con 
nexion with pluralia tantum, i. e. such nouns as have no singular, e . g. 
unae nuptiae, one wedding ; una castra, one camp ; unae litterae, one 
letter. (See § 119). Unus is used also in the sense of " alone," or "the 
same," and is then a pure adjective, e. g., uni Ubii legatos miserant, the 
Ubians alone had sent ambassadors ; Lacedaemonii septingentos jam annos 
unis moribus vivunt, with the same manners. 

Duo and tres are naturally plurals. 

Nom. duo, duae, duo. Nom. tres (mas. and fern.), tria. 

Gen. duorum, duarum, duo- Gen. trium. 

Dat. duobus, duabus, duobus. Dat. tribus. 

Ace. duos and duo, duas, duo. Ace. tres (mas. and fern.), tria. 
Abl. duobus, duabus, duobus. Abl. tribus. 



Note. Ambo, ae, o, both, is declined like duo. Duum, a second form of 
the genit. of duo, is the regular one in compounds, as duumvir, but is fre- 
quently used also in connexion with milium. Thus Pliny says that he 
had compiled his work e lectione voluminum circiter duum milium. ( See 

4. im. or iv. quattuor. 30. 

5. v. quinque. 40. 

6. VI. sex. 50. 

7. vn. septem. 60. 

8. vih. octo. 70. 

9. ix. novem. 80. 

10. x. decern. 90. 

11. xi. undecim. 99. 

12. xii. duodecim. [tres. 

13. xni. tredecim or decern et 

14. xiv. quattuor decim. 100. 

15. xv. quindecim. 109. 

16. xvi. sedecim or decern et sex. 

17. xvii. decern et septem, or 200. 

septendecim. 300. 

18. xviii. decern et octo, or duo- 400. 


19. xix. decern et novem, or 500. 


20. xx. viginti. 600. 

21. xxi. ^w^s e£ viginti, or 700. 

viginti unus. 800. 

22. xxn. <#wo e£ viginti, or 900. 

viginti duo. 1000. 

23. xxm. £res e£ viginti, or 2000. 

viginti tres. 

28. xxvm. duodetriginta, or 5000. 

ocfo e£ viginti. 10,000. 

29. xxix. undetriginta, or wo- 100,000. 

vem e£ viginti. 

[§ 116.] The intermediate numbers are expressed in the 
following manner : — from twenty to a hundred, either the 
smaller number followed by et precedes, or the greater one 
precedes without the et ; e. g. quattuor et sexaginta, or sexa- 
ginta quattuor. For 18, 28, 38, &c, and for 19, 29, 39, &c. the 
expressions duodeviginti, duodetriginta, undeviginti, unde- 
triginta, up to undecentum, are more frequent than decern et 

xxx. triginta. 

xl. quadraginta. 

L. quinquaginta. 

lx. sexaginta. 

lxx. septuaginta. 

lxxx. octoginta. 

xc. nonaginta. 

IC. undecentum, no- 
naginta novem, or 
novem et nonaginta. 

C. centum. 

cix. centum et novem, 
or centum novem. 

CC. ducenti, ae, a. 

CCC. trecenti, ae, a. 

CCCC. quadringenti, 
ae, a. 

d. or io. quingenti, 
ae, a. 

DC. sexcenti, ae, a. 

dcc. septingenti, ae, a. 

dccc. octingenti, ae, a. 

dcccc. nongenti, ae, a. 

m. or cio. mille. 

Ciocio.orMM. duo mi- 
lia, or ow mille. 

IOO. quinque milia. 

ccioo. decern milia. 

ccciooo. centum milia. 


octo, or octo et viginti &c. In such combinations neither 
duo nor un (unus) can be declined. Above 100, the greater 
number always precedes, either with or without et, as centum 
unus, mille unus, mille duo, mille trecenti, or mille et unus, 
mille et duo, mille et trecenti sexaginta sex. 

The thousands are generally expressed by the declinable 
substantive milia and the cardinal numerals, as duo milia, 
tria milia, quattuor milia, unum et viginti milia, quadraginta 
quinque milia. The objects counted are expressed by the 
genitive which depends on the substantive milia ; e. g. Xerxes 
Mardonium in Graecia reliquit cum trecentis milibus arma- 
torum, unless a lower declined numeral is added, in which 
case the things counted may be used in the same case with 
milia ; e. g. habuit tria milia trecentos milites, or milites tria 
milia trecentos habuit ; but even then the genitive may be 
used, e. g. habuit militum tria milia trecentos, or habuit tria 
milia militum et trecentos. It is only the poets that express 
the thousands by the indeclinable adjective mille preceded 
by an adverbial numeral, as bis mille equi, for duo milia 



[§ 117.] The ordinals denote the place in the series which 
any object holds, and answer to the question quotus? All of 
them are adjectives of three terminations, us, a, um. 

1. primus. 

11. undecimus* 

2. secundus 


12. duodecimus. 

3. tertius. 

13. tertius decimus. 

4. quartus. 

1 4. quartus decimus. 

5. quintus. 

15. quintus decimus. 

6. sextus. 

16. sextus decimus. 

7. septimus. 

17. septimus decimus. 

8. octavus. 

18. octavus decimus, or duode- 

9. nonus. 

vicesimus. [cesimus. 

10. decimus* 

19. nonus decimus, or undevi- 


20. vicesimus, sometimes vige- 200. ducentesimus. 

simus. 300. trecentesimus. 

21. ^nws e£ vicesimus, vicesi- 400. quadringentesimus. 

mus primus, 500. quingente simus. 

22. a/fer e£ vicesimus, vicesi- 600. sexcentesimus. 

mus secundus. 700. septingentesimus. 

30. tricesimus, sometimes £n- 800. octingente simus. 

gesimus. 900. nongentesimus. 

40. quadragesimus. 1000. millesimus. 

oO. quinquagesimus. 2000. fo's millesimus. 

60. sexagesimus. 3000. fer millesimus. 

70. septuagesimus. 10,000. decies millesimus. 

80. octogesimus. 100,000. centies millesimus. 

90. nonagesimus. 1,000,000. decies centies mille- 

100. centesimus. simus. 

[§ 118.] In expressing the intermediate numbers, the most 
common practice is to place the smaller number before the 
greater one with the conjunction e£, or to make the greater 
number precede the smaller one without et, as quartus et 
vicesimus, or vicesimus quartus. But there are many in- 
stances in which the smaller number precedes without et; 
e. g. quintus tricesimus ; and from 13 to 19 this is the ordi- 
nary method, e. g. decimus tertius, though tertius et decimus 
and decimus et tertius also occur. Instead of primus et vicesi- 
mus, &c, we find still more frequently unus et vicesimus, fern. 
una et vicesima, or with the elision of the vowel, unetvice- 
sima. The 22d, 32d, &c, is more frequently and better ex- 
pressed by alter et vicesimus or vicesimus et alter, than by 
secundus et vicesimus. It then goes on regularly : tertius et 
vicesimus, quartus et vicesimus, &c. ; but the 28th, 38th, &c, 
are expressed also by duodetricesimus, duodequadragesimus, 
and the 29th, 39th, 99th by undetricesimus, undequadrage- 
simus, undecentesimus, the words duo and unus (un) being 
indeclinable ; and both forms are of more frequent occur- 
rence than octavus and nonus et vicesimus, or vicesimus octa- 
vus, vicesimus nonus. 





[§ 119] Distributive numerals denote an equal number 
distributed among several objects or at different times, and 
answer to the questions : — "How many apiece ?" and, "How 
many each time ? " (quoteni ?) They are always used in the 
plural. The English language having no corresponding nu- 
merals has recourse to circumlocution ; e. g. Scipio et Han- 
nibal cum singulis interpretibus congressi sunt, each with an 
interpreter ; Senatus agri Vejentani septena jugera plebi di- 
visit, the senate gave to each plebeian seven jugera. 

Hence the distributives are applied, instead of cardinals, 
with words which have no singular ; e. g. bird codicilli, bina 
post Romulum spolia opima ; and with those substantives the 
plural of which, though it has a different signification from 
the singular, yet retains the meaning of a singular, e. g. aedes, 
castra, litter ae, ludi. It must however be observed, that in 
this case the Romans commonly used uni instead of singulis 
and trini instead of terni, since singuli and terni retain their 
own distributive signification. We therefore say, for example, 
bina castra uno die cepit ; trinae hodie nuptiae celeb rantur ; 
quotidie quinas aut senas litteras accipio ; for duo castra 
would mean "two castles," duae aedes "two temples," and 
duae litterae " two letters of the alphabet." They are all ad- 
jectives of three genders, i, ae, a. 

1. singidi. 14. quaterni deni, 

2. bird, 15. quini deni. 

3. terni, or trini, 16. seni deni. 
septeni deni. 
octoni denL 
noveni deni. 

4. quaterni. 

5. qidni. 
terni deni. 





20. viceni. 

21. viceni singuli. 

22. viceni bini. 

23. viceni terni, &c. 600. 
30. triceni. 700, 
40. quadrageni. 
50. qidnquageni 

60. sexageni, 
70. septuageni. 
80. octogeni. 
90. nonageni. 







800. octingeni. 
900. nongeni. 



Note. The genitive of these numerals is commonly in um instead of 
orum, as binum, ternum, quaternum, quinum, &c, but not singulum for 

The thousands are expressed by singula milia, bina milia, 
terna, quaterna, quina milia; e. g. Legavit Augustus prae- 
torianis militibus singula milia nummum (that is, one 
thousand to each) ; in singulis legionibus Romanis quaterna 
milia duceni pedites cum trecenis equitibus erant. 

Here too there is a certain freedom of combination, for 
instead of viceni quaterni, we also find quaterni et viceni, 
and quaterni viceni ; and 18 and 19 are expressed also by 
duodeviceni and undeviceni. 



[§ 120.] Multiplicatives answer to the question, " How- 
many fold?" (quoticplex ?) They are: simplex (gen. icis) 9 
duplex, triplex, quadruplex, quincuplex (sexuplex or seplex), 
septemplex, octuplex, novemplex, decemplex, centuplex. 

It will not be out of place here to add the Latin expres- 
sions for fractions, which are always denoted by pars : \ is 
dimidia pars, -l tertia pars, \ quarta pars, quinta, sexta, 
septima pars, &c. In cases where the number of the parts 
into which a thing is divided, exceeds the number of parts 
mentioned only by one, as in f, -|, 4, the fractions are ex- 
pressed in Latin simply by duae, tres, quattuor partes, that 
is, two out of three, three out of four, and four out of five 
parts. In all other cases fractions are expressed as in 
English : f, duae septimae ; \, tres septimae, &c. 

V. PROPORTIONAL numerals. 

[§ 121.] Proportional numerals express how many times 
more one thing is than another, but they cannot be used 



throughout. They answer to the question quotuplus ? They 
are : simplus, a, um ; duplies, triplus, quadruplus, quinqui- 
plus, (sexuplus), septuplus, octuplus, (nonuplus), decuplus, 
centuplus, and according to the same analogy we might form 
ducentuplus, and so on, as in the multiplicatives above. 

chap. xxxm. 


[§ 122.] 1. The numeral adverbs answer to the question, 
"How many times?" quotiens? to which totiens is the 
demonstrative, and aliquotiens the indefinite. The form in 
ns is the original, and is preferable to the termination es, 
which has become the established ending in adverbs formed 
from real numerals. 

1. semeh 

21. semel et vicies. 

2. bis 

22. bis et vicies. 

3. ter. 

23. ter et vicies, &c 

4. quater. 

30. tricies. 

5. quinquies. 

40. quadragies. 

6. sexies. 

50. quinquagies. 

7. sep ties. 

60. sexagies. 

8. octies. 

70. septuagies. 

9. novies. 

80. octogies. 

10. decies. 

90. nonagies. 

11. undecies. 

100. centies. 

12. duodecies. 

200. ducenties. 

13. ter decies or tredecies. 

300. trecenties. 

14. quater decies 

or quattuor 

400. quadringenties. 


500. quingenties, &c. 

15. quinquiesdecies or quinde- 

800. octingenties, &c. 


1,000. millies. 

16. sexiesdecies oi 

% sedecies. 

2,000. bis millies. 

17. septiesdecies. 

3,000. fez* millies, &c. 

18. duodevicies oi 

' octiesdecies. 

100,000. centies millies. 

19. undevicies, or 

noviesdecies. 1,000,000. millies millies. 

20. vicies. 


With regard to the intermediate numbers, 21, 22, 23, &c, 
the method above adopted is the usual one, but we may also 
say vicies semel and vicies et semel, though not semel vicies; 
for bis vicies, for example, would mean twice twenty, i. e. 

[§ 123.] 2. The numeral adverbs terminating either in 
um or o, and derived from the ordinals, or rather the 
ordinals themselves in the ace. or ablat. singular neuter 
gender, are used in answer to the question " of what num- 
ber?" or "what in number ?" e. g. primum or primo, for 
the first time, or first; secundum or secundo, tertium or 
tertio, &c, decimum, tertium decimum, duodevicesimum. 



[§ 125.] 1. Pronouns are words which supply the place of 
a substantive, such as I, thou, we, and in Latin ego, tu, nos, 
&c. These words are in themselves substantives, and 
require nothing to complete their meaning ; hence they are 
called substantive pronouns {pronomina substantival), but 
more commonly personal pronouns, pronomina personalia. 

[§ 128.] 2. Besides these there is a number of words which 
are in reality adjectives, inasmuch as they have three distinct 
forms for the three genders, and their meaning is not com- 
plete without a substantive either expressed or understood. 
But their inflection differs so widely from what are com- 
monly called adjectives, and they are so frequently used 
instead of a substantive, that they are not unjustly termed 
pronouns. They are — 

1) The adjunctive : ipse, ipsa, ipsum, self. 

2) The demonstrative : hie, haec, hoc ; iste, ista, istud ; 
ille, ilia, Mud ; is, ea, id, and the compound idem, eadem, 

3) The relative: qui, quae, quod, and the compounds 
quicunque and quisquis. 

4) The two inter rogatives : viz. the substantive interro- 
gative, quis, quid? and the adjective interrogative, qui, quae, 
quod ? 


5) The indefinite pronouns : aliquis, aliqua, aliquid and 
aliquod ; quidam, quaedam, quiddam and quoddam ; ali- 
quispiam, or abridged quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam and 
quodpiam ; quisquam, neuter quidquam ; quivis, quilibet, 
and quisque ; and all the compounds of qui or quis. 

[§ 130.] 3. The possessive pronouns are derived from 
the substantive pronouns, and in form they are regular 
adjectives of three terminations: mens, tuus, suus, noster, 
vester ; to which we must add the relative cujus, a, um ; and 
the pronomina gentilicia (which express origin), nostras, 
vestras, and cujas. 

4. Lastly, we include among the pronouns also what are 
called pronominalia, that is, adjectives of so general a mean- 
ing, that, like real pronouns, they frequently supply the place 
of a noun substantive. Such pronominalia are. a) Those 
which answer to the question, who? alius, ullus, nullus, 
nonnullus. If we ask, which of two ? it is expressed by 
uter ? and the answer to it is alter, one of two ; neuter, 
neither ; alter uter, either the one or the other ; utervis and 
uterlibet, either of the two. The relative pronoun (when 
referring to two) is likewise uter, and in a more general 
sense utercunque. b) Those which denote quality, size, or 
number in quite a general way. They stand in relation to 
one another (whence they are called correlatives), and are 
formed according to a fixed rule. The interrogative begin- 
ning with qu coincides with the form of the relative ; the 
indefinite is formed by prefixing all; the demonstrative 
begins with t, and its power is sometimes increased by the 
sufiix dem; the relative may acquire a more general mean- 
ing by being doubled, or by the suffix cunque ; and the 
indefinite generality is expressed by adding the words libet 
or vis to the (original) interrogative form. In this manner 
we obtain the following pronominal correlatives ; — 


. Demonst, 


Relat. generale. 

Indefin. Indef. gener. 







tardus, tan- 



aliquantus quantuslibet, 





tot, totidem, 


quotquotj quot- 

aHquot quotlibet. 










[§131.] 1. Declension of the personal pronouns ego, tu, 


Nom. Ego, I. Tu, thou. 

Gen. mei, of me. tui, of thee. 

Dat. mihi, to me. tibi, to thee. 

Ace. me, me. te, thee. 

Voc. like nom. like nom. 

Abl. me, from me. te, from thee. 

Nom. Nos, we. Vos, you. 

Gen. nostri, nos- vestri, vestrum* 

trum, of us. of you. 

Dat. nobis, to us. vobis, to you. 
Ace. nos, us. vos, you. 

Voc. like nom. like nom. 
Abl. nobis, from us.vobis, from you. 

sui, of himself, her- 
self, itself. 
sibi, to himself, &c. 
se, himself, &c. 

se, from himself, &c. 

5^', of themselves. 

szfie, to themselves. 
se, themselves. 

se, from themselves. 

Note. The contracted form of the dative, mi for mihi (like W2*Z for nihil) 
is frequently found in poetry, but rarely in prose. The genitives mei, tui, sui, 
nostri, vestri, are properly genitives of the possessive pronouns meum, tuum, 
suum, nostrum, vestrum, for originally the neuters meum, tuum, Sfc. were 
used in the sense of " my being," or of " as regards me, thee," &c. The 
beginner may pass over the origin of these forms, since they are used as 
the real genitives of the personal pronouns ; but he must be reminded of 
it in the construction of the gerund, § 660. Respecting the difference 
between nostri, vestri, and nostrum, vestrum, see § 431. 

The suffix met may be added to all the cases of these three pronouns to 
express the English emphatic self, as egomet, mihimet, temet, semet, and even 
with the addition of ipse after it, as mihimet ipsi, temet ipsum. The genit. 
plur. and the nominat. tu alone do not admit this suffix. Instead of it 
the emphasis is given to tu by the suffix te, as tute, and to this again by 
the addition of met, as tutemet. The accus. and ablat. singular of these 
pronouns admit a reduplication, meme, tete, sese ; of the pronoun sui alone 
it is used in the plural as well as in the singular. 

When the preposition cum occurs with the ablat. of these pronouns, it is 
appended to them, as mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum. The same 
is the case with quo, qua, and quibus, though we may also say cum quo, 
cum qua, cum < 


[§ 132.] 2. Declension of the demonstrative pronouns, 
hie, iste, Me, is. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. & Yoc. Hie, haec, hoc, Nom. & Voc. hi, hae, haec, 

this. these. 

Gen. hujus, of this. Gen. horum, harum, horum, 

of these. 
Dat. huic (or huic), to this. Dat. his, to these. 
Ace. hunc, hanc, hoc, this. Ace. hos, has, haec, these. 
Abl. hoc, hac, hoc, from this. Abl. his, from these. 

Note. The ancient form of this pronoun was hice, haece, hoce. The 
cases ending in c arose from the omission of the e. In ordinary language 
the cases in s also sometimes take the ce to render the demonstrative 
power more emphatic, e. g. hujusce, hisce, hosce. 

The pronouns iste, ista, istud, and Me, Ma, Mud, are 
declined alike, and in the following manner : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. & Yoc. Me, Ma, Mud, Nom. & Voc. Mi, Mae, Ma, 

he, or that. they or those. 

Gen. illlus. Gen. Morum,illarum,illorum. 

Dat. Mi. Dat. Mis. 

Ace. Mum, Mam, Mud. Ace. Mos, Mas, Ma. 

Abl. Mo, Ma, Mo. Abl. Mis. 

Ipse, ipsa, ipsum, is declined like Me, except that the 
neuter is ipsum and not ipsud. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. is, ea, id, he, she, it, Nom. ii (ei), eae, ea, they or 

or that. those. 

Gen. ejus. Gen. eorum, earum, eorum. 

Dat. ei. Dat. Us (eis). 

Ace. eum, earn, id. Ace. eos, eas, ea. 

Abl, eo, ea, eo. Abl. Us (eis). 

By the addition of the suffix dem we form from is — idem, 
eadem, idem (as it were isdem, eadem, iddem), which is 
declined in the other cases exactly like the simple is, ea, id. 
In the accusative eundem and eandem are preferable to 
eumdem, eamdem, and in like manner in the genitive plur. 
eorundem, earundem. 


[§ 133.] 3. Declension of the relative pronoun, qui, quae, 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Qui, quae, quod, who Nom. qui, quae, quae, who or 

or which. which. 

Gen. cujus (quojus, obsol.), Gen. quorum, quarum, quo- 

of whom. rum. 

Dat. cut or cm (quoi, obsol.), Dat. quibus. 

to whom. 

Ace. quern, quam, quod, Ace. quos, quas, quae. 


Abl. quo, qua, quo, from Abl. quibus. 


Note. An ancient ablat. singular for all genders was qui, especially 
when joined with cum, as quicum vixit, instead of quocum or quacum. 
Instead of quibus there is an ancient form quis, or quels. 

[§ 134.] There are two interrogative pronouns, quis, quid? 
(substantive), and qui, quae, quod? (adjective), the latter 
of which is quite the same in form as the relative pronoun, 
and the former differs from it only by its forms quis and 
quid. The interrogatives quisnam, quidnam ? and quinam, 
quaenam, quodnam? express a more lively or emphatic 
question than the simple words, and the nam answers to the 
English " pray." 

[§ 135.] The indefinite pronoun aliquis, plur. aliqui, is used 
as a substantive and as an adjective. In ordinary language 
the form aliquis alone is used, both as a substantive and as 
an adjective ; but in the neuter the two forms aliquid and 
aliquod exist, and the difference between them must be 
observed ; e. g. da mihi aliquid, give me something ; aliquod 
negotium, some business. The femin. singul. and the neuter 
plur. are both aliqua, and the form aliquae is the femin. 
nom. plural. 

[§ 136.] But there is also a shorter form of the indefinite 
pronoun, without the prefix ali, and exactly like the inter- 
rogative pronoun : quis, quae, quid, as a substantive, and qui, 
quae, quod, as an adjective. This form is generally used 
only after the conjunctions si, nisi, ne, num, and after rela- 
tives, such as quo, quanto, and quum. This rule is commonly 
expressed thus : the prefix ali in aliquis and its derivatives 
aliquo, aliquando, and alicubi is rejected when si, nisi, ne, 
num, quo, quanto, or quum, precede ; e. g. Quo quis est doc" 


tior, eo esse humanior solet, the more learned a person is, the 
more humane he usually is ; Consul videat, ne quid respublica 
detrimenti capiat. The combinations of this indefinite quis 
or qui with the conjunctions si, ne, num, and with the inter- 
rogative syllable en (ec) may be considered as peculiar and 
distinct words, as siquis or siqui, nequis or nequi, numquis or 
numqui. In the femin. singul. and the neuter plur. the form 
qua is used along with quae, likewise according to the ana- 
logy of aliquis. We may therefore say siqua, nequa, num* 
qua, ecqua, but also si quae, ne quae, num quae, ecquae. 

[§ 137.] The compounds of qui and quis, viz. quidam, 
quilibet, quivis, quisque, quispiam, and unusquisque, are de- 
clined like the relative, but have a double form in the neuter 
singular, quiddam and quoddam, unumquidque and unum- 
quodque, according as they are used as substantives or as ad- 
jectives. Quisquam and quisquis are commonly used only 
as substantives, for ullus supplies their places as adjectives, 
and the regular form of the neuter therefore is quidquani (quic- 
quam), and quidquid (quicquid), and more rarely quodquam, 
quodquod. Quicunque, however, has only the form of quod- 
cunque for the neuter. 

[§ 138.] Each of the two words of which unusquisque is 
composed is declined separately, as gen. uniuscuj usque, dat. 
unicuique, ace. unumquemque, &c. 



[§ 139.] 1. The possessive pronouns meus, mea, meum ; 
tuus, tua, tuum ; suus, sua, suum ; noster, nostra, nostrum ; 
v ester, vestra, vestrum, are declined entirely like adjectives of 
three terminations. Meus makes the vocative of the mascu- 
line gender mi, as mi pater I 

2. The possessive pronoun cujus, a, um, has, besides the 
nominative, only the accusative singular, cujum, cujam, cu- 
jum ; cvja, the ablative singular feminine, and cujae, cujas, 
the nominative and accusative plural feminine ; but all these 
forms cccur very rarely. 

E 2 


3. Nostras, vestras, and cujas (i. e. belonging to our, your 
nation, family, or party), are regularly declined after the 
third declension as adjectives of one termination : genit. 
nostratis, dat. nostrdti, &c, plural nostrates, and neuter nos- 

[§ 140.] 4. The peculiar declension of the adjective pro- 
nouns uter, utra, utrum ; alter, altera, alterum ; alius (neut. 
aliud\ ullus, and nullus, has already been explained in 

Nom. uter, Gen. 



. utri. 





alter tus, 


alius (neut. aliud), 









The compound alteruter (the one or the other) is either 
declined in both words, genitive alteriusutrius, accusative al- 
terumutrum, or only in the latter, as alterutri, alterutrum. 
The other compounds with uter, viz. uterque, uterlibet, uter- 
vis, and utercunque, are declined entirely like uter, the suf- 
fixes being added to the cases without any change. The 
words unus, solus, and totus are declined like ullus. 



[§ 142.] 1. The verb is that part of speech by which it is 
declared that the subject of a sentence does or suffers some- 
thing. This most general difference between doing which 
originates in the subject, and suffering which presupposes the 
doing or acting of another person or thing, is the origin of 
the two main forms of verbs, viz. the active and passive (ac- 
tivum et passivum). 

2. The active form comprises two kinds of verbs : trans- 
itive or active properly so called, and intransitive or neuter 
verbs. The difference between them is this : an intransitive 
verb expresses a condition or action which is not communis 


cated from the agent to any other object ; e. g. I walk, I stand, 
I sleep ; whereas the transitive verb expresses an action which 
affects another person or thing (which in grammar is called the 
object, and is commonly expressed by the accusative) ; e. g. I 
love thee, I read the letter. As far as form is concerned this 
difference is important, for neuter verbs cannot have a pas- 
sive voice, whereas every transitive or active verb (in its 
proper sense) must have a passive voice, since the object of 
the action is the subject of the suffering ; e. g. I love thee — 
thou art loved ; I read the letter — the letter is read. 

[§ 147.] 3. It is a peculiarity of the Latin language, that 
it has a class of verbs of a passive form, but of an active 
(either transitive or intransitive) signification. They are 
called deponents (laying aside, as it were, their passive sig- 
nification), e. g. consolor, I console ; imitor, I imitate ; fateor, 
I confess ; sequor, I follow ; mentior, I lie ; morior, I die. 
These verbs, even when they have a transitive signification, 
cannot have a passive voice, because there would be no dis- 
tinct form for it. 

[§ 148.] 4. Before proceeding we must notice the follow- 
ing special irregularities : — 

The three verbs, fio, I become, or am made, vapulo, I am 
beaten, and veneo, I am sold or for sale, have a passive sig- 
nification, and may be used as the passives of facio, verbero, 
and vendo ; but, like all neuter verbs, they have the active 
form, except that Jio makes the perfect tense f actus sum, so 
that form and meaning agree. They are called neutralia 

The verbs audeo, fido, gaudeo, and soleo, have the passive 
form with an active signification in the participle of the 
preterite, and in the tenses formed from it : as ausus, fisus, 
gavisus, solitus sum, eram, &c. They may therefore be called 

To these we must add, but merely with reference to the 
participle of the preterite, the verbs jurare, coenare, pran- 
dere, and potare, of which the participles juratus, coenatus, 
pransus, and potus, have, like those of deponents, the signi- 
fication : — one that has sworn, dined, breakfasted, and 

£ S 


CHAP, xxxvm. 


[§ 149.] There are four general modes (moods, modi) in 
which an action or condition expressed by a verb may be 
represented : — 1) Simply as a fact, though the action or con- 
dition may differ in regard to its relation and to time : this is I 
the Indicative ; 2) As an action or condition which is merely 
conceived by the mind, though with the same differences as 
the indicative, Conjunctive or Subjunctive ; 3) As a com- 
mand, Imperative ; 4) Indefinitely, without defining any per- 
son by whom, or the time at which, the action is performed, 
although the relation of the action is defined, Infinitive, 

To these moods we may add the Participle which is, in 
form,, an adjective, but is more than an adjective by express- 
ing at the same time the different relations of the action or 
suffering, that is, whether it is still lasting or terminated. A 
third participle, that of the future, expresses an action which 
is going to be performed, or a condition which is yet to come. 
The Gerund, which is in form like the neuter of the parti- 
ciple passive in dus, supplies by its cases the place of the in- 
finitive present active. The two Supines are cases of verbal 
substantives, and likewise serve in certain connections (which 
are explained in the syntax) to supply the cases for the 

[§ 150.] When an action or condition is to be expressed 
as a definite and individual fact, either in the indicative or 
subjunctive, it is expressed in a verb by its Tenses. We 
must further know its position in the series of actions with 
which it is connected, that is, the relation of the action, viz. 
whether it took place while another was going on, or whether 
it was terminated before another began. If we connect these 
considerations, we shall obtain the following six tenses of the 
verb : — 

An action not terminated in the present time ; I write, scribo : Present 

An action not terminated in the past time ; I was writing or wrote, 

scribebam : Imperfect tense. 
An action not terminated in the future ; I shall write, scribam : Future 



' An action terminated in the present time ; I wrote or have written, 
scripsi : Perfect tense. 
An action terminated in the past time; I had written, scrip ser am : Plu- 
perfect tense, 
An action terminated in the future ; I shall have written, scripsero : 
Future perfect tense. 

The same number of tenses occurs in the passive voice, 
but those which express the terminated state of an action can 
be formed only by circumlocution, with the participle and 
the auxiliary verb esse : scribor, scribebar, scribar, scriptus 
sum, scriptus eram, scriptus ero. The subjunctive has no 
future tenses : respecting the manner in which their place is 
supplied, see § 496. The infinitive by itself does not express 
time, but only the relation of an action, that is, whether it is 
completed or not completed. By circumlocution we obtain 
also an infinitive for an action or a suffering which is yet to 



[§ 151.] The Latin verb has two numbers, singular, and 
plural, and in each number three persons. These three per- 
sons, /, the one speaking, thou, the one spoken to, and he or 
she, the one spoken of, are not expressed in Latin by special 
words, but are implied in the forms of the verb itself. The 
same is the case in the plural with we, you, they, and these 
personal pronouns are added to the verb only when the per- 
son is to be indicated in an emphatic manner. 

The following is a general scheme of the changes in ter- 
mination, according to the persons, both in the indicative 
and subjunctive : — 

In the Active. 

Person: 1. 2. 3. 

Sing. — s, t. 

Plur. mus, tis, nt. 

The termination of the first person singular cannot be 
stated in a simple or general way, since it sometimes ends in 

E 4 



s^^in^eSir 6 ^ in , i (see the «*"** 

tive forms an exception fnTT ^^ the perfect indi ™- 
vowel which preSth^I ^ •" * Res Pecting the 
can be said, except Sat*?, te ™ atwns > ^thing general 
feet indicative P " 1S a m the lm P erfe c* and pluper- 

In the Passive. 
Person : 1. 2 

Sine r • 

piur. ^ w ,;. 2;;. 

siv^r a Te e \te S d n bt ? Pl7 H° th ° Se tenSeS ° f the P- 
with a tense of theTe'b else C ° mbmatlon of *»e participle 

vJot t^lmltt^l aDd PaSSive haS two *™ * 
that which is to be none n J*, ^ '* °™ e ' and another ^ 
and an imperative futre She'r Z Z™^™ P^sent 
son, owing" to the nature' A%^ '?£** P 6 *" 

imperative fh w . . Wever > * here are distinct forms. The 



The present indicatives of these conjugations end in • 

1, o, as. 2. So, es. 3. o, Is. 4. io, is. 

Note. Attention must be paid to the difference of quantity in the ter- 


mination of the second person in the third and fourth conjugations, in 
order to distinguish the presents of the verbs in io, which follow the third 
conjugation, e. g. fodio, fugio, capio, from those verbs which follow the 
fourth, such as audio, erudio. 

[§ 153.] 2. In order to obtain the forms of the other 
tenses, we must further know the perfect and the supine ; 
for the three tenses of the completed action in the active are 
derived from the perfect ; and the participle perfect passive, 
which is necessary for the formation of the same tenses in 
the passive, is derived from the supine. These four princi- 
pal forms, viz. Present, Perfect, Supine, and Infinitive, end 
thus : — 

























3. With regard to the first, second, and fourth conjuga- 
tions, no particular rule is needed as to how the perfect and 
supine are formed. According to the above scheme they 

: — 





laud- are. 











[§ 154.] 4. But in the third conjugation the formation of 
the perfect and supine presents some difficulty. The follow- 
ing general rules therefore must be observed (for the details 
see the list of verbs of the third conjugation). When the 
termination of the infinitive ere, or the o of the present tense, 
is preceded by a vowel, the forms of the perfect and supine 
are simply those mentioned above, that is, i and turn are 
added to the stem of the verb, or to that portion of the verb 
which remains after the removal of the termination, e. g. 
acuere, acu-o, acu-i, acu-tum. The vowel becomes long in 
the supine, even when it is otherwise short. So also in 
minuo, statuo, tribuo, and solvo, solutum, for v before a con- 
sonant is a vowel. 

But when the o of the present is preceded by a consonant 
the perfect ends in si. The s in this termination is changed 
into x when it is preceded by c, g, h, or qu (which is equal 
to c) ; when it is preceded by b, this letter is changed into 

E 5 


p ; if d precedes, one of the two consonants must give way, 
and either the d is dropped, which is the ordinary practice, 
or the s ; e. g. duco, duxi ; rego, rexi ; traho, traxi ; coquo, 
coxi; scribo, scrip si ; claudo, clausi ; but defendo, defendL 
Verbs in po present no difficulty : carpo, carpsi ; sculpo, 
scidpsi. That lego makes legi, bibo, bibi, and emo, emi, is 
irregular ; but figo, fixi ; nubo, nupsi ; demo, demsi (or 
dempsi), are perfectly in accordance with the rule. 

5. The supine adds turn to the stem of the verb, with some 
change of the preceding consonants : b is changed into p ; 
g, h, and qu into c ; instead of dtum in the verbs in do, we 
find sum ; e. g. scribo, scriptum ; rego, rectum ; traho, trac- 
tum ; coquo, coctum (verbs in co remain unchanged, as dic- 
tum, ductum) ; defendo, defensum; claudo, clausum. The 
supine in xum is a deviation from the rule, as in figo, fixum, 
and so also the throwing out of the n of the stem, as in 
pingo, pictum ; stringo, strictum ; although this is not done 
without reason. Of the words in which o is preceded by I, 
m, n, r, or s, only a few in mo follow the ordinary rule ; 
e. g. como, demo ; perf. comsi, or compsi ; sup. comtum or 
comptum : all the others have mixed forms. 

6. Two irregularities are especially common in the forma- 
tion of the perfect of the third conjugation. The first is the 
addition of a syllable at the beginning of the verb, called 
reduplication, in which the first consonant of the verb is 
repeated either with the vowel which follows it, or with an 
e ; e. g. tundo, tutudi ; tendo, tetendi ; cano, cecini ; curro, 
cucurri ;fallo, fefelli ; parco,peperci. In the compounds of 
such words the reduplication is generally not used, except in 
those of do, sto, disco, posco, and in some of curro. The 
second irregularity is that many verbs of the third conjuga- 
tion form their perfect like those of the second. This is the 
case especially with many verbs in lo and mo, as alo, alui, 
alitum (altum) ; molo, molui, molitum ; gemo, gemui,gemitum. 
Concerning this and other special irregularities, see the list 
of verbs in Chap. L. 

[§ 155.] 7. The derivation of the other tenses and forms 
of a verb from these four (present, perfect, supine, and in- 
finitive), which are supposed to be known, is easy and with- 
out irregularity in the- detail. 

From the infinitive active are formed : 
a) The imperative passive, which has in all conjugations 
the same form as the infinitive active. 


b) The imperative active, by dropping the termination re. 
It thus ends in conjugation, 1. in a, 2. e, 3. e, 4. i, as ama, 
mone, lege, audi. 

c) The imperfect subjunctive active, by the addition of wt, 
so that it ends in the four conjugations in arem, erem, erem, 
Irem, e. g. amarem, monerem, legerem, audirem. 

d) The imperfect subjunctive passive, by the addition of 
r, as in amarer, monerer, legerer, audirer. 

e) The infinitive present passive, by changing e into i, e. g. 
amari, moneri, audiri, but in the third conjugation the whole 
termination ere is changed into i, as in legere, legi. 

From the present indicative active are derived : 

a) The present indicative passive, by the addition of r, as 
amor, moneor, leg or, audior. 

b) The present subjunctive active, by changing the o into 
em in the first conjugation, and in the three others into am ; 
as amem, moneam, legam, audiam. 

c) The present subjunctive passive, by changing the m of 
the present subjunctive active into r, as amer, monear, legar, 

d) The imperfect indicative active, by changing o into 
abam in the first conjugation, in the second into bam, and 
in the third and fourth into ebam. A change of the m into 
r makes the imperfect indicative passive, e. g. amabam, 
amabar ; monebam, monebar ; legebam, legebar ; audiebam, 

e) The first future active, by changing o into abo in the 
first conjugation, in the second into bo, and in the third and 
fourth into am. From this is formed the first future passive 
by adding r in the first and second conjugations, and by 
changing m into r in the third and fourth ; e. g. laudabo, 
laudabor ; monebo, monebor ; legam, legar ; audiam, audiar. 

f) The participle present active, by changing o in the 
first conjugation into arts, in the second into ns, and in the 
third and fourth into ens ; e. g. laudo, laudans ; moneo, mo- 
nens ; lego, legens ; audio, audiens. From this participle is 
derived the participle future passive, by changing s into 
dus ; e. g. amandus, monendus, legendus, audiendus ; and 
the gerund : amandum, monendum, legendum, audiendum. 

From the perfect indicative active are derived : 
a) The pluperfect indicative, by changing i into eram: 
laudaveram, monueram, legeram, audiveram. 

E 6 


b) The future perfect, by changing i into ero : laudavero, 
monuero, legero, audivero. 

c) The perfect subjunctive, by changing i into erim : lau- 
daverim, monuerim, legerim, audiverim. 

d) The pluperfect subjunctive, by changing i into issem 
(originally essem) : laudavissem, monuissem, legissem, audi- 

e) The perfect infinitive active, by changing i into isse 
(originally esse) : laudavisse, monuisse, legisse, audivisse. 

From the supine are derived : 

a) The participle perfect passive, by changing um into 
us, a, um : laudatus, a, um ; monitus, a, um ; lectus, a, um ; 
auditus, a, um. 

b) The participle future active, by changing um into urus, 
a, um : laudaturus, a, um ; moniturus, a, um ; lecturus, a, 
um ; auditurus, a, um. 

By means of the former participle we form the tenses of 
the passive, which express a completed action ; and by means 
of the participle future we may form a new conjugation ex- 
pressing actions which are to come. See Chap. XLIIL 



[§ 156.] The verb esse, to be, is called an auxiliary verb, 
because it is necessary for the formation of some tenses of 
the passive voice. It is also called a substantive verb, be- 
cause it is the most general expression of existence. Its con- 
jugation is very irregular, like the English lam. The supine 
and gerund are wanting, but the inflection in the persons is 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Sum, I am. Sing. Sim, 1 may be. 

es, thou art. sis, thou mayst be. 

est, he is. sit, he may be. 

Plur. sumus, we are. Plur. simus, we may be. 
estis, ye are. sltis, ye may be. 

sunt, they are. sint, they may be. 




Sing. Eram, I was. 

eras, thou wast. 

erat, he was. 
Plur. eramus, we were. 

eratis, ye were. 

erant, they were. 

Sing. Ero, I shall be. 

eris, thou wilt be. 

erit, he will be. 
Plur. erimus, we shall be. 

eritis* ye will be. 

erunt, they will be. 

Sing. Fui, I have been, or I was, 
fuisti, thou hast been. 
fuit, he has been. 

Plur. fuimus, we have been. 
fuistis, ye have been. 

~TZ ' > they have been. 

fuere, J 



Essem, I might be. 
esses, thou mightst be. 
esset, he might be. 
Plur. essemus, we might be. 
essetis, ye might be. 
essent, they might be. 


Instead of a subjunctive, the parti- 
ciple futurus is used with sim. 

Futurus sim, sis, &c. I may be 
about to be. 


Sing. Fuerim, I may have been. 

fueris, thou mayst have been. 

fuerit, he may have been. 
Plur. fuerlmus, we may have been. 

fuerltis, ye may have been. 

fuerint, they may have been. 

Sing. Fueram, I had been. 

fueras, thou hadst been. 
fuerat, he had been. 
Plur. fueramus, we had been. 
fueratis, ye had been. 
fuerant, they had been. 


Fuissem, I should, or would 

have been. 
fuisses, thou shouldst, &c. 
fuisset, he should, &c. 
Plur. fuissemus, we should, &c. 
fuissetis, ye should, See. 
fuissent, they should, &c. 

Future Perfect. 

Sing. Fuero, I shall have been. 
fueris, thou wilt have been. 
fuerit, he will have been. 
fuerlmus, we shall have been. 
fueritis, ye will have been. 
fuerint, they will have been. 

Present, Sing. Es, be thou. 
Future, Sing, Esto, thou shalt be. 

No Subjunctive. 

esto, he shall be. 

Plur. este, be ye. 

Plur. estote, ye shall be. 
sunto, they shall be. 




Present, state not terminated, esse, to be. 
Perfect, terminated, fuisse, to have been. 
Future, futurum (am, urn) esse, or fore, to be about to be. 


Present, not terminated (ens), being. 

Future, futurus, a, urn, one who is about to be. 

Note. The compounds absum, adsum, desum, insum, inter sum, obsum,prae- 
sum, subsum, super sum, have the same conjugation as sum. Prosum inserts 
a d when pro is followed by e ; e. g. prodes, prodest, &c. The participle 
ens is not used, but appears in the two compounds absens and praesens. 



[§ 157] I. ACTIVE VOICE. 
First Conjugation. 


Sing. Am-o, I love. 

um-as, thou lovest. 

am-at, he loves. 
Plur. am-dmus, we love. 

am-dtis, ye love. 

am-ant, they love. 

Sing, am-dbam, I was loving, 
or I loved. 

am- abas. 

Plur. am-abdmus. 



Sing, am-dbo, I shall love. 


Plur. am-abimus. 





Sing. Am-em, I may love. 

am-es, thou mayst love. 

am-et, he may love. 
Plur. am- emits, we may love 

am-etis, ye may love. 

am-ent, they may love. 


Sing, am-drem, I might love. 

am- ares, 
Plur. am-aremus. 



Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing, am-dvi, I have loved, or Sing, am-averim, I may have loved. 

I loved. 

am-avisti. am-averis. 

am-avit. am-averit. 

Plur. am-avimus. Plur. am-averlmus. 

am-avistis. am-averltis. 

am-averunt (e). am-averint. 


Sing, am-averam, I had loved. Sing, am-avissem, I might have loved. 

am-averds. am-avisses. 

am-averat. am-avisset. 

PI r. am-averdmus. Plur. am-avissemus. 

am-averatis. am-avissetis, 

.am-averant, am-avissent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, am-avero, I shall have loved. 


Plur. am-averimus. 




Present, Sing. am-d 9 love thou. Plur. am-dte, love ye, 

Future, Sing, am-dto, thou shalt love. Plur. am-atote, ye shall love. 
am-dto, he shall love. am-anto, they shall love, 


Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on) am-are, to love. 
Perf. and Pluperf. (of an action completed) am-avisse, to have loved. 
Future, am-aturum esse, to be about to love. 

Gen. am-andi ; Dat. am-ando ; Ace. am-andum ; Abl. am-ando. 

am-atum ; am-atu. 

Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on) am-ans, loving. 
Future, am-aturus, about to love. 


Second Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Mon-eo, I advise. Sing. Mon-eam, I may advise. 

mon-es. mon-eds. 

mon-et. mon-eat. 

Plur. mon-emus. Plur. mon-edmus. 

mon-etis. mon-eatis. 

mon-ent. mon-eant. 


Sing. mon-ebam, I was advising, Sing, mon-erem, I might advise, 
or I advised. 

mon-ebds. mon-eres. 

mon-ebat. mon-eret. 

Plur. mon-ebdmus. Plur. mon-eremus. 

mon-ebatis. mon-eretis. 

mon-ebant. mon-erent. 

Sing, mon-ebo, I shall advise. 
Plur. mon-ebimus. 


Sing, mon-iti, I have advised, or Sing, mon-uerim, I may have advised. 
I advised. 

mon-uisti. mon-ueris. 

mon-uit. mon-uerit. 

Plur. mon-uimus. Plur. mon-uerimus. 

mon-uistis. mon-uerltis. 

mon-uerunt (e). mon-uerint. 


Sing, mon-ueram, I had advised. Sing, mon-uissem, I should have ad- 

mon-ueras. mon-uisses. [vised. 

mon-uerat. mon-uisset. 

Plur. mon-ueramus. Plur. mon-uissemus. 

mon-uerdtis. mon-uissetis. 

mon-uerant. mon-uissent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, mon-uero, I shall have advised. 


Plur. mon-uerimus. 





Present, Sing, mon-e, advise thou. Plur. mon-ete, advise ye. 

Future, Sing, mon-eto, thou shalt advise. Plur. mon-etote, ye shall advise. 
mon-eto, he shall advise. mon-enio, they shall advise. 


Pres. and Imperf. mon-ere, to advise. 

Perf. and. Pluperf. mon-uisse, to have advised. 

Future, mon-iturum esse, to be about to advise. 

en. mon-endi ; Dat. mon-endo ; Ace. mon-endum ; Abl. mon-endo. 

mon-itum ; mon-itu. 

Pres. and Imperf. mon-ens, advising. 
Future, mon-iturus, about to advise. 

Third Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Leg-o, I read. Sing. Leg-am, I may read. 

leg-is. leg- as. 

leg-it. leg-at. 

Plur. hg-imus. Plur. leg-dmus. 

leg-ids. leg-atis. 

leg-unt. leg-ant. 


Sing, leg-ebam, I was reading, or Sing, leg-erem, I might read. 
I read. 

leg-ebds. leg-eres. 

leg-ebat. leg-eret. 

Plur. leg-ebdmus. Plur. leg-eremus, 

leg-ebatis. leg-eretis. 

leg-ebant. leg-erent. 

Sing, leg-am, I shall read. 


Plur. leg- emus. 





Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing, leg-i, I have read, or I read. Sing, leg-erim, I may have read. 

leg-isti, leg-eris. 

leg-it. leg-erit. 

Plur. leg-imus. Plur. leg-erlmus. 

leg-istis. leg-erltis. 

leg-erunt (e). leg-erint. 

Sing, leg-eram, I had read. 

leg -eras. 

Plur. leg-erdmus. 




Sing, leg-issem, 1 should have read. 

Plur. leg-isscmus. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, leg-ero, I shall have read. 


Plur. leg-erlmus. 




Presgit, Sing, leg-e, read thou. Plur. leg-ite, read ye. 

Future, Sing, leg-ito, thou shalt read. Plur. leg-itote, ye shall read. 
leg-ito, he shall read. leg-unto, they shall read. 


Pres. and Imp erf. leg- ere, to read. 
Perf. and Pluperf. leg-isse, to have read. 
Future, lec-turum esse, to be about to read. 

Gen. leg-endi / Dat. leg-endo ,* Ace. leg-endum ; Abl. leg-endo. 

lec-tum ; lec-tu. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-ens, reading. 
Future? tectums, about to read. 




Sing. Aud-io, I hear. 


Plur. aud-imus. 


aud- iunt. 

Fourth Conjugation* 


Sing. And-iam, I may hear. 


Plur. aud-idmus. 



Sing, aud-iebam, I was hearing, Sing, aud-lrem, I might hear. 

or I heard. 





Plur. aud-iebdmus. 









aud-iam, I shall hear. 









aud-lvi, I have 

heard, or Sing. 

aud-iverim, I 


have heard. 

I heard. 







Plur. aud-iverlmus. 



aud-iverunt (e). 




aud-iveram, I had heard 

Sing, aud-ivissem, I 

might have heard. 







Plur. aud-ivissemus 




and- iv is sent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, aud-ivero, I shall have heard. 

Plur. aud-iverlmus. 



Present, Sing, aud-i, hear thou. Plur. aud-lte, hear ye. 

Future, Sing, aud-tto, thou shalt hear. Plur. aud-itote, ye shall hear. 

aud-ito, he shall hear. aud-iunto, they shall hear. 


Pres. and Imperf. aud-ire, to hear. 

Perf and Pluperf. aud-ivisse, to have heard. 

Future, aud-iturum esse, to be about to hear. 

Gen. aud-iendi ; Dat. aud-iendo; Ace. aud-iendwn ; Abl. aud-iendo. 

aud-ltum ; aud-itu. 


Pres. & Imperf. aud-iens, hearing. 
Future, aud-iturus, about to hear. 

[§ 158.] II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

First Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Am-or, I am loved. Sing. Am-er, I may be loved. 

am-dris (e). am-eris (e). 

am-atur. am-etur. 

Plur. am-amur, Plur. am-emur. 

am-aminu am^emini. 

am-antur. am-entur. 


Sing, am-dbar, I was being loved, Sing. am-arer, I might be loved, 
or I was loved. 

am-abdris (e). am-areris (e). 

am-abatur. am-aretur. 

Plur. am-abamur. Plur. am-aremur. 

am-abamini. am-aremini. 

am-abantur. am-arentur. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing, am-dbor, I shall be loved. 

am-aberis (e). 

Plur. am-abimur. 




Sing, am-dtus (a, um) sum, I have Sing, am-dtus (a, um) sim, I may 

been loved, or I was loved. have been loved. 

am-atus es, am-atus sis. 

am-atus est. am-atus sit. 

Plur. am-ati (ae, a) sumus. Plur, am-ati (ae, a) simus. 

am-ati estis. am-ati sitis. 

am-ati sunt. am-ati suit. 


Sing, am-dtus (a, um) eram, I had Sing, am-atus (a, um) essem, I might 
been loved. have been loved. 

am-atus eras. am-atus esses. 

am-atus erat. am-atus esset. 

Plur. am-ati (ae, a) eramus. Plur. am-ati (ae, a) essemus. 

am-ati eratis. am-ati essetis. 

am-ati eranU am-ati essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, am-atus (a, um) ero, I shall have been loved. 

am-atus eris. 

am-atus erit. 
Plur. am-ati (ae, a) erimus. 

am-ati eritis. 

am-ati erunt. 


Present, Sing, am-are, be thou loved. Plur. am-amini, be ye loved. 

Future, Sing, am-ator, thou shalt be loved. PI. am-aminor, ye shall be loved. 
am-ator, he shall beloved. am-antor, they shall be loved. 


Pres. and Imperf. (of a passive state still going on), am-ari, to be loved. 
Perf. and Pluperf. (of a state completed), am-dtum (am, um) esse, to 

have been loved. 
Future, am-dtum iri, to be about to be loved. 


Perfect, am-dtus, a, um, loved. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), am-andus, a, 
um, deserving or requiring to be loved. 



Second Conjugation. 


Sing. Mon-eor, I am advised. 

mon-eris (e). 

Plur. mon-emur. 




Sing. Mon-ear, I may be advised. 

mon-edris (e). 

Plur. mon-eamur. 




Sing, mon-ebar, I was being advised, Sing, mon-erer, I might be advised, 
or I was advised. 

mon-ebdris (e). mon-ereris (e). 

mon-ebatur. mon-eretur. 

Plur. mon-ebamur. Plur. mon-eremur. 

mon-ebamini. mon-ereminL 

mon-ebantur, mon-erentur. 


Sing, mon-ebor, I shall be advised. 

mon-eberis (e). 

Plur. mon-ebimur. 




Sing, mon-itus (a, um) sum, I 
have been advised, or 
I was advised. 
mon-itus es. 
mon-itus est. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) sumus. 
mon-iti estis. 
mon-iti sunt. 

Sing, mon-itus (a, «m) S2?ra, I may 
have been advised. 

mon-itus sis. 
mon-itus sit. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) simus. 
mon-iti sitis. 
mon-iti sint. 


Sing, mon-itus (a, um) eram, I 
had been advised. 

mon-itus eras. 

mon-itus erat. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) eramus. 

mon-iti eratis. 

mon-iti erant. 

Sing, mon-itus (a, «m) essem, I should 
have been advised. 

mon-itus esses. 

mon-itus esset. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) essemus. 

mon-iti essetis. 

mon-iti essent. 


Indicative. Subjunctive, 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, mon-itus (a, wri) ero, I shall have been advised. 

mon-itus eris. 

mon-itus erit. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) erimus. 

mon-iti eritis. 

mon-iti erunt. 


Present, Sing, mon-ere, be thou advised. Plur. mon-emini, be ye advised. 

Future, Sing, mon-etor, thou shalt be Plur. mon-eminor, ye shall be 
advised. advised. 

mon-etor, he shall be, &c. mon-entor, they shall be, &c. 


Pres. and Imperf. mon-eri, to be advised. 

Perf. and Pluperf. mon-itum (am, urn) esse, to have been advised. 

Future, mon-itum iri, to be about to be advised. 


Perfect, mon-itus, advised. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), mon-endus, 
deserving or requiring to be advised. 

Third Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Leg-or, I am read. Sing. Leg-ar, I may be read. 

leg-eris (e). leg-dris (e). 

leg-itur. leg-atur. 

Plur. leg-imur. Plur. leg-amur. 

leg-imini. leg-amini. 

leg-untur. leg-antur. 


Sing. leg-ebar, I was being read, Sing, leg-erer, I might be read, 
or I was read. 

leg-ebaris (e). leg-ereris (e), 

leg-ebatur. leg-eretur. 

Plur. leg-ebamur. Plur. leg-eremur. 

leg-ebamini. leg-eremini. 

leg-ebantur. leg-erentur. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Sing, leg-ar, I shall be read. 
leg-eris (e). 
Plur. leg-emur. 


Sing, lec-tus (a, um) sum, I have Sing, lec-tus (a, um) sim, I may h c 
been read, or I was read. been read. 

lec-tus es. lec-tus sis. 

lec-tus est. lec-tus sit. 

Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) sinius. 
lec-ti estis. lec-ti sitis. 

lec-ti sunt. lec-ti sint. 


Sing, lec-tus (a, um) eram, I had Sing, lec-tus (a, um) essem, I should 

been read. have been read. 

lec-tus eras. lec-tus esses, 

lec-tus erat. lec-tus esset. 

Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) essemus. 

lec-ti eraiis. lec-ti essetis. 

lec-ti erant. lec-ti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, lec-tus (a, um) ero, I shall have been read. 

lec-tus eris. 

lec-tus erit. 
Plur. lec-ti erimus. 

lec-ti eritis. 

lec-ti erunt 


Present, Sing, leg-ere, be thou read. Plur. leg-imini, be ye read. 

Future, Sing, leg-itor, thou shalt be read. Plur. leg-iminor, ye shall be read. 
leg-itor, he shall be read. leg-untor,they shall be read. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-i, to be read. 

Perf. and Pluperf. lec-tum {am, um) esse, to have been read. 

Future, lec-tum iri, to be about to be read. 

Perfect, lec-tus, read. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), leg-endus, de- 
serving or requiring to be read. 


Fourth Conjugation. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Aud-ior 9 1 am heard. Sing. Aud-iar, I may be heard. 

aud-lris (e). aud-idris (e). 

aud-ltur. aud-iatur. 

Plur. aud-lmur. Plur. aud-iamur. 

aud-imini. audr-iamini. \ 

aud-iuntur. aud-iantur. 


Sing, aud-iebar, I was being Sing, aud-irer, I might be heard, 
heard, or I was heard. 

aucLiebdris (e). aud-ireris (e\ 

aud-iebatur. aud-iretur. 

Plur. aud-iebamur. Plur. aud-iremur. 

aud-iebamini. aud-iremini. 

aud-iebantur. aud-irentur. 


Sing, aud-iar, I shall be heard. 

aud-ieris (e). 

Plur. aud-iemur. 




Sing, aud-itus (a, um) sum, I have Sing. aud-itus (a, um)sim t I may have 

been heard, or I was heard. been heard. 

aud-itus es. aud-itus sis. 

aud-itus est. aud-itus sit. 

Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. aud-iti (ae 9 a) simus. 

aud-iti estis. aud-iti sitis. 

aud-iti sunt. aud-iti sint. 


Sing, aud-itus (a, um) eram, I had Sing, aud-itus (a, um) essem, I might 
been heard. have been heard. 

aud-itus eras. aud-itus esses, 

aud-itus erat. aud-itus esset. 

Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) essemus. 
aud-iti eratis. aud-iti essetis. 

aud-iti erant. aud-iti essent. 



Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing. aud-itus (a, um) ero, I shall have been heard. 

aud-itus eris. 

aud-itus erit. 
Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) erimus. 

aud-lti eritis. 

aud-lti erunt. 

Present, Sing, aud-lre, be thou heard. Plur. aud-imini, be ye heard. 

Future, Sing, aud-ltor, thou shalt be Plur. aud-iminor, ye shall be 

heard. heard. [be, &c. 

aud-ltor, he shall be heard. aud-iuntor, they shall, 

Pres. and Imperf. aud-lri, to be heard. 

Perf. and Pluperf. aud-ltum {am, um) esse, to have been heard. 
Future, aud-ltum iri, to be about to be heard. 

Perfect, aud-itus, heard. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), aud-iendus, 
deserving or requiring to be heard. 


[§ 159.] The conjugation of deponents differs from the 
passive only by the fact that it has both the participles 
of the active and of the passive voice, that is, for all the 
three states of an action : that in ns for an action not 
completed ; that in us, a, um for an action completed ; and 
that in urus, a, um for one about to take place. The fourth 
participle in ndus with a passive signification is an irregu- 
larity, and is used only in those deponents which have a 
transitive signification ; e. g. hortandus, one who should be 
exhorted. Of deponents which have an intransitive mean- 
ing, e. g. loquiy this participle is used only sometimes, chiefly 
in the neuter gender (often, but erroneously, called the ge- 
rund), and in a somewhat different sense, e. g. loquendum 
est, there is a necessity for speaking. It will be sufficient in 
the following table to give the first persons of each tense, 
for there is no difficulty, except that these verbs with a 
passive form have an active meaning. 

1st Conjug. 

S. hort-or, I ex- 
P. hort-amur. 

S. hort-abar. 


A. Indicative. 
2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 

ver-eor, I fear, sequ-or, I follow. 

ver-emur. sequ-imur. 





4th Conjug. 

bland-ior, I flatter, 

bland- iebamur. 

S. hort-abor. 
P. hort-abimur. 

S. hort-atus (a, 
um) sum. 

P. hort-ati (ae, 
a) surnus. 

S. hort-atus (a, 
?zm) eram. 

P. hort-ati (ae, 
a) eramus. 

S. hort-atus (a, 
um) ero. 

P. hort-ati (ae, 
a) erimus. 


First Future. 


ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, ww) 

ver-fti (ae, a) secw-tf (ae, a) 
sumus. sumus. 

ver-itus (a, «m) secu-tus (a, wtw) 

eram. erawi. 

ver-to' (ae, a) sec^^" (ae, a) 

eramus. eramus. 

Future Perfect. 

veritus (a, um) secu-tus (a, «m) 

ero. ero . 

ver-iti (ae, a) secu-ti (ae, a) 

erimus. erimus. 

B. Subjunctive. 


bland-ltus (a, um) 

bland-iti (ae, a) su- 

bland-itus (a, um) 

bland-iti (ae, a) 


bland-itus (a, um) 

bland-iti (ae, a) eri- 


S. hort-er. 
P. hort-emur. 

S. hort-drer. 
P. hort-aremur. 

S. hort-atus (a, 
um) sim. 

P. hort-ati (ae, 
a) si?nus. 







ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) 

sim. sim, 

ver-iti (ae, a) secu-ti (ae, a) 

simus. simus. 

f 2 



bland-itus (a, um) 

bland-iti (ae, a) si- 



1st Conjug. 


2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4tb Conjug, 


S. hort-atus (a, ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) bland-itus (a, um) 

um) essem. essem. essem. essem. 

P. hort-ati (ae, ver-iti (ae, a) secu-ti (ae, a) bland-iti (ae, a) es- 

d)essemus. essemus. essemus. semus. 

C. Imperative, 

S. 2. hort-are. ver-ere. 
P. 2. hort-amini. ver-emini. 




S. 2. hort-ator. ver-e.or. sequ-itor. hland-ltor. 

3. hort-ator. ver-etor. sequ-ltor. bland-ltor. 

P. 2. (is wanting, but is supplied by the Future Indicative.) 

3. hort-antor. ver-entor. sequ-untor. bland-iuntor. 

D. Infinitive. 

Present and Imperfect. 

hort-ari. ver-eri. sequ-i. bland-iru 

Perfect and Pluperfect. 

hort-atum (am, ver-itum (am, secu-tum (am, bland-itum (am, 
um) esse. um) esse. um ) esse. um) esse. 


hort-aturum (am, ver-iturum (am, secu-turum (am, bland-iturum (am, 

um) esse. 

um) esse. 

Gen. hort-andi. ver-endi. 
Dat. hort-ando. ver-endo. 
Ace. hort-andum. ver-endum. 
Abl. hort-ando, ver-endo. 

um) esse. 

E. Gerund. . 


um) esse. 


F. Participles. 

Present and Imperfect. 
hort-ans. ver-ens. sequ-ens. bland-iens. 

Perfect and Pluperfect. 
hort-atus, a, um. ver-itus, a, um. secu-tus, a, um. bland-itus, a, um. 

hort-aturus, a, um. ver-iturus, a, um. secu-turus, a, um. bland-iturus, a, um. 


1st Conjug. 2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4th Con jug. 

Future, with Passive Signification. 
hort-andus, a, um. ver-endus, a, um. sequ~endus>a,um. bland-iendus^a^iun. 
G. Supine. 

1. hort-atum. ver-itum. secu-tum. bland-xtum. 

2. hort-atu. ver-itu. secu-tu. bland-itu. 



[§ 160.] 1. In the terminations avi, evi, and ivi of the 
tenses expressing a completed action, viz. of the perfect and 
pluperfect, indicative and subjunctive, and of the future per- 
fect, as well as of the infinitive perfect active, a syncopation 
often takes place. 

a) In the first conjugation the v is dropped and the vowels 
a-i and a-e are contracted into a long a. This is the case 
wherever avi is followed by an s, or ave by an r; e. g. 
amavisti, amasti ; amavissem, amassem; amavisse, amasse; 
amaverunt, amarunt ; amaverim, amarim ; amaveram, ama- 
ram; amavero, amaro, &c. 

b) The termination evi in the second and third conju- 
gations is treated in the same manner ; e. g. neo, I spin, 
nevi, nesti, nestis, nerunt Thus we often find complessem, 
dettram, and in the third conjugation consuerunt for con- 
sueverunt, quiessem, decressem, decresse for decrevisse. The 
termination ovi however is contracted only in novi, novisse, 
with its compounds, and in the compounds of moveo, movi ; 
e. g. norunt, nosse, cognoram, cognoro, com?nossem. 

c) In the fourth conjugation ivi is frequently contracted 
before s; hence instead of audivisse, audivisti, andivissem, 
we find audisse, audist% audissem. In those forms where 
i and e meet, the v is frequently thrown out ; e. g. audiertcnf, 
desierunty definieram, quaesieram. 

[§ 162.] 2. The e in the termination of the imperfect of 
the fourth conjugation is sometimes thrown out, e. g. nvtri- 
bam. lenibam, scibam, largibar, for nutrieba?n, leniebam, 
sciebam, largiebar, — and the future of the same conjugation 

f 3 


is formed in ibo instead of iam ; e. g. scibo, servibo, for 
sciam, serviam ; but these contractions are antiquated, 
and are retained only in the irregular verb ire. 

[§ 163.] 3. For the third person plural of the perfect 
active in erunt there is in all the conjugations another form, 

[§ 164.] 4. The four verbs dicer e, ducere, facer e, and 
ferre, usually reject the e in the imperative ; hence we say 
die, due, fac, fer, and so also in their compounds, as educ, 
effer, perfer, calefac, with the exception of those compounds 
of facer -e which change a into i; e. g. confice, perfice. 

Of scire the imperatives sci and scite are not in use, and 
their place is supplied by the imperative future scito, scitote. 

[§ 165.] 5. The quantity of the i in the terminations ri~ 
mus and ritis, in the future perfect and the perfect subjunc- 
tive, is uncertain. The poets frequently use it long. 

[§ 166.] 6. Instead of the termination ris in the second 
person in the passive, re is also used, especially in the present 
and imperfect subjunctive, and in the imperfect and future 
indicative, as amere, moneare, loquare, audiare ; amarere, 
amabare, amabere, monerere, loquerere, &c. But, generally 
speaking, these forms do not occur in the present indicative. 

[§ 167 -3 7. The participle future passive of the third and 
fourth conjugations (including the deponents) is formed also 
in undus instead of endus, especially when i precedes. In the 
verb potior, potiundus is the usual form. 

[§ 168.] 8. The conjugatio periphrastica, or the conjuga- 
tion by circumlocution, is formed by means of the two parti- 
ciples future, in the active and passive, and of the verb esse, 
for a conjugation made up of the participle present and esse 
does not occur in Latin, (e. g. amans sum would be the same 
as amo,) and the combinations of the participle perfect passive 
with sum, sim, eram, essem, ero, esse, are considered as a part 
of the ordinary conjugation of a verb in the passive voice, as 
for example amatus eram, which is the pluperfect passive of 
amo. But it must be observed, that in the conjugation of the 
passive the perfects of esse are sometimes used instead of the 
above-mentioned forms sum, eram, ero, &c. Amatum fuisse, 
therefore, is equal to amatum esse as an infinitive perfect 
passive ; amatus fueram is equivalent to amatus eram, and 
amatus fuero to amatus ero. Amatus fuero, in particular, is 
used so frequently for amatus ero, that it may be looked 
upon as the ordinary future perfect passive. 


[§ 169.] But by the combination of the participle future 
active with the tenses of esse, a really new conjugation is 
formed, denoting an intention to do something. This inten- 
tion may arise either from the person's own will, or from out- 
ward circumstances, so that, e. g., scripturus sum may either 
mean "I have a mind to write," or " I am to write," or "I have 
to write." The former sense is also expressed by " I am on 
the point of writing," or " I am about to write," and this sig- 
nification is carried through all the tenses of esse* 

Scripturus sum, I am about Scripturus fui, I was or have 
to write. been about to write. 

Scripturus eram, I was about Scripturus fuer am, I had been 
to write. about to write. 

Scripturus ero, I shall be Scripturus fuer o, I shall have 
about to write. been about to write. 

The subjunctive occurs in the same manner. 

Scripturus sim, Scripturus fuerim. 

Scripturus essem. Scripturus fuissem. 

Scripturus sim and scripturus essem serve at the same time 
as subjunctives to the future scribam; but scripturus fuerim 
and scripturus fuissem are not used as subjunctives to the 
future perfect, scripsero. The infinitive scripturum fuisse 
denotes an action to which a person was formerly disposed, 
and answers to the English " I should have written," so that 
in hypothetical sentences it supplies the place of an infinitive 
of the pluperfect subjunctive ; e. g. Pollio Asinius Caesar em 
existimat suos rescripturum et correcturum commentarios 
fuisse, that is, that he would have re-written and corrected, 
if he had lived longer. The infinitive with esse likewise origin- 
ally denotes an intention ; scripturum esse, to intend writing, 
or to be on the point of writing ; but it then assumes, in ordi- 
nary language, the nature of a simple infinitive future, for 
which reason it is incorporated in the table of conjugations. 
For the particulars, see the Syntax, Chap. LXXVI. 

[§ 170.] The participle future passive expresses (in the 
nominative) the necessity of suffering an action, and in combi- 
nation with the tenses of esse it likewise forms a new and 
complete conjugation {tempora necessitatis) ; e. g. amandus 
sum, I must be loved ; amandus eram, it was necessary for 
me to be loved, and so on with all the tenses of esse. Its 
neuter combined with esse and the dative of .a person ex- 

F 4 


presses the necessity of performing the action on the part of 
that person, and may likewise be carried through all the 
tenses, as, 

mihi, tibi, illi scribendum est, mihi scribendum fuit, I have 

I, thou, he must write. been, or was obliged to write. 

mihi scribendum erat, I was mihi scribendum fuerat, I had 

obliged to write. been obliged to write. 

mihi scribendum erit, I shall mihi scribendum fuerit, I shall 

be obliged to write. have been obliged to write. 

And so also in the subjunctive and infinitive ; mihi scri- 
bendum esse ; mihi scribendum fuisse. 







[§ 171.] The irregularity of the verbs of this conjugation 
consists chiefly in their taking ui in the perfect, and itum in 
the supine, like verbs of the second ; the i, however, is 
sometimes thrown out. It will be seen from the following 
list that some verbs, in some form or other, again incline 
towards a regular formation of their tenses. 

Crepo, crepui, crepitum, make a noise, rattle, creak. 

Compounds: concrepo, make an intense noise; discrepo, differ; tn- 
erepo, chide, rattle. 

Ciibo, cubuiy cubitum, cubare, lie. 

Compounds ; accicbo, recline at table ; excubo, keep watch ; incubo, 
lie upon ; recubo, lie upon the back ; secubo, lie apart, and some others. 


When the compounds take an m before b, they are conjugated after the 
third, but keep their perfect and supine in ui, itum. (See § 191.) 

Domo, ui, itum, tame, subdue. 

Edomo and perdomo strengthen the meaning. 

Sono, ui, itum, resound. (Participle sonatarus.) 

Consono, agree in sound ; dissono, disagree in sound ; persono, sound 
through ; resono, resound. 

Tono, ui, (itum,) thunder. 

Attono (active), strike with astonishment ; irttono, commonly intran- 
sitive, make a sound ; circumtono. 

Veto, ui, itum, forbid. 

Frico, fricui, fricatum, and frictum, rub. 

Defrico, infrico, perfrico, refrico, are conjugated in the same way. 

Mico, ui, (without supine.) dart out, glitter. 

Ernico, ui, atum, dart forth rays ; but dimico, fight, makes dimicavi, 

Seco, ui, sectum, cut. (Part, secaturus.) 
Deseco, reseco, cut off; disseco, cut in parts. 

Juvo,juvi, support assist. (Part.juvaturus.) 

So also the compound adjuvo, adjuvi, adjutum, participle cKlju'unts 
and adjuvaturus. 

Ldvo, lavi, lavatum, lautum, lotum, lavare, wash, or bath 

Neco, kill, is regular ; but from it are formed, with the same 
meaning, eneco, avi, atum, and enecui, enectum ; the par- 
ticiple is usually enectus. 

From Plico, fold, are formed applico, avi, atum, and ui, itum ; 
so explico, avi, atum, unfold, explain ; implico, implicate. 
The perfect ui and the supine atum are most common. 
But those derived from nouns in plex form the perf. and 
sup. regularly : supplico, duplico, multiplico. 

Poto, drink, is regular, except that the supine usually, in- 
stead of potatum, is potum, whence potus, which is both 
active and passive, having been drunk, and having drunk. 
Compounds, appbtus, active ; and epotus, passive. 

Do, dedi, datum, dare, give. 

Circumdo, surround ; pes'sundo, ruin ; satisdo, give security ; venv.ndo* 
sell ; are formed like do. The other compounds addo, condo, reddo, 
belong to the third conjugation. (See § 187.) 



Sto, steti, stdtum, stare, stand. 

The compounds have iti in the perfect ; e. g. adsto, stand near ; cow- 
sto, consist of; exsto, exist or am visible ; insto, insist; obsto, hinder; 
persto, persevere ; praesto, surpass ; ?*esto, remain over and above. Only 
those compounded with a preposition of two syllables retain eti in the 
perfect, viz. antesto, circumsto, intersto, supersto. The supine does not 
exist in all the compounds, but wherever it is found it is dtum. Praesto 
however has praestitum and praestaturus. 

The active verbs juro and coeno have a participle with a 
passive form, but an active signification : juratus (with the 
compounds conjuratus and injuratus), one who has sworn ; 
and coenatuSy one who has dined. 



[§ 172.] The irregularity of verbs of the second conjugation 
consists partly in their being defective in their forms, and 
partly in their forming the perfect and supine, or one of them, 
like verbs of the third conjugation. With regard to the first 
irregularity, there are a great many verbs in this conjugation 
which have no supine, that is, which not only have no parti- 
ciple perfect passive (which cannot be a matter of surprise, 
since their meaning does not admit of it), but also no parti- 
ciple future active. The regular form of the perfect is ui, 
and of the supine itum ; but some verbs throw out the short 
i in the supine ; and all verbs which in the present have a 
v before eo undergo a sort of contraction, since, e. g., we 
find cdvi, cautum, instead of cavui, cavitum, from caveo, but 
this can scarcely be considered as an irregularity, since v 
and u was only one letter with the Romans. Respecting the 
lengthening of the vowel in dissyllabic perfects, see § 18. 
/ We shall subjoin a list of the regular verbs of this conju- 
gation as exercises for the beginner, confining ourselves to 
the form of the present. 

Caleo, am warm. .. 

Inchoat. calesco. 
Cdreo, am without. 
JDebeo, owe. 

Doleo, feel pain. 
Habeo, have 

Compounds : adhibeo, cohibeo, 
&c, a being changed into i. 


Jaceo, lie ; comp. adjaceo. Pareo, obey (appear). 

Liceo, am to be sold. Compound : appdreo, appear. 

Not to be confounded with the Pldceo, please. 

impersonal licet, it is permitted. Praebeo, offer, afford. 

See Chap. LX. Tdceo, am silent. 

Mereo, merit. Terreo, terrify. 

Moneo, admonish. Vdleo, am well. 
No ceo, injure. 

To these regular verbs we may first add: — 

[§ 173t ] a ) Those which make the Perfect in vi instead of 


Caveo, cavi, cautum, cavere, take care. 
Faveo, favi, fautum, am favourable. 
Foveo, fovi, fotum, cherish. 
Moveo, movi, motum, move. 

Commoveo and permoveo strengthen the meaning ; amoveo and sub- 
moveo, remote ; admoveo, bring to ; promoveo, bring forwards ; removeo, 
bring back, or remove. 

Paveo, pavi, (no supine,) dread. 

The compound inchoat. expavesco, expavi, is more commonly used, 
especially in the perfect, than the simple verb. 

Voveo, vovi, votum, vow ; devoveo, devote with imprecation. 

Ferveo, fervi, smdferbui, (no supine,) glow, am hot. 

The inchoatives of the third conjugation effervesco, refervesco, and 
confervesco, have more frequently bui in the perfect. 

Conniveo, nivi, and nixi, (no supine,) close the eyes. 

[§ 174.] b) Those which make the Perfect in evi instead 


Deleo, delevi, deletum, extinguish, destroy. 
Fleo, flevi, fletum, weep. 
Neo, neviy netum, spin. 

* F6 


(From Pleo), compleo, complevi, completum, fill up ; expleo, 

(From oleo, grow,) we have the compounds: aboleo, abolish; 
abolesco, cease ; adoleo, adolesco, grow up ; exoleo or exo- 
lesco and obsoleo or obsolesco, grow obsolete ; all of which 
have evi in the perfect ; but the supine of aboleo is aboli- 
tum, of adolesco, adidtum, and the rest have etum : exole- 
tum, obsoletum. Besides abolitum, however, there exist 
only the adjectives adultus, exoletus, obsoletus. 

[§ 175.] c) Those which throw out the short i in the 

Doceo, docui, doctum, teach. 

Compounds : edoceo and perdoceo f strengthen the meaning ; dedoceo, 
teach otherwise. 

Teneo, tenui, (tentum, rare,) hold, keep. 

Abstineo, abstain ; attineo, keep occupied by or at a thing ; contineo, 
keep together ; detineo, keep back ; distineo, keep asunder ; retineo, re- 
tain ; sustineo, keep upright. All these have in the supine tentum. 
Pertineo, belong to, has no supine. 

31isceo, miscuiy mixtum or mistum, mix. 

Compounds are, admisceo, commisceo, immisceo, permisceo. 

Torreo, torrui, tostum, roast. 

To these we may add — 

Censeo, censui, censum (participle also censitus), estimate, 

Percenseo, enumerate, without supine. Of accenseo, reckon with, we 
find accensus ; of succenseo, am angry, succensurus ; and recenseo, ex- 
amine, makes both recensum and recensitum. 

[§ 176.] d) Those which make the Perject regularly in ui, 
but have no Supine. 

Arceo, arcui, arcere, keep off. 

But the compounds coerceo, coerce ; exerceo, exercise ; have a supine 

in itum. 


Calleo, have a hard skin, am skilled in (cattidus). f 


f ' 

Candeo, shine, glow (candidus). 

JEgeo, want. Compound, indigeo. 

(From mineo\ emzneo, stand forth. 

Floreo, flourish. 

Frondeo, have foliage ; effrondui. 

Horreo, shudder, am horrified (korridus). 

Compounds : abhorreo, and a number of inchoatives, as horresco, 

Langueo, am languid (Janguidus). 
Lateo, am concealed. 

Compounds : interlateo, perlateo, sublateo. 

Mddeo, am wet (madidus). 

JYiteOy shine {nitidus). 

Compounds : eniteo, interniteo, praeniteo. 

Oleo, smell. 

Compounds: aboleo and redoleo, have the smell of; suboleo t smell a 

Palleo, am pale. 

Pdteo, am open. 

Rigeo, am stiff (rigidus). 

liubeo, am red (rubidus). 

Sileo, am silent. 

Sorbeo, sorbui, sip. 

Compounds : absorbeo and exsorbeo. 

Sordeo, am dirty (sordidus). 

Splendeo, am splendid (splendidus). 

Studeo, endeavour, study. 

Stupeo, am startled, astonished (stupidus). 

Timeo, fear (timidus). 

Torpeo, am torpid. 

Tumeo, swell, am swollen {tumidus)> 

Vigeo, am animated. 


Vireo, am green or nourish. 

Besides these, there is a number of similar intransitive 
verbs which occur more rarely, and chiefly in the form of 
inchoatives. (See § 204.) Compare § 235. respecting their 
derivation from adjectives. 

The following are really irregular verbs, and follow the 
analogy of the third conjugation : — 

[§ 177 *] 1- Verbs which make the Perfect in si and the 
Supine in sum. 

ArdeOy arsi, arsum, ardere* burn. 

Haereo, haesi, haesum, cleave. 

Compounds : adhaereo, cohaereo, inhaereo. 

Jiibeo, jussi, jussum, command. 

Mdneo, mansi, mansum, remain. (But mano, as, flow). 

Permaneo (permdnes), wait ; remaneo, remain behind. 

Mulceo, mulsi, mulsum, stroke, caress. 

The compounds demulceo and permulceo strengthen the meaning. 

Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, milk. 

Rideo, risi, risum, laugh. 

Compounds : arrideo (arrldes), smile upon or please : derideo and 
irrideo, laugh at, scorn; subrideo, smile. 

Suadeo, suasi, suasum, advise. 

Dissuadeo, dissuade ; persuadeo, persuade. 

Tergeo, tersi, tersu?n, tergere, wipe ; is used also as a verb of 
the third conjugation : tergo, tersi, tersum, tergere. 

[§ 178.] 2. Verbs which make the Perfect in si, but have 
no Supine. 

ft Algeo, alsi, algere, shiver with cold. 
Fidgeo, fidsi, fulgere, shine, am bright. 
Turgeo, tursi, swell. 
Urgeo or urgueo, ursi, press. 


3. Verbs with the Perfect in si and the Supine in turn. 

Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, indulge. 

Torqueo, torsi, tortum, twist. 

Compounds : contorqueo, twist together ; distorqueo, twist away ; ex- 
torqueo, wrest out or from. 

4. Verbs with the Perfect in xi and the Supine in turn. 
Augeo, auxi, auctum, increase. 
Luceo, luxi, lucere, shine ; has no supine. 
Lugeo, luxi, lugere, mourn ; has no supine. 
Frlgeo, frixi, frigere, am cold ; has no supine. 

[§ 179.] 5. Verbs with the Perfect in i and the Supine 
in sum. 

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, dine. The participle pransus 
has an active signification : one who has dined. 

Sedeo, sedi, sessum, sit. 

Assideo (assides), sit by ; desideo, sit down ; circumsedeo or circum- 
sideo, surround ; insideo, sit upon ; supersedeo, do without ; possideo, 
possess ; dissideo, dissent ; praesideo, preside ; resideo, settle down. The 
last three have no supine. 

Video, vidi, visum, see. 

Invideo (invides), envy ; pervideo, see through ; praevideo, foresee ; 
provideo, provide. 

Strideo, strldi, without supine. 

6. Verbs with a Reduplication in the Perfect. 
Mordeo, momordi, morsum, bite. 

Pendeo, pependi, pensum, am suspended. 

Dependeoy depend, and impendeo, soar above, am impending, lose the 

Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, vow. 

Despondeo, despondi, promise ; respondeo, respondi, answer, are with- 
out the reduplication. 

Tondeo, totondi, tonsum, shear. 

The compounds lose the reduplication, as attondeo, detondeo* 


[§ 180.] 7. Verbs without Perfect and Supine. 

Aveo, desire. 

Calveo, am bald, (calvus). 

Cdneo, am grey (canus). 

Flaveo, am yellow (flavus). 

Foeteo, stink (foetidus). 

Uebeo, am dull, stupid (hebes). 

Humeo, am damp {humidus). 

Liveo, am pale or envious (lividus). 

{Mined) immineo, to be imminent, threatening. Promineo, 
am prominent. 

Maereo, mourn (maestus). 

Polleo, am strong. 

Penideo, shine, smile. 

Scateo, gush forth ( Scatere in Lucretius). 

Squdleo, am dirty (squalidus). 

Vegeo, am gay (vege'tus). 

Cieo, ciere, is the same word as the rare and obsolete cio, 
cire, stir up ; both make the perfect civi, according to the 
fourth conjugation ; in the supine they differ in quantity, 
cieo making citum, and cio, citum. 

Note. In the compounds too, e. g. co?tcieo, excieo, the forms of the 
second and fourth conjugation cannot be separated ; but in the signifi- 
cation of " to call," the forms of the fourth are preferred, e. g. imperf. 
cibam, cirem ; infinit. ciri ; the participles concitus, excitus, and incitus* 
signify "excited;" whereas excitus means " called out." Percieo and 
incieo retain the signification of "to excite;" but acclre, to call towards, 
summon or invite (of which the present indicative does not. occur), 
has only accitus. Derived from citum are : cito, quick ; the frequenta- 
tive citare, and hence excito, inclto, and suscito. 

[§ 181.] 8. Semideponents. (See above § 148.) 
Audeo, ausus sum, venture. (Partic. future ausurus.) 

The ancient future subjunctive ausim> ausis, ausit, ansint, are rem 
nants of the obsolete perfect ausi, and are contractions from auserim. 


Gaudeo, gavisus sum, rejoice. 

Soleo, solitus sum, am accustomed (to do something). 

The impersonal compound assolet, signifies " it usually happens." 



[§ 182.] In the list of verbs of this conjugation it is still 
more necessary, than in the preceding one, to include those 
verbs which, according to Chapter XL., form their per- 
fect and supine regularly. We divide them into several 
classes according to the characteristic letter which precedes 
the o in the present. 

1. Verbs which have a Voivel before o including those in vo. 

The following have the Perfect and Supine regular : 

Acuo, acui, acutum, sharpen. 

Exacuo and peracuo> strengthen the meaning ; praeacuo, sharpen at 
the end. 

Arguo, accuse, convict of (perf. passive in the latter sense 
usually convictus, from convincere), 

Coarguo, the same ; redarguo, refute a charge. 

Imbuo, to dip, imbue. 

Induo, put on ; exuo, strip off. 

Luo (participle luiturus), pay, atone for. 

Ahluo and eluo, wash off; polluo, defile ; diluo, refute ; are derived 
from another luo (lavo) and all make the supine in liitum. 

Minuo, lessen. 

Comminuo, deminuo, diminuo, imminuo, perminuo, strengthen the 

(Nuo, nod, does not occur ; from it are formed) 

Abnuo, refuse ; annuo, assent ; innuo, allude, or refer to ; renuo, de- 
cline ; all of which have no supine ; abnuo alone has a participle future, 


Ruo (supine ruitum — ruiturus at least is derived from it; 
rutum occurs only in compounds), fall. 

Diruo, diriii, dirutum, destroy ; obruo, overwhelm ; proruo, rush for- 
wards. Corruo, fall down, and irruo, rush on, have no supine. 

Spuo, spit. 

Conspuo, spit on ; despuo, reject with disgust. 

Statuo, establish. 

Constituo and i?istituo, institute ; restituo, re-establish ; substituo, 
establish instead of; destituo, abandon. 

Sternuo, sneeze (without supine) ; the frequentative sternuto 
is more commonly used. 

Suo, sew. 

Consuo, sew together ; dissuo and resuo, unsew. 

Tribuo, allot to. 

Attribuo, the same ; distribuo, divide ; contribuo, contribute. 

Solvo, solvi, solutum, loosen. 

Absolvo, acquit ; dissolvo, dissolve ; exsolvo, release ; persolvo, pay. 

Volvo, roll (frequentative voluto). 

Evolvo, unroll ; involvo, roll up ; pervolvo, read through. 

The following are without a Supine : 

Congruo, congrui, agree, and ingruo, penetrate. The simple 
verb does not exist. 

Metuo, metui, fear. ( Timeo is likewise without a supine.) 

Pluo^ pluvi, usually impersonal, it rains. Comp. impluo, 
impluvi, or implui. Compluo and perpluo do not occur in 
the perfect. 

The following are irregular : 

[§ 183.] Capio, cepi, captum, caper e, take hold of. 

Accipio, receive ; excipio, receive as a guest, succeed ; recipio, recover ; 
suscipio, undertake ; decipio, deceive ; percipio, comprehend ; praecipio, 
give a precept. 

Facio, feci, factum, do, make. 

Arefacio, dry up ; assuefacio and consuefacio, accustom ; calefacio and 
tepefacio, warm ; frigefacio, cool ; labefacio, make to totter ; patefacio, 


open ; satisfacio, satisfy. These have in the passive -fio. -factus sum, 
-fieri. But those which change a into I form their own passive in -fi- 
cior, and make the supine in -fectum : officio, affect ; conficio and perfi- 
cio, complete ; deficio, fall off, am wanting ; interficio, kill ; proficio, 
make progress ; reficio, revive, repair ; officio, stand in the way, injure. 
Other compounds of facio follow the first conjugation : amplifico, 
sacrifico, and the deponents gratificor, ludificor. 

Jdcio, jeci, j 'actum, throw. 

The compouuds change a into t, and in the supine into e. Abjicio, 
throw away ; adjicio, add ; dejicio, throw down; ejicio, throw out ; injicio, 
throw in; objicio, throw against ; r ejicio, throw back; transjicio or tra- 
jicio, throw or carry across. 

[§ 184.] The following have x in the Perfect : 

(From the obsolete lacio, entice, of which lacto is the fre- 
quentative), allicio, exi, ectum, allure ; illicio, entice in ; 
pellicio, lead astray ; but elicio makes elicui, elicitum, draw 

(From specio, xi, ctum, see, of which the frequentative is 
specto) aspicio, exi, ectum, look on ; conspicio, the same ; 
despicio, look down, despise ; dispicio and perspicio, 
understand ; inspicio, look into ; respicio, look back ; 
suspicio, look up, reverence. 

Fluo, fiuxi, fiuctum, flow. 

Affluo, flow in ; confluo, flow together ; effluo, flow out ; interfluo, 
flow between. 

Struo, struxi, s true turn, build, pile. 

Construo and exstruo, build up ; destruo, pull down ; instruo, set in 

Vivo, vixi, victum, live. 

[§ 185.] Other Irregularities. 

Fodio, fodi, fossum, dig. 

Effodio, dig out ; confodio and perfodio, dig, pierce through ; suffodio, 

Fugio, fugi, fugitum, flee. 

Aufugio and ejfugio, flee away, escape , confugio and perfugio, take 

Cupio, -ivi, -Hum, desire. 

JDiscupio, percupio, concupio, strengthen the meaning. 


Rdpio, rapui, raptum, rob, snatch. 

Arripio, arripui, arreptum^ seize ; abripio and eripio, snatch away ; 
deripio, plunder ; surripio, steal clandestinely. 

Pdrio, peperi, partum, bring forth. (But the particip. fat. 
act. pariturus.) 

Quatio, (quassi is not found,) quassum, shake. 

Conditio, ussi, ussum, shake violently ; dzscutio, shake asunder ; 
excutio, shake out, off (fig. examine) ; incutio, drive into ; percutio, 
strike ; repercutio, rebound. 

Sapio, ivi, and ui 9 (no supine,) am wise. 

Desipio, am foolish ; resipio, have a taste of, or become, wise again. 

(From the obsolete present coepio,) coepi and coeptus sum, 
coeptum, (coepere,) have begun. 


[§ 186.] 2. VERBS IN DO AND TO. 

The following are regular : 

Claudo, clausi, clausum, claudere, close. 

Concludo, shut up, conclude ; excludo and secludo, shut out ; includo, 
shut in. 

Divido, divisi, divlsum, divide. 

Laedo, injure. 

AUido, strike against ; illido, strike upon ; collldo, strike together ; 
elldo, strike out. 

Lildo, sport. 

Colludo, play with ; alludo, play upon : eludo, deludo, and illudo, 

Plaudo, si, sum, clap. 

Applaudo, applaud. The other compounds (with a different pro- 
nunciation) have -odo, ~osi, -osum; as explodo, explode; complodo, clap 
the hands ; supplodo, stamp with the feet. 

Bddo, shave, scrape ; so in abrddo, circumrado, derddo, 
erddo ; corrado, scrape together. 


Rodo, gnaw. 

Abrodo and derodo, gnaw off; arrodo, nibble ; circumrodo, nibble all 
round; perrodo, gnaw through. 

Trudo, thrust, with its compounds : detrudo, thrust down ; 
extrudo y thrust out; protrudo, thrust forwards. 

Vado, (no perfect or supine,) go. 

But evddo, evasi, evasum, escape ; invado, attack ; pervado, go 

[§ 187.] The following are irregular: 

a) With a Reduplication in the Perfect. 

CadOy cecMi, casum, fall. 

Of the compounds, these have a supine : incido, incldi, incdsum, fall 
in or upon ; occido, set ; recido, fall back. The rest have none ; concido, 
sink together ; decido, fall down ; excido, fall out of; accidit, it happens 
(used most commonly of a misfortune). 

Caedo, cecidi, caesum, cut. 

Abscido, abscldi, abscisum, cut off; concido, cut to pieces; incido, cut 
into ; occldo, kill ; recido, cut away. So decido, excido, praecldo, and 

Pendo, pependiy pensum, weigh. 

Appendo, appendi, appensum, weigh out to ; expendo, spend, also con- 
sider, like perpendo ; suspendo, hang from ; dependo, pay ; impendo, 
employ upon or in something. 

Tendo, tetendi, tensum, and tentum, stretch. 

Extendo, ostendo, protendo, and retendo, have both supines; but 
ex- and protentum are more frequent. The other compounds have 
only turn in the supine : attendo (sc. animurri), attend ; contendo, 
(sc. me), strive ; distendo, separate or enlarge by stretching ; intendo, 
strain; obtendo and praetendo, commonly used in the figurative sense of 
alleging; subtendo, stretch beneath. 

Tundo, tutudi, tunsum, and tusum y beat, pound. 

The compounds have only tusum ; contundo, contudi, contusum, pound 
small ; extundo, (figurative) elaborate ; obtundo and retundo, blunt. 

Credo 4 credidi, creditum, believe. 
Accredo, accredidi, give credit to. 

The compounds of do T except those mentioned in § 171. 

Condo, condidi, conditum, build, conceal ; abdo, abdldi, abditum, hide. 


So addo, add ; dedo, give up ; edo, give out, publish; perdo, ruin, lose ; 
reddo, give back, render ; trado, deliver ; vendo, sell. But abscondo 
appears in the perfect more frequently without the reduplication, a&- 
scondi, than with it, abscondidi. Instead of the passive, veneo is used 
(see § 215.), except the participles venditus and vendendus. 

[§ 188.] b) Making di in the Perfect, and sum in the 

Accendo, incendo, succendo, -cendi, -censum, light, kindle. 

Cudo, forge. 

Defendo, defend, ward off. 

Edo, eat. See § 212. 

Exedo and comedo, -edi, -esum, (but also comestus,) consume. Ibid. 

Mando (perfect very rare), chew. 

Offendo, offend. 

Prehendo, seize ; frequently contracted into prendo. 

Apprehendo, comprehendo, lay hold of, (figurative) understand ; depre- 
hendo, detect, seize in the fact; reprehendo, blame. 

Scando, climb. 

Ascendo and escendo, climb up ; descendo, descend ; conscendo and 
inscendo, mount, embark. 

Strldo (also strideo), stridi (no supine), grate, make a harsh 

Fundo, fudi, fusum, pour. 

Diffundo, pour out, spread abroad ; offundo, pour over ; prof undo, 
waste; afflundo, confundo, effundo, infundo. 

[§ 189 *] c ) Other Irregularities, especially that of a double 
s in the Supine. 

Cedo, cessi, cessum, yield, go. 

Abscedo, go away; accedo, go to ; antecedo, surpass; concedo, give way; 
decedo, go away ; discedo, separate myself; excedo, go out ; incedo, 
march; inter cedo, come between, interpose; recedo, retreat; succedo, 
come into one's place. 

Findo, fidi, fissum, split. 

Diffindo, diffldi, split asunder. 


Scindo, scidi, scissum, cut. 

Conscindo, conscidi, conscissum, tear to pieces ; e. g vestem, epistolam; 
discindo, interscindo (e. g. pontem), perscindo, and proscindo have similar 
meanings. Bescindo, annul. Respecting the forms of abscindo, cut 
off*, and exscindo, destroy, there is considerable doubt ; but the forms 
abscissum and exscissum do not exist at all, because in pronunciation, 
they are the same as abscisum and excisum, from abscidere and excidere ; 
and the perfect exscidi also is not founded on any authority, since the s 
by which it is distinguished is not heard in pronunciation, and is better 
not introduced in writing. ^ 

Frendo (frendi), fressum and fresum, gnash with the teeth ; 
also frendeoy frendere. 

Meto, messuij messum, cut, reap. 

Mitto, misi, missum, send. 

Admitto, admit, commit ; amitto, lose ; committo, intrust commit a 
fault ; demitto and dimitto, dismiss ; emitto, send forth ; imviitto, send 
in, against ; intermitto, omit ; omitto and praetermitto, leave out ; 
permitto, permit ; promitto, promise ; remitto, send back ; submitto, send 
up, send aid. 

Pando, pandi, passum (pansum rare), spread abroad. 

Expando has expansum and expassum ; dispando only dispansum, 

Peto, petivi, (in poetry petii), petitum, ask, seek. 

Appeto and expeto, strive for ; oppeto, encounter ; repeto, repeat, seek 

Sldo (the perfect and supine usually from sedeo), sit down. 

The compounds, too, usually take the perfect and supine from sedeo : 
consldo, consedi, consessum ; so assido, seat myself beside; subsido, sink; 
insido, sit upon ; desido and resido, seat myself down. 

Sisto, stiti, statum, stop (whence status^), but sisto, in a 
neutral sense, makes the perfect and supine from stare. 

The compounds are all intransitive, and have stiti, stltum ; subsisto 9 
substiti, substitum, stand still ; absisto (no supine) and desisto, desist ; 
assisto, place myself beside ; consisto, halt, consist ; existo, come forth 
(perf. exist) ; insisto. tread upon ; obsisto and resisto, resist ; persisto, 

Sterto, stertui, (no supine,) snore. 
Verto, verti, versum, turn. 

Adverto and converto, turn towards ; animadverto (animum adverto), 

Pturn attention to ; averto, turn from ; everto, destroy ; perverto and 
subverto, overturn. 

Deverto, turn in to a house of entertainment ; praeverto, anticipate ; 
and reverto, turn back ; are used in the present, imperfect, and future 
as deponents more commonly than as actives. 

Fido, fisus sum, Jidere, trust. 

So confldo, confide ; diffldo, distrust. 



[§ 190.] 3. VERBS IN BO AND PO. 

Regular are : 

Glubo (glupsi), gluptum (at least degluptum), glubere, peel. 

JVubo, cover, am married (applied only to the female), par- 
ticiple nupta, one who is married. 

Scribo, write. 

Descrlbo, copy ; ascribo, inscribo, perscribo, praescribo. 

Carpo, pluck. 

Concerpo, and discerpo, tear asunder ; decerpo, gather, 

JRepo, creep. 

Arrepo, creep up to ; irrepo, obrepo, subrepo, prorepo. 

Scalpo. grave with a pointed tool, or scratch with the finger. 
Sculpo, work with the chisel. 

Exculpo, cut out ; insculpo, engrave. 
SerpOy creep : inserpo, proserpo. 

[§ 191.] The following are irregular: 

The compounds of cubare, to lie, which take an m with a 
change of meaning. 

Accumbo, -cubui, -cubitum, recline at table ; incumbo, lean upon, apply 
to something; procumbo, lie down; succumbo, fall under; occumbo 
(suppl. mortem), die. 

Bibo, bibi> bibttum, drink. 

Ebibo, imblbo. 

Lamboy Iambi, (lambitum,) lambere, lick. 

JRumpo, rupiy rupturriy break, tear. 

Abrumpo, break off ; erumpo, break out ; corrumpo, destroy ; inter- 
rumpo, interrupt ; irrumpo, break in ; perrumpo, break through ; pro- 
rumpo, break forth. 

Scaboy scabi, scabere, scratch with the finger. 
StrepOy strepuiy strepituniy make a noise. 




Regular are : 
Cingo, ci?ixi, cinctum, cingere, gird, surround. 

Accingor, the passive (or accingo me), has the same meaning ; discingo, 
ungird ; and others. 

From fligO) which rarely occurs, are formed : 

Affllgo, strike to the ground ; covfllgo, fight ; infligo, strike upon. 
Profligo belongs to the first conjugation. 

Frigo (supine regular, frictum, rarely frixum), roast, parch, 
Jungo, join. 

Adjungo and conjungo, join to, with ; disjungo and sejungo, separate ; 
subjungo, annex. 

Lingo, lick. (Hence ligurio or ligurrio.) 
Mungo, blow the nose (rare) ; emungo. 
Plango, beat, lament. 
Mego, rule, guide. 

Arrigo, arrexi, arrectum, and erigo, raise on high ; corrigo, amend ; 
dirigo, direct ; porrigo, stretch out. Per go (for perrigo), perrexi, per~ 
rectum, go on ; surgo (for surrigo), surrexi, surrectum, rise ; and hence 
assurgOf consurgo, exurgo, insurgo. 

Sugo, suck, exugo. 

Tego, cover. 

Contego and obtego, cover up ; detego and retego, uncover ; protego, 

Tingo, or tinguo, dip, dye. 

Ungo or unguo, anoint. 

Perungo, strengthens the meaning ; inungo* anoint. 

Stinguo , put out (has no perfect or supine, and is of rare 

Compounds : extinguo, and restinguo, -ijixi, -inctum ; so also 



Traho, draw. 

Pertraho, strengthens the meaning : attraho, contraho, detrako, ex- 
traho, protraho, retraho ; subtraho, withdraw secretly. 

Veho, carry (active) ; frequent, vecto, -as. 

Adveho, carry to ; inveho, carry or bring in. The passive of this 
verb vehor, vectus sum, vehi, is best rendered by a neuter verb of 
motion. So circumvehor, travel round; praetervehor, sail past ; invehor, 
inveigh against. These verbs therefore are classed among the 

Dico, say. 

Addico, adjudge ; contradico, edico, indico ; interdico, praedico. 

Duco, guide, lead, draw. 

Abduco, adduco, circumduco ; conduco, hire : deduco, diduco, educo, 
induco, introduco, obduco, perduco, produco, r educo ; seduco, lead aside ; 
subduco, traduco. 

Coquo, coxiy coctum, dress ; concoquo, digest. 

[§ 193.] Irregular in the Supine, throwing out n, or 
assuming x. 

Fingo, Jinxi, jfictum, feign. 

Conjingo, the same ; affingo, falsely ascribe ; effingo, imitate ; refingo, 
fashion anew. 

Mingo (a more common form of the present is meio), minxi, 
mictum, make water. 

Pingo, pinxi, pictum, paint. 

Depingo, represent by painting ; appingo, expingo. 

Stringo, strinxi, strictum, squeeze together. 

Astringo, draw close ; constringo, draw together ; destringo, draw 
out ; distringo, draw asunder ; obstringo, bind by obligation. 

Figo, Jixi, jftxum, fasten. 

Afflgo, affix ; transfigo, pierce through. 

Verbs in cto, in which t only strengthens the form of. the 

Flecto, flexi, flexum, bend. Comp. inflecto. 
NectOy nexi and nexui, nexum, bind. 


Pecto, pexi, pexum, comb. 

Plecto, without perfect and supine, usually only in the pas- 
sive, plector, am punished, smart for. Another plecto. 
twist, is obsolete as an active, but forms the foundation 
of the deponents: amplector, complector ; participle 
amplexus, complexus. 

Of ango, anxi, torment ; and ningo, ninxi, snow, no supine 
is found. 

Of clango, ring loudly, neither perfect nor supine exists; 
according to analogy the former would be clanxL 

[§ 194.] The following are irregular in the formation of 
the Perfect. 

a) Taking a Reduplication, 
Parco, peperci, parsum, spare ; parsi is rare ; parcitum is 
uncertain ; but we have the compound comparsi, or com- 

Pungo, pupugi, punctum, pierce. 

The compounds have in the perfect punxi ; as compungo, dispungo, 
and interpungo, distinguish with points. 

Tango, tetigi, factum, touch. 

Atdngo and contingo, -tigi, -tactum, touch ; contingit, contigit ; obtingit, 
obhgit (as impersonate), it falls to the lot ; usually in a good sense. 

Pango, in the sense of strike, drive in, panxi, panctum ; in 
the sense of bargain, pepigi, pactum. In this sense 
paciscor is employed in the present. 

The compounds have pegi, pactum ; as compingo, fasten together ; 

[§ 195.] b) Without changing the Characteristic Letter. 
Ago, egi, actum, agere, drive. 

Cogo (coago), coegi, coactum, drive together, force; perago, carry 
through; abigo, drive away; adigo, exigo, redigo, subigo, transigo. 

Dego, degi (rare), no supine, spend (vitam, aetatem). 
Frango; fregi, fractum, break. 

Confringo and perfringo strengthen the meaning ; effringo andrefringo, 

g 2 


Lego, legi, ledum, read. (But lego, as, send off.) 

So perlego, praelego, with those changing e into i, as cottigo, deligo, 
eligo, and seligo, are conjugated. But diligo, intelligo (obsolete intellego'), 
and negligo (obsolete neglegd), have -exi in the perfect. 

Jco, or icio, lei, ictum, strike, in connection Ytitiifoedus. 
Vinco, vlci, victum, conquer. 

Convinco, persuade ; devinco, overcome; evinco, carry a point. 

Linquo, liqui, leave (no supine), chiefly used in poetry. 

The compounds relinquo, derelinquo, delinquo, have lictum in the 

[§ 196# ] c ) Perfect si, Supine sum. 

Mergo, mersi, mersum, dip. 

Emergo, demergo, immergo, submergo. 

Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, scatter. 

Aspergo, conspergo, and respergo, besprinkle ; expergo, sprinkle abroad. 

Tergo, tersi, tersum, wipe; sometimes follows the second 
conjugation. (See above, § 177.) 

So also the compounds detergere, extergere. 

Vergo, vergere, incline towards, without perfect and supine. 


[§ 197.] 5. VERBS WHICH HAVE L, M, N, R, BEFORE 0. 

Eegular verbs in mo. 

Como, compsi, comptum, comere, adorn. 

Demo, take away. 

Promo, bring out. Depromo, expromo, the same in signifi- 

Sumo, take, 

Absumo and consumo, consume ; assumo, desumo. 

Temno, temnere, despise (poetical). 

Contemno, contempsi, contemptum, the same meaning. 



[§ 198.] a) Conjugated according to the Analogy of the 
Second Conjugation. 

Alo, alui, alitum (or altum), alere, nourish. 

Colo, coluiy cultum, till. 

Excolo and percoh strengthen the meaning ; incolo, inhabit a country. 

Consiilo, consului, consultum, ask advice. 

Molo, molui, molitum, grind. 

Occulo, occului y occultum, conceal. 

Fremo, fremui, fremitum, murmur. Adfremo, confremo. 

Gemo, gemui, gemitum, groan. 

Congemo (congemisco), ingemo (jngemisco), ui t no supine, lament. 

Tremo, tremui (no supine), tremble. Contremo strengthens 
the meaning. 

Vomo, vomui } vomitum, vomit. Fvomo, revomo. 

Gigno, beget (from the obsolete geno), genui, genitum. 

Ingigno, implant ; progigno, bring forth. 

Pono, posui, positum, place. 

Antepono, prefer; appono, place by; compono, arrange; depono, lay 
down; dispono, set out, or in order; expono, explain; oppono, oppose; 
postpono, to place after ; praepono, prefer ; sepono, set on one side. Re- 
specting the short o in the perfect and supine see § 18. 3. 

(From the obsolete cello) — 

Antecello, excello, praecello, ui, (without supine,) surpass ; but per cello, 
perculi, perculsum, strike down. 

[§ 199.] b) Forming the Perfect with Reduplication. 

Cano, cecini, cantum, ca?iere, sing. 

Succino, succinuiy succentum, sing to ; so occino> sing, sound against ; 
concino, harmonize. 

Curro, cucurri, cursum, run. 

The compounds, accurro, decurro, excurrro, incvrro, percurro, praecurro, 
and others, sometimes retain, but more frequently drop the reduplica- 
tion in the perfect. 

g 3 


Fallo, fefelli, falsum, cheat. 
Pello, pepuli, pulsum, drive away. 

Appello, appuli, appulsum, come to land. In the same way are con- 
jugated cornpello, urge, compel ; depello, propello, repello, drive away ; ex- 
pello, drive out ; impello and perpello, urge on. 

[§ 200.] c) Making vi in the Perfect 

Cerno, crevi, cretum, separate. In the sense of seeing, per- 
ceiving, it has neither perfect nor supine. 

Compounds : Decerno, decrevi, decretum, decree ; so discerno, excerno, 
secerno, separate, distinguish. 

Lino, levi (or livi), Utum, smear. Linio belongs to the fourth 

Collino, illino, perlino, dblino (participle oblitus, not to be confounded 
with oblitus from obliiriscory* perlino, besmear. 

Sino, sivi, situm, allow. 

DesmOf desivi, and desii, desitum, cease. 
Sperno, sprevi, spretum, despise. 
Sterno, stravi, stratum, stretch out on the ground. 

Consterno, insterno, spread out ; prosterno, throw down. 

Sero, in the sense of sowing, has sevi, satum ; in that of ar- 
ranging and connecting together it has serui, sertum. 

The compounds consero and insero make -ui ~ertum, in the sense of 
joining ; -evi, -itum, in the sense of sowing. The following compounds 
are used only in the sense of joining : — Desero, dissero, exsero, and ac- 
cordingly make only serui, sertum. 

Tero, trlvi, tritum, rub. 

Contero, rub to pieces ; attero, rub away, injure. 

[§ 201.] d) Other Irregularities. 
Velio, velli, and vulsi (but more rarely), vulsum, pluck out. 

The compounds convello, revello, and divello, have only velli in the 
perfect, but avello and evello have also avulsi and evulsi. 

Psallo, psalli, psallere, play on a stringed instrument. 

Emo, emi, empturn, buy. 

Coemo, collect by purchase ; redimo % purchase back. The significa- 
tion " take" appears in the compounds adimo, take away; dirimo, divide ; 
eximo, take out; inter imo, take away, kill; perimo, destroy. 


Premo, pressi, pressum, press. 

Comprimo, press together ; deprimo, opprimo, supprimo, press down ; 
exprimo, press out. 

Gero, gessi, gestum, carry, transact. 

Congero, bring together ; digero, arrange ; ingero, introduce. 

Uro, ussi, ustum, burn. 

Aduro, kindle ; comburo, consume by fire ; inuro, burn in, brand ; 
exuro, burn out. 

Verro, verri, versum, sweep out. 

Quaero, quaesivi, quaesltum, seek. 

Acquiro, acquire ; conquiro, collect ; anquiro, exquiro, inquire, per- 
quiroy examine ; requiro, miss, require. 

(Furo), fur ere, rage (without perfect or supine) ; insanivi, is 
used as a perfect instead. 

Fero, tuli, latum, ferre, is irregular in several points. See 
below, § 213. 


[§ 202.] 6. VERBS IN SO AND XO. 

JDepso, depsui, depsitum and depstum, knead. 

Pinso, pinsui and pinsi, pinsitum and pistum, pound, grind. 

Viso, visi, visere, visit. The supine visum belongs to videre, 
from which visere itself is derived. 

Texo, texui, textum, weave. 

Compounds frequently with a figurative signification : attexo, add ; 
contexo, put together ; obtexo, cover ; pertexo, carry out ; praetexo, add 
a hem ; retexo, to undo that which is woven, destroy. 

After the Analogy of the Fourth Conjugation 

Arcesso, or accerso, -ivi, -itum, summon. 
Capesso, undertake. 

G 4 


Facesso, give trouble. 
Incesso, attack ; no supine. 
Lacesso, provoke. 

[§ 203.] 7. Verbs in sco, either not Inchoatives, or of which 
the Simple is not found. 

Cresco, crevi, cretum, grow. 

So also con-, de-, excresco, and without a supine : accresco f increscoj 
grow up, and succresco, grow up gradually. 

Nosco, novi, notum^ become acquainted with. The original 
form is gnosco, and the g reappears in the compounds, if 

The perfect novi takes the signification of the present, " I know " 
(§ 221.). The comp. agnosco, recognise, cognosco (perf. cognovi, I 
know), and recognosco, recognise, have in the supine agnitum, cognitum, 

Pasco, pavi, pastum, feed. 

Depasco, feed down. 

Quiesco, quievi, quietum, rest. 

Acquiesco, repose with satisfaction ; conquiesco, requiesco, rest. 

Suesco, suevi, suetum, mostly intransitive, grow accustomed, 
or, more rarely, accustom another. 

So also assuesco, consuesco, insuesco, generally accustom one's self; 
desuesco, disaccustom one's self. 

Compesco, compescui, (no supine,) restrain. 

Dispesco, dispescui, (no supine,) divide. 

Disco, didici, (no supine ; disciturus in Appuleius,) learn. 

Addisco, addidici, learn in addition ; dedisco, unlearn ; edisco, learn 
by heart. 

Posco, poposci, (no supine,) demand. 

Deposco, depoposci, and reposco, demand back ; exposco, expoposci, 

Glisco, gliscere, increase. 

Hisco, hiscere, open the mouth, gape. 




[§ 204.] The inchoatives in sco are partly formed from 
verbs (chiefly of the second conjugation), and partly from 
nouns (substantives or adjectives), and are accordingly called 
inchoativa verbalia or inchoativa nominalia, that is, verbal 
or nominal inchoatives. The first have no other perfect 
than that of the simple verb ; the others either have none, 
or form it in a similar way in uL Few of the verbal incho- 
atives have the supine of the simple verb. 

1. Verbal Inchoatives with the Perfect of the Simple Verb. 

Acesco (aceo), acui, grow sour ; coacesco, peracesco. 

Albesco, and exalbesco (albeo), exalbui, grow white. 

Aresco (<z?*eo), arui, grow dry. 

Calesco (caleo), calui, become warm. 

Canesco (caweo), canui, become grey. 

Conticesco (taceo), conticui, am reduced to silence. 

Contremisco (tremo), contremui, tremble. 

Defervesco (ferveo), deferbui, gradually lose my heat. 

.Delitesco (lateo), delitui, lurk. 

Effervesco (ferveo), efferbui, grow hot. 

Excandesco (candeo), excandui, grow of a white heat; figuratively, am 

ExtlmescOy pertimesco (timeo), extimui, am terrified. 
Fioresco, de-, effloresco {floreo), effiorui, bloom. 
Haeresco, and ad-, inhaeresco (kaereo), ad-, inhaesi, adhere to. 
Horresco, exhorresco, perhorresco (horreo}, exhorrui, am struck, with horror. 
Ingemisco (gernd), ingemui, groan. 
Intumesco (iumeo), intumui, swell up. 
Irraucisco (raucio), irrausi, become hoarse. 

Languesco, elanguesco, relanauesco (langueo), elangui, become feeble. 
JLiquesco (liqueo), licui, melt away. 
Madesco {inadeo), madui, become wet. 

Marcesco {marceo), comp. commarcesco, emarcesco, emareui, fade. 
Occallesco (calleo\ occalui, acquire a callous surface. 
Pallesco, expallesco (palleo), pallid, turn pale. 
Putresco (putreo), putrui, moulder. 
JResipisco (sapio), resipui and resipivi, recover wisdom. 
Rubesco, erube&co (rubeo), grow red, blush. 
Senesco, consenesco (seneo), consenui, grow old. The participle senectus, 

grown old, is little used. 
Stupesco and obstupesco (stv.peo), obstvpui. am struck. 


Tabesco (tabeo), tabui, pine, waste away. 

Tepesco (tepeo), tepui, grow lukewarm. 

Viresco, comp. conviresco, eviresco, reviresco (vireo), virui, grow green. 

2. Verbal Inchoatives ivhich have the Supine as ivell as 
Perfect of the Simple Verb. 

{Abolesco, abolevi, aboUtum, cease, am annihilated. 
Exolesco, exolevi, exoletum, grow useless by age. So also obsolesco. 
Adolesco, adolevi, adultum, grow up. See § 174. Oleo. 
Ccalesco (alere), coalui, coalitum, grow together. 
Concupisco (cupere), concupivi, concupitum, desire. 
Convalesco (valere), convalui, convaMum, recover health. 
Exardesco (ardere), exarsi, exarsum, am inflamed. 
Indolesco (dolere), indolui, itum, feel pain. 
Inveterasco (inveterare), inveteravi, atum, grow old. 
Obdormisco (dormire), ivi, itum, fall asleep ; edormisco, sleep out. 
Revivisco (vivere), revixi, revictum, recover life. 

Scisco (scire), scivi, scltum, resolve, decree. Hence plebiscitum, populi- 

[§ 205.] 3. Inchoatives derived from Nouns. 

a) Without a Perfect, y 

Aegresco (aeger), grow sick. 

Ditesco (dives), grow rich. 

Dulcesco (dulcis), grow sweet. 

Grandesco (grandis), grow large. 

Gravesco and ingravesco (gravis), grow heavy. 

Incur vesco (curvus), become crooked. 

Integrasco (integer), become renovated. 

Juvenesco (juvenis), grow young. 

Mitesco (mitis), grow mild. 

Mollesco (mollis), grow soft. 

Pinguesco (pinguis), grow fat. V 

Plumesco (pluma), get feathers. 

Puerasco, repuerasco (puer), become a child (again). 

Sterilesco (sterilis), become barren. 

Teneresco, tenerasco (tener), become tender. 

b) With a Perfect. 

Crebresco, increbresco, and percrebresco (creber), crebui, grow frequent or 

Duresco, obduresco (durus), durui, grow hard. 
Evanesco (vanus), evanui, disappear. 
Innotesco (notus), innotui, become known. 
Macresco (macer)j macrui, grow lean. 


Mansuesco (mansuetus), mansuevi, grow tame. 

Maturesco (maturus), maturui, grow ripe. 

Nigresco (niger), nigrui, grow black. 

Obmutesco (rnutus), obmutui, become dumb. 

Obsurdesco (surdus), obsurdui, become deaf. 

Mecrudesco (crudus), recrudui, to open again (of a wound that had been 

Vilesco and evilesco (vilis), evilui, become cheap or worthless. 



[§ 208.] The desiderative verbs in urio, e. g. coenaturio, 
dormitario, empturio, have neither perfect nor supine with 
the exception of esurio, desire to eat. 

The following verbs differ, either in the perfect or in the 
supine, or in both, from the regular form (ivi, itum). 

Cio, civi, citum, regular; but see § 180. 

Eo, ivi, itum, with its compounds. See Defective Verbs, 

Far cio, far si, fartum, farcire, stuff. 

Confer cio and refercio, fersi, fertum, fill up; effercio, infer cio are con- 
jugated like the simple verb. 

Fulcio, falsi, fultum, fidcire, prop. 

Haurio, hausi, haustum (the part. fut. however, is also hau- 
sums), haurire, draw. 

Queo, quivi or quii, quitum, quire. See § 216. 

Raucio, rausi, rausum, raucire, am hoarse (raucus). 

Saepio, saepsi, saeptum, saepire, hedge in. 

Sdlio, salui, saltum, salire, spring. 

The regular verb salire, salt, must not be confounded with salire, 
spring. The compounds desilio, exilio, insilio, make the perfect in 
silui ; the supine does not occur, but it might be formed by the termi- 
nation sultum. 

Sancio, sanxi, sancitum and sanctum, sancire, decree, sanc- 

G 6 


Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, sarcire, patch. 
Sentio, sensi, sensum, sentire, feel, think. 

Consentio, agree ; dissentio, disagree ; praesentio, perceive beforehand. 
The compound assentio is not as common as the deponent assentior. 

Sepelio, -ivi, seputtum, sepelire, bury. 

Venio, veni, ventum, venire, come. 

Advenio, arrive ; convenio, meet ; obvenio, encounter ; pervenio, reach ; 
invenio, find. 

Vi?icio, vinxi, vinctum, vincire, bind. 
Amicio, amictum, amicire, clothe. 
Aperio, ui, rtum, aperire, open. 

So cperio and cooperio, cover. But comperio makes comperi, comper- 
to, comperire (is used in the present and infinitive, also as a deponent, 
comperior, comperiri), experience* and reperio, reperi (or repperi), reper- 
tum, find. 

Ferio — ferire, strike. (In the active percussi is used as a 
perfect, and in the passive ictus sum.) 

Ferocio — ferocire, am wild or insolent. 



Adminicular, aid. Alucinor (also alluc. and haUuc), 
Adversor, oppose myself. dote, talk idly. 

Adulor, flatter. Amplexor, embrace. 

Aemulor, rival. Ancillor, am a handmaid. 

* Alter cor, quarrel. Apricor, sun myself. 

* The words to which an asterisk is prefixed are used also as actives, 
but better as deponents. Some deponents have been omitted in the list, 
which are either of very rare occurrence or more commonly used as ac- 
tives. Respecting the latter see the note at the end. 



Aqnor, fetch water ; frumentor, col- 
lect corn ; lignor, collect wood ; 
materior, fell timber; pabulor, 

Arbitror, think. 

Architector, build (arckitectus). 

Argumentor, prove. 

Argutor, chatter, am argutus. 

Aspernor, despise. 

Assentor, agree, flatter. 

Auctionor, sell at auction. 

Auciipor, catch birds, am anceps. 

Aversor, dislike, avoid with horror. 

Auguror {augur), 

* Auspicor (auspex), I practise 
Hariolor (hariolus), [ soothsaying. 
Vaticinor (vates), J 

Auxilior, aid. 

Bacchor, revel as a Bacchanal. 

Calumnior, cavil. 

Cavillor, ridicule. 

Cauponor, deal, retail. 

Causor, allege. 

Circular, form a circle around me. 

Comissor, feast. 

Comitor, accompany (comes, active 

only in the poets). 
Commentor, reflect upon, dispute. 
Concionor, harangue. 

* Conflictor, contend. 
Conor, attempt. 
Consilior, advise. 
Conspicor, behold. 
Contemplor, contemplate. 
Convicior, revile. 
Convivor, feast (conviva). 
Cornlcor, chatter as a crow. 
Criminor, accuse. 
Cunctor, delay. 
Depeculor, plunder. 

De.spicor, despise ; despicio, but de- 
spicatus is passive, despised. 

Deversor, lodge. 

Digladior, fight. 

Dignor, think worthy. Cicero how- 
ever sometimes uses it in a passive 
sense, "I am thought worthy." 

Dedignor, disdain. 

Dominor, rule (dominus). 

Elucubror, produce by dint of labour. 

Epidor, feast. 

Execror, execrate. 
*Fabricor, fashion. 
Fabulor, confabulor, talk. 
Famulor, serve (famulus). 
Feneror, lend at interest (the active, 

"to restore with interest," occurs 

in Terence ; in later writers it is 

the same as the deponent). 
Ferior, keep holiday. 
Frustror, disappoint. 
Furor, suffuror, steal. 
Glorior, boast. 
Graecor, live in the Greek style, 

that is, luxuriously. 
Grassor, advance, attack. 
Gratificor, comply with. 
Grator and gratulor, give thanks, 

present congratulations. 
( Gravor, think heavy, is the passive 

of gravo. ) 
Helluor, gluttonise (helluo). 
Hortor, exhort ; adhortor, exhortor^ 

Hospitor, am a guest (kospes), lodge. 
Imaginor, imagine. 
Imitor, imitate. 

Indignor, am indignant, spurn. 
IvfitiGr, deny. 
Insidior, plot. 

Interpretor, explain, am an interpres. 
Jaculor, throw, dart. 
Jocor, jest. 

Laetor, rejoice (laetus). 
Lamentor, lament. 
Latrocinor, rob, am a latro. 
Lenocinor (alicui), flatter. 
Libidinor, am voluptuous. 
Licitor, bid at an auction. 
Lucror, gain. 
Luctor, strive, wrestle (obluctor and 

reluctor, resist). 

* Ludificor, ridicule. 
Machinor, devise. 
Medicor, heal. 
Meditor, meditate. 
Mercor, buy. 

* Meridior, repose at noon. 
Metor, measure out. 
Minor and minitor, threaten. 
Miror, wonder ; demiror, the same ; 

admiror, admire. 



Miser or, commiseror, pity. 

Moderor, restrain, temper. 

Modulor, modulate. 

Morigeror, comply, am morigerus. 

Moror, delay ; trans, and intrans. * r 
comp. commoror. 

*Muneror, remuneror, aliquem ali- 
qua re, reward. 

Mutuor, borrow. 

Negotior, carry on business. 

Nidulor, build a nest. 

Nugor, trifle. 

Nundinor, deal in buying and selling. 

Nutricof, nourish. 

Odoror, smell out. 

Ominor, prophesy ; abominor, abo- 

Operor, bestow labour on. 

Oplnor, think. 

Opitulor, lend help. 

* Oscitor, yawn. 

Osculor, kiss. 

Otior, have leisure. 

*Palpor, stroke, flatter. 

Parasltor, act the parasite (parasi' 

Patrocinor, patronize. 

Percontor, inquire. 

Peregrlnor, dwell as a stranger. 

Periclitor, try, in later writers, am 
in danger. 

Philosophor, philosophize. 

*Pigneror, take a pledge, bind by a 

Pigror, am idle (piger), 

Piscor, fish. 

*Populor, lay waste. 

Praedor, plunder. 

Praestolor, wait for, with the dat. 
or accus. (the quantity of the o 
is uncertain, though probably 

Praevaricor, walk with crooked legs, 
act dishonestly, as a praevaricator, 
that is, as a false accuser. 

Precor, pray ; comprecor, invoke ; 
deprecor, deprecate ; imprecor, im- 

Proelior, fight a battle. 

Ratiocinor, reason. 

Recordor, remember. 

Refrdgor, oppose. 

Rimor, examine minutely. 

Rixor, wrangle. 

Rusticor, live in the country. 

Scitor, and sciscitor, inquire. 

Scrutor, perscrUtor, search. 

Sector, the frequentative of sequor, 
follow ; assector, consector, inseetor, 

Sermocinor, hold discourse. 

Solor, consolor, comfort. 

Spatior, expatior, walk. 

Speculor, keep a look out. 

Stipulor, make a bargain ; adstipit- 
lor, agree. 

Stomdchor, am indignant. 

Suavior, kiss. 

Suffragor (the contrary of refragor), 
assent to. 

Suspicor, suspect. 

Tergiversor, shuffle. 

Testor and testificor, bear witness. 

Tricor, make unreasonable difficul- 
ties (tricas). 

Tristor, am sad. 

Trutinor, weigh. 

Tumidtuor, make uproar. 

Tutor, defend. 

Vador, summon to trial. 

Vdgor and pdlor, wander. 

Velificor, steer towards (figuratively, 
gain a purpose), whence it is con- 
strued with the dat., as honori 

Velitor, skirmish with light troops. 

Veneror, venerate. 

Venor, hunt. 

Verecundor, feel shame at doing. 

Versor (properly, the passive of 
verso), dwell, am occupied in; 
aversor, detest ; obversor, float 

Vociferor, vociferate. 

Urlnor, dip under water (to void 
urine is urinam facere or reddtre). 




Fateor, fassus sum,fateri, acknowledge. 

Confiteor, confessus sum, the same, but usually, confess a crime ; pro- 
fiteoi, profess. 

Liceor, licitus sum, with the accus., bid at an auction. 
Polliceor, promise. 

Medeor, without a participle, for which medicatus, from me- 
dicari, is commonly used. 

* Mereor, meritus sum (merui is more common), deserve. 
Commereor, demereor, promereor, have the same meaning. 

Misereor, miseritus or misertus sum, pity. 

Eeor, ratus sum, reri, think. 

Tueor, tuitus sum, look upon, fig. defend. 

Contueor, intueor, look upon. 

Vereor, veritus sum, fear. 

Revereor* reverence ; subvereor, slightly fear. 



From the obsolete apiscor, aptus sum, apisci, are derived : 

Adipiscor, adeptus sum, and indipiscor, obtain. 

Expergiseor, experrectus sum, expergisci, awake. 

Fruor, fruitus and fructus sum, frui, enj oy. (Particip. frui* 

Perfruor, perfructus sum, strengthens the meaning. 

Fungor, functus sum, fungi, perform, discharge. 

Defungor, perfungor, completely discharge, finish, 


Gradior, gressus sum, grddi, proceed. 

Aggredior, aggressus sum, aggredi, assail ; congredior. meet ; digredior, 
depart ; egredior, go out of; ingredior, enter on ; progredior, advance ; 
regredior, return. 

Irascor, irasci, properly an inchoative, grow angry ; iratus 
sum means only, I am angry. I have been or was angry 
may be expressed by succensui. 

Labor, lapsus sum, labi, fall. 

Collabor, sink together ; dilcibor, fall in pieces ; prolabor, fall down ; 
delabor, relabor. 

Loquor, locutus sum, loqui, speak. 

Alloquor, address ; colloquor, speak with ; eloquor, interloquor ; oblo- 
quor, speak against, revile. 

(From the obsolete miniscor,) 

Comminiscor, commentus sum, comminisci, devise, imagine; reminiscor, 
reminisci, has no perfect ; recordatus sum is used instead of it. 

Morior, mortuus sum, (partic. fut., moriturus,) mori, die. 

Emorior, commorior, demorior. 

Nauciscor, nactus sum, nancisci, obtain. 
Nascor, natus sum, nasci, am born. 

Innascor, renascor. 

Nitor, nisus or nixus sum, niti, lean upon, strive. 

Adnltor, strive for ; comiitor and enitor, exert myself ; obnitor, strive 

Obliviscor, oblltus sum, oblivisci, forget. 

Paciscor, partus sum (or pepigi), make a bargain. 

Pascor, pastus sum, feed ; intransitive. Properly the passive 
of pasco, pavi, pastum, give food. See above, Chap. LI. 

Patior, passus sum, pdti, suffer. 

Perpetior, perpessus sum, perpeti, endure. 

(From plecto, twine,) 

Amplecior and complector, complexus sum, embrace. 
Prqficiscor, profectus sum, proficisci, travel. 
Queror, quesius sum, queri, complain. Conqueror, lament. 
Ringor, ringi, grin, show the teeth, whence rictus. 


Sequor, secutus sum, sequi, follow. 

Assequor and consequor, overtake, attain ; exequor, execute ; insequor, 
follow; obsequor, comply with ; persequor, pursue; prosequor, attend; 
subsequor, follow close after. 

Vehor, vectus sum, vehi, ride, is properly the passive of 
veho, see § 192. Comp. circumvehor, invehor, praeter- 

Vescor, vesci, eat. Edi is used as the perfect. 

Ulciscor, ultus sum, ulcisci, revenge, punish. 

Utor, usus sum, uti, use. Abutor, abuse. 

Devertor, praevertor, and revertor, see under verto. They 
take their perfects from the active form : reverti, reverte- 
ram, revertissem; the participle reversus, however, is used 
in an active sense, one who has returned. 



Assentior, assensus sum, assentiri, assent. (As an active, as- 
sentio, asse?isi, assensum, assentire, it is not so common). 

Blandior, blanditus sum, blandiri, flatter. 

Experior, expertus sum, experiri, experience, try. 

Comjierior, am informed, is used only in the present tense, along with 
comperio ; the perfect therefore is comperi. 

Largior, largitus sum, largiri, give money ; dilargior, dis- 
tribute money. 

Mentior, mentitus sum, mentiri, lie ; ementior, the same. 

Metior. mensus sum^ metiri, measure. 

Dimetior, measure out ; permetior. 

31olior, molitus sum, moliri, move a mass {moles), plan. 

Amolior, remove from the way ; demolior, demolish, and others. 

Opperior, oppertus sum, (also opperitus sum,) opperiri, 
wait for. 


Ordior, orsus sum, ordiri, begin. 
Ex ordior, the same. 

Orior, ortus sum, oriri, (partic. oriturus,) rise. The 
present indieat. follows the third conjugation : oreris, 
oritur, orimur. In the imperf. subjunct. both forms orerer 
and orirer are found. 

So also the compounds co-orior and exorior ; but adorior, under- 
take,, entirely follows the fourth conjugation, adoriris, adorltur. 

Partior, partitus sum, partiri, divide (rarely active). 

Potior, potitus sum, potiri, possess myself of. 

Sortior, sortitus sum, sortiri, cast lots. 



[§ 211.] The term Irregular Verbs is here applied to those 
which depart from the rule not only in the formation of 
their perfect and supine, but have something anomalous in 
their conjugation itself. They are, besides sum (treated of 
before, § 156.), possum, edo, fero, volo, nolo, malo, eo, 
queo, nequeo, fio* 

1. Possum, I am able. 

Possum is composed of potis and sum ; by dropping the 
termination of potis, we obtain potsum, possum. It there- 
fore follows the conjugation of sum in its terminations, but 
the consonants t, s, and f, produce some changes, when they 
come together. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Possum, potes, potest. possim, possis, possit 

possumus, potestis, j^ossunt. posslmus, possltis, possint. 


poteram, poteras, poterat. possem, posses, posset, 

poteramus, -eratis, -erant. possemus, possetis, possent. 



potero, poieris, poterit. 
poterimus, -eritis, -erunt. 

potui, potuisti,potuit. potuerim, -eris, -erit. 

potuimus, -istis, -erunt. potuerlmus, -His, -int. 


potueram, -eras, -erat. 
potueramus, -eratis, -erant 


potuissem, -isses, -isset. 
potuissemus, -issetis, -issent, 

Future Perfect. 
potuero, potueris, potuerit. 
potuerlmus, potuerltis, potuerint. 

(No Imperative.) 


Pres. & Imp. posse. 
Perf. & Plup. potuisse. 

(Potens has become an adjective.) 

2. Edo, I eat. 

[§ 212.] The verb edo, edi, esum, edere, is declined 
regularly according to the third conjugation, but here and 
there it has syncopated forms, besides its regular ones, 
similar to the corresponding tenses of sum, except that the 
quantity of the vowel in the second person singular of the 
indie, present and of the imperative makes a difference, the 
e in es from edo being long by nature. The tenses in which 
this resemblance occurs are seen in the following table : — 



Sing. Edo, edis, edit, 
( or es, est. ) 
Plur. edimus, editis, edunt. 




Pres -f Sing * ede ' e " 5 ' 
' \ Plur. edite, este. 

•p, J Sing, edito, esto. 

* \ Plur. edito, esto, editote, estote. 


Sing* ederem, ederes, ederet, 
(or essem, esses, esset.^) 

Plur. ederemus, edereiis, ederent, 
(or essemus, essetis, essent ) 

edere or esse. 

In the Passive only editur, estur ; 
ederetur, essetur. 



In the same way the compounds abedo, ambedo, comedo, 
exedo, and per edo are conjugated. 

3. Fero, I bear. 

[§ 213.] Fero consists of very different parts, perfect 
tuli ; supine, latum ; infinitive, ferre ; passive, ferri. But 
with the exception of the present indicat* and the imperative, 
the detail is regular. 



Pres. Sing. Fero, fers, fert. 

Plur. ferlmus, fertis, ferunt. 


Pres. Sing./er. Ylur.ferte. 

Fut. Sing, ferto. Plur. fertote, 
ferto, ferunto. 



Pres. Sing, feror,ferris, fertur. 
VhiY.ferimur, ferimini, fe- 

Pres. Sing, ferre. Plur. feriminL 
Fut. Sing, fertor. Plur. feruntor. 


Note. The rest is regular ; imperfect, ferebam ; future, feram, -es ; 
future passive, ferar, fereris (ferere), feretur, &c. ; present subjunctive, 
feram, feras ; passive, ferar, feraris, feratur ; imperfect subjunctive, 
f err em ; p assiv e, ferrer. 

The compounds of fero — affero, antefero, circumfero, confer o, defer o, 
and others, have little that is remarkable. Aufero (originally abfero) 
makes dbstuli, ablatum, auferre. Suffero has no perfect or supine, for 
sustuli, sublatum, belong to tollo ; but sustinui is commonly used as a 
perfect of suffero. 

4. Volo, I will. 

5. Nolo, I will not. 

6. Malo, I will rather. 

[§ 214.] Nolo is composed of ne (for non) and volo ; 
malo of mage (i. e. magis) and volo, properly mavolo, ma- 
vellem, contracted malo, mallem. 



Sing. Volo 




non vis 



non vult 


Plur. volumus 




non vultis 








Sing, volebam, &c. 
Plur. volebamus, &c. 

nolebam, &c. 
nolebamus, &c. 


malebam, &c. 
malebamus, &c. 

Sing, volam, voles, et. 
Plur. volemus, etis, ent 

nolam, noles, et. 
nolemus, etis, ent. 


malam, males, et. 
malemus, etis, ent. 

Sing, volui 

voluisti, &c. 

noluisti, &c. 

maluisti, &c. 

Sing, volueram, &c. 

nolueram, &c. 
Future Perfect. 

malueram, &c. 

voluero, is, &c. 

noluero, is, &c. 

maluero, is, &c. 

Sing, velim 

Plur. vellmus 









Sing, vellem, &c. 
Plur. vellemus, &c. 

noUem, &c. 
nollemus, &c. 


mallem, &c. 
maUemus, &c. 

Sing, voluerim, &c. 

noluerim, &c. 

maluerim, &c. 

Plur. voluerlmus, &c. 

noluerlmus, &c. 

maluerlmus, &c. 

Sing, voluissem, &c. 
Plur. voluissemus, &c. 

noluissem, &c. 
noluissemus, &c. 

maluissem, &c. 
maluissemus, &c. 


2d Pers. rao/z, TioZlfe. 
2d Pers. nollto, nolitote. 
3d Pers. nolito, nolunto. 

Pres. uetfe 
Perf. voluisse. 










7. Eo, I go. 

[§ 215.] The verb eo, tvi, itum, ire, is for the most part 
formed regularly, according to the fourth conjugation ; only 
the present, and the tenses derived from it, are irregular. 
Respecting the fut. ibo, see § 162. 





Eo, is, it. 
Imus, itis, eunt. 


earn, eas, eat. 
eamus, edtis, eant. 



ibam, ibas, ibat. Sing. 
ibamus, ibatis, ibant. Plur. 

irem, ires, iret. 
iremus, iretis, irent. 




Ibo, ibis, ibit. 
ibimus, ibitis, 




i. Sing. 2. ito. 3. ito. 

ite. Plur. 2. itote. 3. eunto 



ivisse or isse 

iturum {-am 

-urn) esse. 



Gen. eundi. Dat. eundo, 


itum, itu. 


Pres. iens, euntis. 

Fut. iturus, -a, -urn. 

In the passive voice it exists only as an impersonal, itur, 
itum est (See § 229.) Some compounds, however, acquire 
a transitive meaning, and accordingly have a complete 
passive : e. g. adeo, I approach ; ineo, I enter ; praetereo, I 
pass by. These and all other compounds, abeo, coeo, exeo, 
intereo and pereo (perish), prodeo, redeo, have usually only 


ii in the perfect : peril, redii. Veneo, I am sold, a neutral 
passive verb, without a supine, is composed of venum and 
eo, and is accordingly declined like ire; whereas ambio, I 
go about, is declined regularly according to the fourth con- 

[§ 216.] 8. Queo, I can. 9. JVequeo, I cannot. 

These two verbs are both conjugated like eo : perfect, 
quivi, nequivi (nequii) ; supine, quitum, nequitum. Most 
of their forms occur ; but with the exception of the present, 
they are not very frequent in prose. Instead of nequeo, 
non queo also is used. 



Sing. Queo, quis, quit. Nequeo, non quis, non quit. 

Plur. quimus, quitis, queunt. nequimus, nequltis, nequeunt. 

Sing. Quibam, quibat, &c. nequlbam, nequibat, -ant. 

Sing. Quibo. Plur. quibunt. Sing. Plur. nequibunt. 

Sing. Quivi, quivit. nequivi, nequisti, nequivit (iit). 

Plur. quiverunt. nequiverunt or 

nequierunt (e). 


nequierat, nequierant. 


Sing. Queam, queas, queat. nequeam, nequeas, nequeat. 

Plur. queamus, queatis, queant. nequeamus, nequeatis, nequeant. 

Sing. Quirem, quiret. nequirem, nequiret. 

Plur. — — — quirent. nequiremm, nequirent. 



Sing. ■• quiverit. nequiverim, nequierit, nequierint. 



Sing. ■ 

Plur. quissent. 


Quire, quivisse (quisse) nequire, nequivisse (nequisse). 

Quiens (gen. queuntis). nequiens (gen. nequeuntis). 

[§ 217.] 10. Fio, I become, or am made. 

Fio is properly an intransitive verb, the Greek (j>vio, 
without a supine. But it is used also as a passive of facto, 
from which it takes the perfect /actus sum, and the latter 
then receives the meaning " I have become, " along with that 
of "I have been made." The infinitive fieri has the passive 
termination. In the present, imperfect, and future, it follows 
the third conjugation ; for the i belongs to the root of the 
word, and is long, except in fit and those forms in which an 
r occurs in the inflection. (See § 16.) 





Sing. Fio,fis,fit. 
Plur. fimus, fitis, fiunt. 

fiam, fias, fiat, 
fiamus, fiatis, fiant. 



Sing, fiebam, as, at. 
Plur. fiebamus, atis, ant. 

fierem, es, et. 
fieremus, etis, ent* 


Sing, fiam, fies, fiet. 
Plur. fiemus, fietis, fient. 

fieri (factum esse, factum iri). 

Part. Pres. is wanting. 

The rest is supplied by the passive forms of facer e : partic. f actus, fa* 
ciendus / perf. f actus sum, eram, ero ; infinit. factum esse, factum iri. 




The term Defective Verbs is here applied to those only in 
which the defectiveness is striking, and which are found only 
) in certain forms and combinations ; for there is, besides, a very 
t large number of defective verbs, of which certain tenses are 
P not found on account of their meaning, or cannot be shown 
1 to have been used by the writers whose works have come 
! dowm to us. Many of them have been noticed in the lists of 
P verbs in the preceding Chapters. We shall here treat of the 
: verbs ajo and inquam, I say; fari, to speak; the perfects 
* coepi, memint, novi and odi ; the imperatives apage, ave, 
I salve, vale ; cedo and quaeso ; and lastly oiforem. 

1. Ajo, I say, say yes, or affirm. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

t Present. Present. 

I Sing. Ajo, ais, ait Sing. ajas, ajat. 

[ Plur. — — ajunt. Plur. ajant. 

Imperfect. (The imperative ai is obsolete. 

I Sing, ajebam, ajebas, ajebat. The participle ajens is used only as 

Plur. qjebamus, ajebatis, ajebant, an adject, instead of ajfirmativus. ) 

Perfect. All the rest is wanting or unclas- 

F Sing. — — dit (like the present). sical. 

[§ 219.] 2. Inquam, I say. 
This verb is used only between the words of a quotation* 






Inquam, inquis, inquit 
inquimus, inquitis, inquiunt. 


inquias, inquiat. 

inquiatis, inquiant. 




inquiebam, &c. 
inquiebamus, &c. 


inquies, inquiet 




- inquisti, inquit, 
inquistis, — . 


inque, inquito, 



[§ 220.] 3. Fari, to speak, say. 

This very irregular verb, with its compounds affari, effdri, 
profari, is, generally speaking, more used in poetry than in 
prose. The third persons of the present, fatur, fantur, 
the imperative fare, and the participle fatus, a, urn, occur 
most frequently. The ablative of the gerund, fando, is used 
in a passive sense even in prose, in the phrase fando audire, 
to know by hearsay. The first person for, and the subjunc- 
tiv e fer, feris, fetur, &c. do not occur. 

[§ 221.] 4. Coepi, 

I have begun. 

5. Memini, 
I remember. 

6. Novi, 
I know. 

7. Odi, 
I hate. 

These four verbs are perfects of obsolete presents, which 
have gone out of use, with the exception of nosco, and coepio, 
coepere. They consequently have those tenses only, which 
are derived from the perfect. In meaning, memini, novi, and 
odi are presents ; novi, I know, shows the transition most 
clearly, for it properly means " I have learnt to know." Hence 
the pluperfect has the meaning of an imperfect : memineram, 
I remembered ; noveram, I knew ; oderam, I hated, not " I 
had hated," and the future perfect has the signification of a 
simple future, e. g. odero, I shall hate ; meminero, I shall re- 
member. Otherwise the terminations are quite regular. 









novisti (nosti), 












novistis (nostis), 




noverunt (noruni). 


coeperam, &c. 


&c. noveram, &c. 
(noram. ) 


oderam, &c« 

coepero, &c. 

meminerOf &c. novero, 

odero, &c. 

noveris, &c. 

(noris. ) 



coeperim, &c. meminerim, &c. noverim, &c. 

(norim. ) 


coepissem, &c. meminissem, &c. novissem, &c. 

(nossem. ) 



only the sing, me- — 
mento and plur. 

meminisse. novisse. 


oderim, &c. 

odissem, &c. 

Perf. pass, coeptus 


Fut. act. coepturus. 


(perosus, exosus, with an 
active meaning). 

[§ 222.] 

8. Apage, 
be gone. 

9. ^e, 


10. Salve, 

11. Fafe, 


A T o£e. Apage is the Greek imperative a7ra76 of a7ra7cy, and is therefore 

joined with the accus. : apage istas sorores ! away with them ! apage te, 

get thyself off, or, with the omission of the pronoun, apage, begone ! SaU 

veo, which rarely occurs, may be regarded as the present of salve. Vale 

and ave are regular imperatives of valeo, I am well, and aveo, I desire ; 

and they are mentioned here only on account of their change of meaning. 

The plural is, avete, salvete, valete ; the imperat. fut. aveto, salveto, 

^valeto. The future is salvebis, valebis, and the infinitives avere, solvere, 


[§ 223.] 12. Cedo, give, tell. 

This word is used as an imperative in familiar language, 
for da and die, both with and without an accusative. A plu- 
ral eette for eedite occurs in old Latin. (The complete verb 
cedo, yield, has a long e.) 

H 2 


[§ 224.] 13. Quaeso, I beseech. 

Quaeso is originally the same as quaero, but in good prose 
it is generally inserted in another sentence. Besides this first 
person singular, we find only the first person plural quaesu- 

14. For em, I should be. 

This imperfect subjunctive, which is otherwise conjugated 
regularly, has arisen from fuerem of the obsolete verb fuo, 
and belongs to sum. It is equivalent to essem ; the singular 
exists complete, but of the plural we have only forent. Its 
infinit. fore is equivalent to futurum (am, urn, os, as, a) 



[§ 225.] 1. The term Impersonal Verbs strictly applies only 
to those of which no other but the third person singular is 
used, and which do not admit a personal subject (I, thou, he), 
the subject being a proposition, an infinitive, or a neuter noun 
understood. (See § 441. &c.) Verbs of this kind are: 

Miseret (me), I pity, perfect misertum or miseritum est. 
Piget (me), I regret, piguil or pigitum est. 
Poenitet (me), I repent, poenituit, fut. poenitebit. 
Pudet (me), I am ashamed, puduit or puditum est. 
Taedet (me), I am disgusted with (taeduit very rare), per- 
taesum est. 

Oportet, it is necessary, oportuit, fut. oportebit. 

[§ 226.] 2. Besides these impersonals, there are some 
others, which likewise have no personal subject, but yet are 
used in the third person plural, and may have a nominative 
(at least a neuter pronoun) as their subject. Such verbs are : 

Libet (mihi), I like, choose ; perf. libuit or libitum est. 
Licet (mihi), I am permitted ; perf. licuit or licitum est. 


Decet (me), it becomes me, and dedecet, it does not become 
me ; perf. decuit, dedecuit. 

Liquet, it is obvious ; perf. licuit. 

[§ 227.] 3. There is also a considerable number of verbs 
which are used impersonally in the third person, while their 
other persons occur with more or less difference in meaning. 
To these belong : interest and refert in the sense of " it is of 
importance to," with which no nominative can be used as a 
subject ; further, accidit,fit, evenit, and contingit, it happens; 
accedit, it is added to, or in addition to ; attinet and pertinet 
(ad aliquid), it concerns ; conducit, it is conducive ; convenit, 
it suits ; constat, it is known or established ; expedit, it is 
expedient ; delectat and juvat, it delights, pleases ; fallit, 
fugit, and praeterit me, it escapes me, I do not know ; placet, 
it pleases; perf. placuit and placitum est ; praestat, it is 
better ; restat, it remains ; vacat, it is wanting ; est, in the 
sense of licet, it is permitted or possible, e. g. est videre, non 
est dicere verum. 

[§ 228.] 4. The verbs which denote the changes of the 
weather: pluit, it rains ; ningit, it snows ; grandinat, it hails; 
lapidat (perf. also lapidatum est), stones fall from heaven ; 
fulgurat and fulminat, it lightens (with this difference, that 
fulminat is used of a flash of lightning which strikes an ob- 
ject) ; tonat, it thunders ; lucescit and illucescit, it dawns ; 
vesperascit, the evening approaches ; — in all these cases the 
subject understood is supposed to be deus or coelum y which 
are in fact often added as their subjects. 

[§ 229.] 5. The third person singular passive of a great 
many words, especially of those denoting movement or say- 
ing, is or may be used impersonally, even when the verb is 
neuter, and has no personal passive, e. g. curritur, they or 
people run ; itur, ventum est, clamatur, fletur, scvibitur, 
bibitur, &c. 

[§ 230.] 6. All these impersonal verbs, as such, have no 
imperative, the place of which is supplied by the present 
subjunctive, e. g. pudeat te, be ashamed of! The participles 
also (together with the forms derived from them, the gerund 
and the infinitive future) are wanting, with a few exceptions, 
guch as libens, pudendus* 

H 3 




[§ 231.] The formation of new words from others pre- 
viously existing takes place either by Derivation, that is, 
the addition of certain terminations ; or by Composition. 
In regard to derivation, we have to distinguish primitive 
and derivative words ; and, with regard to composition, 
simple and compound words. We shall first treat of 

Note. We have hitherto treated of the changes which one particular 
form of nouns and verbs, which was supposed to be known (the nomina- 
tive in nouns, and the infinitive in verbs), may undergo in forming cases 
and numbers, persons, tenses, moods, &c. But the origin of that form 
itself, which is taken as the basis in inflection, is explained in a special 
branch of the study of language which is called Etymology. Its object is 
to trace all the words of the language to their roots, and therefore leads 
us from the Latin to the Greek language, since both are nearly allied, 
and since the Greek was developed at an earlier period than the Latin. 
We cannot, however, here enter into these investigations, and must con- 
tent ourselves with ascertaining, within the Latin language itself, the 
most prominent rules in the formation of new words from other more 
simple ones ; a knowledge of these rules is useful to the beginner, since 
it facilitates his acquiring the language. We shall confine ourselves 
to nouns (substantive and adjective) and verbs, for the derivation and 
composition of pronouns and numerals have been discussed in a former 
part of this work ; with regard to the (unchangeable) particles, on the 
other hand, etymology is necessary, as it supplies the place of inflection. 

I. Verbs. 

Verbs are derived either from other verbs or from nouns- 

A. With regard to the former, we distinguish four classes 
of verbs : 1. Frequentatives ; 2. Desiderative s ; 3. Diminu - 
tives^ and 4. Inchoative s. 

1. Frequentatives follow the first coniugatiou ^anddenote 
the frequent repetition or an increase of the action,"~ex - 
rjressed by the primitive verb. They are derived fr om the 
supr np. b y chan g ing fop, regular atum. in the first conj u- 
gation into it o* itare ; other verbs re main unchanged, t he 
Termination of the supine. um r alone being changed i nto o 9 


are± Of the former kind are, e. g., clamo, clamito ; impero, 
imperito ; rogito, volito ; of the latter, domo, domitum, do- 
mito ; adjuvo, adjutum, adjicto ; and from verbs of the third 
conjugation, curro, cur sum, cur so ; cano, cantum, canto ; 
dico, dictum, dicto ; nosco, notum, noto ; and so also accepto, 
pulso, defenso, gesto, quasso, tracto. Some of these latter 
frequentatives, derived from verbs of the third conjugation, 
serve again as primitives from which new frequentatives are 
formed, as cursito, dictito, defensito. 

Some few frequentatives with the termination ito, itare, 
are not derived from the supine, but from the present of the 
primitive verb : agito, noscito, quaerito. Some frequenta- 
tives have the deponential form, as amplexor from amplector, 
minitor from minor, tutor from tueor, scitor and sciscitor from 

[§ 232.] 2. Desidera t ives end in urio, iirire ; th ey fol- 
low the fourth ~conj u gation, a rid"" express a desireT 5f_ that 
which is implied in jtne primitive . Thev are formed from 
the supme of the latter, e. g. esiirio, esuris, I want to eat, 
from edo, esum ; so also dicturio from dictum, empturio from 

[§ 233.] 3. Diminutives have the termination illo, Mar e, 
whic h is added to~*the stem of fne primitive verb, withou t 
anj further _change ? ano^ triev_d escribe the action expresse d 
as something trilling or i nsignificant ; e. g. cantillare from 
ca«tare3cPsmg'itt arTunder voice, or sing with a shaking ; 
conscribillare, scribble ; sorbillare from sorbere, sip. The 
number of these verbs is not great. 

[§ 234.] 4. Inchoatives have the terminatio n sco, and 
follow the third conj ligation. They express the ^Beginning 
of the act 'orj&ndi tion denoted by the primitive ; e. g. caleo, 
I am warm, calesco, I am getting or becoming warm ; areo 3 
I am dry, aresco, I begin to be dry ; langueo, I am languid, 
languesco, I am becoming languid. It frequently happens 
that a preposition is prefixed to an inchoative, as in timeo, 
pertimesco ; taceo, conticesco. The vowel preceding the ter- 
mination sco, scere, is either a (asco), e (esco), or i (isco), 
according as the inchoative is derived from a primitive of the 
first, second, or third and fourth conjugation (in the last two 
cases it is i) ; e. g. 

labasco from labare, totter. 
pallesco from pallere, be pale. 
h 4 


ingemisco from gemere, sigh. 
obdormisco from dormire, sleep. 

Many incho atives, ho wever, are not de rived from verb s, 
but from substantives ancTad]ectives~ I e.g. 

puerascOy I become childish, from puer. 
maturesco, I become ripe, from maturus, a, um. 

All inchoatives take their perfect and the tenses de rived 
j^nTT ytrom the primitive verf£ ~ and where no primitive 
verb exists, from a supposed form of it. (See Chap. LIL, 
the list of the most important inchoatives.) It must, how- 
ever, be observed, that not all verbs ending in sco are incho- 
atives. See § 203. 

[§ 235.] B. In regard to the derivation of verbs from 
nou ns, the language in general follows the nrinciplel^givin g; 
t he termination of the second conjugat ion to ver bs of an i n- 
transit ive signification, and thaTof the first to such asTiav e 
a t ransitive sign ification. Thus we have, e. g. 

a) flos.floris, florere, bloom. and from adjectives, 
from, frondis, frondere, have fo- albus, albere, be white. 

liage. calvus, calvere, be bald. 

vis, vires, virere, be strong. flavus, jlavere, be yellow. 

lux, lucis, lucere, shine. hebes, hebere, be blunt or dull, 

but, albus, albare, whitewash. 

b) Humerus, numerare, count aptus, aptare, fit. 

signum, signare, mark. liber, a, urn, liberate, liberate. 

fraus, fraudis, fraudare, deceive. celeber, bris, bre, celebrare, make 

nomen, nominis, nominare, name. frequent, or celebrate. 

vulnus, vuhieris, vulnerare, wound. memor, memorare, mention. 

anna, armare, arm. communis, communicate, com- 


Both kinds are found compounded with prepositions ; e. g. 
Laqueus, illaqueare, entwine ; acervus, coacervare, accumulate ; stirps, 
extirpate, extirpate; cavus, excavate, hollow out. 

The observation of § 147. must be repeated here, that 
many de ponents of the first conjugation (in ari) are derived 
irom su bstantives for the purpos~ot expressin g " to be that 
which Tti e_subsjyiMrve indicates ; " e. g. among the first verbs 
in the list there given, we find aemulari, ancillari, architec- 
tari, aucupari, augur ari ; and in like manner : comes, comi- 
Us, comitari ; dominus, dominari ; fur> furari. 


II. Substantives. 
[§ 236.] Substantives are derived — 

A. From Verbs. 

1. By the termination or, appende d in place of the um of 
the supine in transitive- verbs, to d enote, a man perfo rming 
the action implied in the verb ; e. g. 

amator, monitor, lector, auditor, 

adulator, fautor, conditor, conditor, 

adjutor, censor, petltor, largltor, 

and a great many others. Those which end in tor form 
feminines in trix, as fautrix, adjutrix, victrix. In regard to 
the masculines in sor, the formation of feminines is more 
difficult, but tonsor makes tonstrix ; defensor, defenstrix ; 
and expulsor makes expidtrix. 

Some few substantives ending in tor are formed also from 
nouns; as aleator, gambler, from alea ; janitor, from janua ; 
viator from via. 

2. The sam e_ termination or. when added to the unaltere d 
stem of a word, espec iall y of intransitive verbs, expresse s 
the action or condition denoted by t he verb substantively ; 
e. g. pavere, pavor, fear ; fur ere, furor, fury ; niter e, nitor, 
shine or gloss. So also, e. g. 

clamor, albor, horror, favor, ardor, 

amor, rubor, timor, maeror, splendor, 

[§237.] 3. Two terminations^ viz. io, gen, ionis, an d us, 
gen. us } when added to the supine after throwing oWjEeum. 
express the action or condition denote^ by the verb ab stract- 
edly. Both terminations are frequently met with in sub- 
stantives derived from the same verb, without any material 
difference, as concursio and concursus, consensio and con- 
sensus ; so also contemptio and contemptus, digressio and 
diyressus, ?notio and motus, and others. 

In this manner are formed from actives and deponents* 
for example, 

a) accubitio. motio. lectio, auditio, 
cunctatio. cautio. ultio. sortitio. 
acclamatio. admonitio. actio. largitio. 

b) metus. fletus. cantus. ambitus, 
sonitus. visus. congressus. ortus. 

2\ T ote. A third termination prod ucing pretty nearly the same meaning 
is ura ; as in pictura, painting ; conjectura, conjecture ; cultura, Jul- 


tivation. Sometimes it exists along with the other two, as in posifw> 
positus, positura ; censio, census, censura. Usually, however, one of them 
is preferred, in practice, with a special meaning. Thus we have mercatus, 
the market, and mercatura, commerce. 

[§ 238.] 4. The termination men, or more frequen tly 
mentum, denotes the means of flt.tajrn'ncr what the"""v erb 
expresses ; e. g. solamen, a means of consolation ; nomen 
(from novimen), a means of recognising, that is, a name; 
tegumentum, velamentum, adjumentum from adjuvare, a 
means of relief, condimentum from condire, condiment, 
i. e. a means of seasoning ; documentum, a document, a 
means of showing or proving a thing. Similar words are : 

allevamentum. monumentum. additamentum, experimentum. 
ornamentum. /omentum. alimentum. blandimentum. 

Some substantives of this kind are derived from nouns ; 
thus from ater, black, we have atramentum. The connect- 
ing vowel a before mentum, however, may show that a link 
was conceived to exist between the primitive ater and the 
derivative atramentum, such, perhaps, as a verb atrare, 
blacken. In like manner we have calceamentum, a covering 
for the feet ; capillamentum, a head-dress, wig. 

[§ 239.] 5. The terminations bulum and culum (or ulum. 
wjjenjc__ojr_g precedes) denote g,n inRtmrpp.nt or a pi ace 
se rving a certain purpose ; e. g. venabulum, a hunter s spear ; 
vehiculum, a vehicle ; jaculum, a javelin ; cingulum, a 
girdle ;' stabulum, a stable. So also, 

umbraculum. cubiculum. ferculum. vinculum. 

The termination culum is som e times contracted into clu m. 
as in vinclum; and clum is changed into crum , and b~uliem 
into brum, when there is already an I in the ~" stem of the 
word ; e. g. fulcrum, support ; lavacrum, bath ; sepulcrum, 
sepulchre ; Jlagrum, scourge ; ventilabrum. A similar mean- 
ing belongs to trum in aratrum, plough ; claustrum, lock ; 
rostrum, beak. Some words of this class are derived from 
substantives, as turibulum, censer (tus, turis) ; acetabulum, 
vinegar cruet. 

6. Other and less productive termination s are a and o, 
which, wnen appended to the stem of the word ? denote ^th e 
subject of the action : conviva, guest ; advena, stranger ; 
scriba, scribe ; erro, vagrant ; bibo, drunkard. By means 
of the termination io words are derived from substantives, 
denoting a trade to which a person belongs, as pellio, furrier; 
restio, rope-maker. 


-ium expresses the effect of the verb a nd th e place of the 
action ; e. g. gaudium, joy ; odium, hatred ; aedijicium, 
"Building, edifice ; re- and confugium, place of refuge ; comi- 
tium, place of assembly. 

Ago expresses a state or condition, and mo^ly^a_diseased 
one : vertigo, giddiness ; prurigo, itcET^an^Tbthers. 

[§ 240.] B. From other Substantive s. 

1. Diminutives, or vocabida deminuta, are mostly formed 
b y the terminations ulus, ula r ulum, or cuius, a, um, ac - 
cording to the gender of the primitive word^ ulus, a, um, 
is appended to the stem after the removal of the termination 
of the oblique cases, e. g. virga, virgula ; puer, puerulus ; 
rex {regis), regulus. So also, 

portula. nummulus. rapulum. facida. 

litterula. horiidus. oppidulum. adolescentulus. 

I nstead of ulus, a, um, we find olus, a, um, when the termi- 
nation of the pri mitive substantia up, o, um.^ is preceded 
by a vowel, e. g. 

filiolus. gloriola. ingeniolum, 

alveolus, lineola. horreolum. 

The termination cuius, a, um, is sometimes appended to the 
nominative, without any change, viz. in words ending in / 
and r, and in those ending in os and us of the third declen- 
sion, which take an r in the genitive ; e. g, 

corcidum. frater cuius. fiosadus. munusculum. 
tuberculum. sororcula. oscidum. corpusculum. 

And so also animaladum, uxorcula, later cuius. Sometimes 
the s of the nominative terminations is and es is dropped, 
as in 

igniculus. aedicula. nubecula. diecula. 

pisciculus. pellicula. vulpecula. plebecula. 

In words of other terminations of the third declension, and 
in*"13lose of theTourth, i steps in as a connecting jyj»w eH 
between the stem of the word and the diminutive termi- 
nation cuius. cuTcL.c uIuolj- e. g. ~ — *_— 

ponticulus. denticulus. versiculus. anicula, 
particula. ossiculum. articidus. corniculum. 

coticula reticulum. sensiculus. geniculum. 

H 6 


The termination ellus, <7, T um^ occurs only in those wor ds 
of the^first^nd second declensions which have Z r n t or r^ in 
their ]termmatiqn sl Thus oculus makes ocellus; tabula, 
tabeltcT; asinus, asellus ; liber, libellus; libra, libella ; 
lucrum, lucellum. So also popellus, fabella, lamella, patella, 
agellus, cultellus, fiabellum, fiagellum, labellum, sacellum* 
The termin ation illus, a, u?n, occurs more rarely , as in bacil- 
lum, sigillum, hgiLlum ; codicillus, lapillus, anguilla. The 
termination unculus, a, um, is, appended chiefly to wor dlTm 
o, gen, onis or i nis ; as, 

sermunculus. ratiuncula, homunculus, 

pugiunculus. quaestiuncula. virguncula, 

[§ 241.] 2. The termination turn appended to the radical 
syllable of th e primitiv^exnre sses either 'an assemblage o f 
things or persons, or ^The i r relation to one another ; e. g. 
collega, collegium, an assembly of men who are collegae 
(colleagues) of one another ; so convivium, repast, or 
assembly of convivae ; servitium, the domestics, also servi- 
tude ; sacerdotium, the office of priest ; minister, minis- 
terium, service. When this termination is appended to 
verbal substantives in or, it denotes the place of the action, 
as in repositorium, repository ; conditorium, a place where 
a thing is kept, tomb ; auditorium, a place where people 
assemble for the purpose of listening to a person. 

[§ 242.] 3. -avium denotes a receptacle ; e. g. granarium, 
a granary or place where grain is kept ; armarium (armd), 
a cupboard ; armamentarium, arsenal, or place where the 
armamenta are kept. So also plantarium and seminarium, 
columbarium, tabularium. 

[§ 243.] 4. -etum appended to the n ames of plants denote s 
the place wherel;h&y gTO W in great' number ; e. g! quercus, 
quercetum, a plantation of oaks ; so also vinetum, lauretum, 
esculetum, dumetum, myrtetum, olivetum ; and with some 
change, salictum (from salix), pasture, instead of salicetum, 
virgultum instead of virguletum, arbustum from arbos (for 
arbor), instead of arboretum. 

^,[§244.] 5. Ale appended to names of animals indicates 
the place in which they a re kept : e. g. bubile or bovile* stall 
of oxen; equile, stable (of horses) ; so also caprile, hoedile, 
ovile. All these words are properly neuters of adjectives, 
but their other genders are not used. 

[§ 245.] 6. With regard to patronymics, or names of 


descent, which the Latin poets have adopted from the 
p oetical language ot tne Greeks, the student must be referred 
to the Greek gramma r. The most common term ination "is" 
ides, as Priamus, Priamides ; Cecrops, Cecropides ; names 
.in eus and cles make ides ; e. g.Atrides, Pelides, Heraclidae. 
.N ames in dS Of' tile "first declension mak e t heir patronymi cs 
TfT ades ; as Aeneas, Aeneades. 'Ine termination tacte? 
should pro perly oc cur only in names ending m iii s. such as 
Thesthcs, 1 hestiades ; but it is used also in other names, 
according to the requirements of the particular verse; as 
Laertes, Laertiades ; Atlas, Atlantiades ; Telamon, Tela- 

The fe minine patronymics are derived from thg^ maSen* 
lines by ides being changed into is, Ides into eis^ and iadesj 
into ias ; e. g. Tanialides, Tantalis ; "Nereus, Nereis ; 
Thestius, Thestias. Aeneades (from Aeneas) alone makes 
the feminine Aeneis, because the regular feminine, Aeneas, 
would be the same as the primitive. 

[§ 246.] C. From Adjectives . 

1. The termination itas is the most common in formi ng 
subs tantives denoting the quality expressed by the adjective 
as"~an abstract notion, and is equivalent to the English 
it?/. The adjective itself in appending itas undergoes the 
same changes as in its oblique cases. Thus from atrox, 
atroci, we obtain atrocitas ; from cupidus, cupidi, cupiditas. 
So also eapax, capacitas ; celer, celeritas ; crudelis, crude- 
litas ; facilis, facilitas ; clarus, claritas ; vents, Veritas. 
Libertas and paupertas are formed without the i, and facultas 
and difficultas with a change of the vowel, as in the adverb 

The adjectives in ius mak e their substantives in ietas ; 
e. g. anxietds^pietas, varietas; those in stus make tnem m 
stas : honestas, venustas, vetustas. 

2. Another very common termination is ia, but it o ccurs 
only in substantives derived from adjectives o f one termi- 
nation, ia being added to the crude form ot the oblique cases. 
From audax, we have audacia, an cT from concors, concordia. 
So also clemens, dementia; constans, constantia ; impudentia, 
elegantia, appetentia. Some adjectives in us and er, how^- 
ever, likewise form their substantives in ia ; e. g. miser, 
miseria ; angustus, angustia; perftdus, perjzdia. 


[§ 247.] 3. There are nume rous substanti ves in which 
tudo is append ed to the case oF"the a^tecTrv^jen ding in i ; 
e. g. aegritudo, altitudo, magmtudo ; and in polysyllable s 
in t us, tudo directly gro ws out of this terminat ion, as in 
consuetudd, munsuetul^b\i?iquietudo, sollicitudo. Sbme of 
these substantives exist along with other forms, as beatitudo, 
claritudo, firmitudo, lenitudo, and sanctitudo] along with 
beatitas, claritas, firmitas, &c. Valetudo stands alone. 

4. Substantives in itia, from adjectives in us, are of more 
rare "occurrence, as justitia from Justus. So avdritia, 
laetitia, maestitia] pudicitia ; but also tristitia from tristis. 

5. .The termination edo occurs only in a few substant ives ; 
as albedo, dalcedo, pinguedo. 

III. Adjectives. 
Adjectives are derived — 

A. From Verbs. 

[§ 248.] 1. With the termination bundus, chiefly from 
verbs of the first conjugat ion, e. g. errabundus irom err are, 
gratulabundus from gratidari, populabundus from populari. 
Their signification is. in general, that of a participle presen t, 
with the meaning; strengthened, a circumstance which we 
must express in English by the addition of other words ; 
e. g. haesitabundus, full of hesitation ; deliberabundus, full 
of deliberation ; mirabundus, full of admiration ; venerabun- 
dus, full of veneration ; lacrimabundus, weeping profusely. 
There are but few adjectives of this kind derived from verbs 
of the third conjugation : fremebundus, gemebundus, furi- 
bundus, ludibundus, moribundus, nitibundus. There is 
only one from a verb of the second conjugation, viz. pudi- 
bundus ; and likewise one only from a verb of the fourth, 

Some verbal adjectives in cundus are of a similar kind : 
facundus, eloquent ; iracundus, irascible ; verecundus, full 
of bashfulness ; rubicundus, the same as rubens, reddish. 

[§ 249.] 2. The ending idus, chiefly in adjectives formed 
f^lJritT^^^^vprhSj simpiylrienotes t he quality expressed 
b y the verb : 

calidus, from cohere, rubidus, from rubere. 

algidus, from algere. turgidus, from turgere. 

madidus, from madere. rapidus, from rapere. 


3. The term inations ills and bills denote the po ssib ility of 
a thing in a passive^ sense ; e. g. amabilis, easy to love, hence 
amiable ; placabiiis, easy to be conciliated; delebilis, easy to 
be destroyed ; vincibilis, easy to be conquered ; facilis, easy 
to do ; docilis, docile \ fragilis, fragile. Some of these adjec- 
tives, however, have an active meaning : horribilis, produ- 
cing horror, horrible ; terribilis, terrible, that is, producing 
terror ;fertilis, fertile. 

4. -ax appended to the stem of the verb expresses a pro- 
pensit~and generally a faulty one: 

edax and vorax. audax. 

loquax. rapax. 

[§ 2c;o.] B. From Substantives, viz. 

a) From Appellatives : 

1. T he ending eus denotes the material, and sometimes 
similarity , e. g. ' - 

ferreus. ligneus. plumbeus, virgineus. 

aureus. citreus. cinereus. igneus. 

argenteus* buxeus. corporeus. vitreus, 

2. -icus expresses belonging or relating to a thing ; e. g. 
classicus from classis ; civicus, relating to a citizen ; cLomini- 
cus, belonging to a master ; bellicus, relating to war, &c. 

3. The termination ills has th e same mea ning, but assumes 
also a moral signification, e . g. civilis and hostihs, the same 
as civicus and hosticus, but also answering to our civil and 
hostile. So servilis, senilis, anilis, juvenilis, puerilis, virilis. 

4. The endings aceus and icius , sometimes express a ma- 
terial and sometimes t he origin, e. g. chartaceus, papyraceus, 
patricius, tribumcius. 

[§ 251.] 5. The termination ali s (in English a!) is ap- 
pended not only to words in a, buj^also to substantives o f 
ot her terminations ? in which cas^however, the terminatio n! s 
appended to the crude form of" theVblique cases ; e. g. ancora; 
conviva, letum — ancoralis, convivatis, letaiis /but from rex, 
regis, we have regalis ; virgo, virginalis ; sacerdos, sacerdo* 
talis ; caput, capitalis. So also auguralis, comitialis, anna- 
lis, fluvialis, mortalis, and others. 

The ending aris is somewhat more ^eldom, and princi* 


pally occurs in suck word s as contain an I ; such as, articu- 
laris, consularis, popularis, puellaris, vulgaris, Apollinaris. 

The term ination atilis denotes fitness fo r the thing ex - 
pressed bv the root ; as, aquatilis, fiuviatiUs, volatilis, 

6. The t ermination ius occurs most frequently in deriv a- 
tives from p ersonal nouns in or ; e. g. accusatorius, amator- 
ius, aleatorius, censorius, imperatorius, praetorius. • It 
occurs more rarely in substantives of other terminations, 
though we have regius, patrius, aquilonius. 

[§ 252.] 7. - Inus is found especially in derivatives fro m 
5^]]^.oX.aninials_ (espj3ci ally to^dejioje^the ir flesh ), e. g. 

asininus. ferinus. haedinus. anserinus. 

caninus. equinus. caballinus. anatinus. 

camelinus. taurinus, arietinus. viperinus. 

Ajid in a few derived from names of o th er living beings , e. g. 
divinus, masculinus, marinus. 

The termination inus, on the other hand, occurs chiefly i n 
derivatives from names of plants and minerals., to denote th e 
material of which a thing is m ade ; e. g. cedrinus, faginus, 
^aSamantinus, crystallinus. See § 20. 

8. The termination arius expr esses a general relation to 
J he noun from wh ich the" adjective |s former!, but m ore par- 

tjc_ularly the occu pation or profession of a perso n ; e. g. 

coriarius. carbonarius. scapharius. ostiarius* 
statuarius. aerarius. navicularius. consiliarius. 

sicarius. argentarius. codicarius. classiarius. 

9. The ending osus denotes f ulness or abundance ; as in 

aerumnosus. aquosus. bellicosus. 

animosuSs lapidosus. caliginosus. 

artificiosus. vinosus. tenebricosus. 

actuosus. portuosus. saltuosus. 

10. The termination lentus denotes plenty, and is com- 
monly "pr^cede^nByTn^vowel^ and sometimes by o ; 

fraudulentus. vinolentus. pulverulentus. 

turbulentus. opulentus. violentus. 

11. Less productive and significant terminations' are : 
-anus which denotes belonging to a thin g : urbanus, mon- 
tanus, liumanus ; — Ivus generally denotes the manner or 
natur e of a thing : furtivus, votivus, aestivwT; - — ern^j^z^ 

fraternus, maternus, paternus, infernus, ex- 


ternus. The same termination and urnus occur in adjectives 
denoting time : vermis, hiberaus, hesternus, diurnus, noctur- 
nus ; — itiinus occurs in fini timus, le gitimus, maritimu s. 

[§ 253 7I 1^. -A very extensive class 01 derivative adjec - 
tives end in atus ^ Hkp. pnrtiViplp.s perfect passive of the first 
rpTrp^o-ntmrij hut thpy * rA d^rivpri ^|, nncp from sub stantives," 
w ithout its bein f*; p^Hhle fr> c1i ^ w the e v ^ a ^lC^J2! " nn * nTPT """ 
mediate verb. Thus we have, e. g., aurum and aurams, 
gilt ; but a verb aurare does not occur, and its existence is 
assumed only for the sake of derivation. Some adjectives of 
this kind are formed from substantives in is and end in itus, 
as auritus, provided with ears ; pellitus, covered with a skin; 
turritus, having towers. Some few are formed by the end- 
ing utus from substantives in us, gen. us ; as cornutus, astu- 
tus. Those in atus are very numerous, e. g., 

barbatus. calceatus. aeratus. 

togatus. clipeatus. dentatus. 

galeatus. oculatus. falcatus. 

[§ 254.] b) From Proper Names . 

We may here distinguish four classes : — 1 . names of men, 
2. of town Si 8 . of nations , 4. of countries . 

1. The termination ianus is the most common in forming 
ad jectives from "Roman names ot" men, as Tullianus, !Ser~ 
vilianus, Crassianus, Marcellianus, Paulianus, Caesarianus, 
Catonianus, Ciceronianus : anus occurs less frequentl y ; as 
Cinnanus, Gracchanus, Sullanus. The termination inus is 
found chiefly in <Wi fro m names of families, e. g. 
Messalinus, Paulinus, Bufinus. T h e termination eus, as in 
Caesareus, Herculeus , is used only by poets. 

There are two terminations tor lorming" adjectives from 
Greek names of men, eus or lus (in Greek eloq) and tcus, 
as Homericus, Platonicus, Socraticus, Achilleus, Epicureus, 

[§ 255.] 2. Fromjoamesofjpjace s, and ch iefly fr pm tho se 
o f^towns. adjectives are derived ending in en s is 7 inus } as and 
ani^ s. 

a) -ensis, also from some common or appellative n ouns, 
e. g. cdstrensis from castra ; circensis from circus ; and - from 
names of towns : Cannae, Cannensis ; Catina, Catinensis ; 
Ariminum, Ariminensis ; Comum, Comensis; Mediolanum, 
Mediolanensis ; Sulrno, Sulmonensis ; from (Greek) towns 
in la (ea) : Antiochensis, Nicomedensis. 


(3) -inns from nn^ p ^ in. ar>rl iurp. ; e. g. Ameria, Ameri- 
nus ; Tiricia, A ricinus ; Florentia, Florentinus; Caudium, 
Caudinus ; Clusium, Clusinus ; Canusium, Canusinus, And 
so also from Latium, Latinus, and from Capitolium, CapU 

y) -asjfor all ^^0 j s 11SPi a i ftSS pxt.p.rtsivply ^ and form s 

juiljpptWpg nTl1 7 • fl ' nTn "a™P<a nf tnwng in y/?/ ^ fh Oil fib not 

from all. It occurs in Arpinum, Arpinas ; Aquinum, Aqui- 
nas ; Frivernum, Privernas ; Casilinum, Casilinas (along 
with Casilinensis). But Ravenna also makes Ravennas ; 
Capena, Capenas ; Ardea, Ardeas. 

c) -anus from some appellative nouns ? as monta nus, fon- 
tanus* urb anus (from mons. /ons, zirbs^) and from" names i o f 
townsjn. a and ae : e. g. Roma, Romanics ; Alba, Albanus ; 
"Sparta, Spartanus ; Curnae, Cumanus ; Syracusae, Syra- 
cusanus ; Thebae, Thebanus ; also from some in um and i : 
Tusculum, Tusculanus ; Fundi, Fundanus. 

[§ 256.] Greek adjectives, however, formed from names of towns, or 
such as were introduced into Latin through the literature of the Greeks, 
follow different rules which must be learned from a Greek grammar. 
We will here only remark that the most frequent ending is ius ; e. g. 
Aegyptus, Aegyptius ; Lesbos, Lesbius ; Rhodus, Rhodius ; Corinthus, 
Corintkius ; Ephesus, Ephesius ; Chius, Chlus (instead of Chiius) ; Lace- 
daemon, Lacedaemonius ; MaratJwn, Marathonius ; Salamis, Salaminius ; 
Eretria, Eretrius. Names in a take the termination aeus, as Smyrna, 
Smymaeus ; Tegea, Tegeaeus ; Larissa, Larissaeus ; Perga, Pergaeus. 
In the case of towns not in Greece, even when they are of Greek origin, 
we most frequently find the termination Inus : Tarentum, Tarentinus • 
Agrigentum, Agrigentinus ; Centuripae, Centuripinus ; Metapontum, Meta- 
pontinus. It not unfrequently happened that the Romans formed adjec- 
tives from Greek names of towns in their own way, and without any 
regard to the Greek forms ; e. g. Atheniensis instead of Athenaeus, The- 
banus instead of Thebaeus, Syracusanus along with Syracusius. The 
Greek ending evs was most commonly changed into ensis ; and irrjs into 
anus, as in Panormitanus, Tyndaritanus, especially in all the Greek 
names of towns compounded with polls, as Neapolitanus, Megalopolitanus. 
The terminations ens and itis, however, are often retained in Latin, 

[§ 257.] 3. From names which origina ll y belong to n a- 
tionSj adjectives are formed in icus anoTmore rarely in ius : 
e.g. from Afer, Britannus, (Callus, (Jermanus, Italus, we have 
the adjectives Africus y Britannicus, Gallicus, Italicus, &c; 
Syrus, Syrius ; Cilix, Cilicius ; Thrax, Thracius. Other 
names of nations are at once substantives and adjectives, as 
Graecus, Etruscus, Sardus. 

[§ 258.] 4. T he names of countries, with some exceptio ns. 



such as Latium and Samnium, and those borrowed from the 
Greek, Aegyptus, Persis, are themselves derived from the 
names of nations ; e. g. Britannia, Gallia, Italia, Thracia, 
sometimes with slight changes, as in Sardi, Sardinia ; and 
Siculi, Sicilia. From some of these countries, adjectives 
are formed with the terminations ensis and anus, as Hispa- 
niensis, Siciliensis ; Africanus, Gallicanus. 

[§ 259.] C. From other Adjecti ves. 

Diminutives arP- fornix! frm^ znrru* n(1]P.r>,tJYP.ft by thp tftr, 
urination^ ?//?/■?. nlus^ culus^ and ellus r aeeording to the ru les 
which were given above. § 240. Thus we have parvulus, 
horndulus ; aureolus ; pauperculus, leviculus ; misellus, pul- 

[§ 260.] Besides derivation new words are also formed by 
composition. In examining such words we may consider 
either the first or the second part of which a compound 

The fir st word is either a noun, a verb, or a particle. The 
second remains unchange d, e. g. benefacio, beneficium, male- 
dico, satago ; a contraction takes place only in nolo, from ne 
(for non) and volo, and in malo, from mage (for magis) and 
volo. Prepositions are used more frequently than any other 
particles in forming compound words. Respecting their 
signification and the changes produced in pronunciation by 
the meeting of heterogeneous consonants, see Chap. LXYI. 

There are only a few words in which verbs form the firs t 
part of a compou niL-and wherever this is the case,~"the ver b 
facio forms the latter_pa j$j as in arefacio. caletacio. made- * 
facio, patefacio, condocefacio, commonefacio, assuefacio, and 
consuefacio. The only change in the first verbs (which be- 
long to the second conjugation) is that they throw off the o 
of the present. 

When the^ first w ordJ < s_a noun (substantive _or adjective), 
it regularly end&_in a sj ^ort^.* which is the connecting 
YTTwel . ~~~ ~^ 

art if ex. 

















So also centifolia rosa, centimanus Gyges, from centum. A 
contraction takes place in tiblcen for tibiicen, from tibia and 
cano, whereas in tubicen and fidicen the connecting vowel is 
short according to the rule, there being no i in the words 
tuba &nd Jides. When the second word begins with a vowel, 
the connecting i is thrown out, as in magnanimus, unanimis, 
with which we may compare unimanus and uniformis. 

Those words, the parts of which are declined separately, 
may likewise be regarded as compounds, although they form 
one word only* in so far as they are commonly written as 
such ; as respublica, jusjurandum, or those of which the 
first word is a genitive, as senatusconsultum, plebiscitum, 
duumvir, triumvir. 

[§ 261.] The latter word in _a.jiomp ound determines t o 
what part of speech the whole belongs . In compositions 
witii particles, the second word either remains unchanged, or 
undergoes only a slight variation in its vowel. This varia- 
tion must be here considered, especially with regard to the 
radical vowel of the verb ; for the vowels i, o, u, a and e re-» 
"main unchanged, as in ascrlbo, comminor, appono, excolo, 
adduco, illabor, subrepo ; but a and e and the diphthong ae 
frequently undergo a change: 1. a remains only in the com- 
pounds of caveo, maneo, and traho ; but in most other cases 
it is changed into i, e. g. constituo from statuo, accipio from 
capio, abjicio from jacio, arripio from rapio, incido from cado, 
adigo from ago ; so also attingo from tango, confringo from 
frango ; it is changed into e in ascendo, aspergo, confer do, 
2. e sometimes remains unchanged, as in appeto, contego, 
contero, congero, but sometimes it is changed into i : assideo 
rrom sedeo, abstineo from teneo, arrigo from rego, aspicio 
from specio. Both forms occur in the compounds of legere, 
e. g. perlego, read through ; intelligo, understand. 3. The 
diphthong ae remains unchanged only in the compounds of 
haereo, as adhaereo ; it is changed into I in the compounds 
of caedo, laedo, quaero, e. g. incido, illldo, inguiro. Other 
particulars may be gathered from the lists of irregular verbs. 

In the c omposition of nou ns wj-tl^vjRTJTHjJihft second word 
undergoes more violent changes, and the rules already given 
respecting derivation must be ta k enjfoto account here . BuT 
nouns are also formed in composition with verbs £y~the mere 
abbreviation of the ending, and without any characteristic 
syllable of derivation. Thus we have from gero, claviger, 
armiger ; from fero, cistifer, signifer ; from facio, artifex> 


pontifex ; from capio, princeps, particeps. Compound 
adjectives are derived from verbs by the termination us, 
which is appended to the verbal stem : mortiferus, ignivo- 
mus, dulcisonus, like consonus, carnivorus, causidicus ; and 
from substantives with a very slight or no change at all, e. g. 
centimanus, capripes, misericors, uniformis. 




[§ 262.] L As the adjective qualifies a substantive, so the 
adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective (consequently a parti- 
ciple also), and even another adverb; e.g. prudens homo 
prudenter agit ; felix homo feliciter vivit ; eximie doctus ; 
domus celeriter extructa ; satis bene scripsit. 

2. Adverbs belong to those parts of speech which are in- 
capable of inflexion, for they have neither cases nor any 
other forms to denote the difference of persons, tenses, or 
moods. But an adverb approaches nearest the declinable 
parts of speech, inasmuch as it is derived from adjectives or 
participles, and takes the same degrees of comparison as the 
latter. We have, therefore, in the first place to consider the 
etymology of adverbs and then their degrees of comparison. 

With regard to their etymology, adverbs are either simple 
or primitive (primitiva), or derived (derivatd). We shall first 
treat of derivative adverbs ; their number is great, and cer- 
tain laws are followed in their formation. 

[§ 263.] 3. By far the greater number of derivative ad- 
verbs end in e and ter, and are derived from adjectives and 
participles (present active and perfect passive). 

Adjectives and participles in us, a, um, and adjectives in 
er, a, um (that is, those which follow the second declension), 
make adverbs with the termination e. Thus alius, longus, 
molestus, doctus, emendatus, ornatus, make the adverbs alte, 
longe, moleste, docte, emendate, ornate. With regard to 
adjectives in er, a, um, the formation of adverbs varies ac- 


cording as they throw out the e in the oblique cases or retain 
it (see § 48. and ol.), for the adverbs follow the oblique 
cases. Thus liber and miser make libere and misere ; but 
aeger (aegri) and pulcher (pulchri) make aegre and pulchre. 
Bonus makes the adverb bene, from an ancient form benus. 
Bene and male are the only adverbs of this class that end in 
a short e. 

[§ 264.] 4. All other adjectives and the participles in ns 
(consequently all adjectives which follow the third declen- 
sion) form their adverbs in ter, and retain the changes which 
occur in the genitive. The genitive is is changed into iter, 
except the genitive in ntis (from the nom. in ns), which 
makes the adverb in nter ; e. g. elegans, eleganter ; amans, 
amanter; conveniens, convenienter ; but par, pariter ; utilis, 
utiliter; tenuis, tenuiter; celer, eris, celeriter ; saluber, salu- 
briter, and so also ferociter, simpliciter, dupliciter, concorditer, 
audaciter (or more frequently contracted into audacter). 

[§ 265.] 5. Although in grammar an adverb is assigned 
to every adjective, yet the dictionary must frequently be con- 
sulted, for there are some adjectives whose very signification 
does not admit the formation of an adverb, as, for example, 
those which denote a material or colour ; while with respect 
to others we can say no more than that no adverb of them is 
found in the writers whose works have come down to us, as 
of the adjectives aniens, dirus, discors, gnarus, rudis, trux, 
imbellis, immobilis, inftexibilis, and other compounds of the 
same kind. Of vetus the adverbs are vetuste and antique, and 
of jidus, Jideliter, which are derived from other adjectives of 
the same meaning. The adverb magne does not occur, but 
its irregular comparative magis, and the superlative maxime, 
are of very common occurrence. 

[§ 266.] 6. Sometimes particular cases of adjectives sup- 
ply the place of the regularly formed adverbs in e and ter ; 
a) of some adjectives in us, a, um, and er, a, um, the abla- 
tive singular in d is used as an adverb ; e. g. arcano and 
secreto, secretly; cito, quickly; continuo, immediately; ere- 
bro, frequently ; /also, wrongly; liquido, clearly; manifesto, 
manifestly; necessario, necessarily; perpetuo, perpetually; 
precario, by intreaties ; raro, rarely; sedulo, sedulously; sero, 
too late ; serio, seriously ; subito, suddenly ; tuto, safely. To 
these must be added some adverbs formed from participles : 
auspicato, consulto, directo, festinato> nee- or inopinato, im- 
proviso, iterato, merito, sortito. 


[§ 267.] 7. b) In some adjectives of the third declension 
the neuter singular supplies the place of the adverb ; as fa- 
cile, difficile, recens, sublime, impitne. To these we must add 
some belonging to adjectives of the second declension: ce- 
terum, commodum, plerumque, plurimum, potissirnum, mul- 
turn, nimium, parum, and lastly the numeral adverbs primum, 
iterum, tertium, quartum, &c, which have also the termina- 
tion o (see § 123.), and postremum (o), and ultimum (o). 

[§ 268.] 8. A considerable number of adverbs have the 
termination im; they are for the most part derived from par- 
ticiples ; e. g. caesim, punctim, conjunctim, contemptim, cur- 
sim, nominatim, passim (from pandere), praesertim (from 
prae and sero), privatim, raptim, sensim, statim. Adverbs 
of this kind however are formed also from other parts of 
speech, but they generally take the participial termination 
atim, even when they are not derived from nouns of the first 
declension : gradatim, ostiatim, paulatim, singulatim. Also 
confestim (connected with festinare), furtim, singultim, viri- 
tim, vicissim. 

[§ 269.] 9. A smaller class of adverbs is formed from 
nouns by the termination Uus, generally to denote origin 
from that which is expressed by the primitive ; as coelitus, 
from heaven ; funditus, radicitus, from the foundation, radi- 
cally. Some are derived from adjectives, as antiquitus, di- 
vinitus, and humanitus. 

[§ 270.] 10. A large number of adverbs, lastly, arises 
from the adverbial use of different cases of substantives, and 
from the composition of different parts of speech. In this 
manner arose the adverbs of time: noctu, vesperi, mane, 
tempore or tempori, diu and dudum, quamdiu, tamdiu, all- 
quamdiu, interdiu, hodie, quotidie, quotannis, postridie, 
perendie, pridie, nudius tertius (from nunc dies tertius, the 
day before yesterday, or the third day from the present), 
nudius quartus, nudius quintus, nudius tertiusdecimus, pro- 
pediem, initio, principio, repente and derepente (ablative of 
repens), imprimis, protenus and protinus (from pro and the 
preposition tenus), alias, partim (the same as partem), 
actutum, modo, postmodo, alternis, interdum, cummaxime, 
tummaxime, paulisper, tantisper, denuo (i. e. de novo), illico 
(properly in loco), interea, praeterea, hactenus. So also the 
adverbs of place : /oris, for as, domum, domi and domo, rus, 
ruri and rure, humi and humo, insuper, obviam, peregre > 
praesto, recta (scil. via), una. 


[§27i.] The mode or manner of an action, in answer to 
the question how ? is expressed by adverbs of the same class ; 
as sponte, forte and fortuito, forsitan {fors sit an), nimirum, 
scilicet, videlicet, utpote (from ut and pote, properly "as 
possible," hence " namely," or " as"), dumtaxat, praeterquam, 
quomodo, quemadmodum, admodum, quamobrem, quapropter, 
quantopere, tantopere, maximopere and summopere, alioqui 
or alioquin, ceteroqui or ceteroquin, frustra, neqiticquam, 
gratis (from gratiis), vulgo. 



[§ 276.] 1. The Simple or Primitive Adverbs are few in 
number, when compared with the derivatives, especially 
with those derived from adjectives, and ending in e and ter. 
The signification of the latter depends upon that of their 
adjective, and has generally a very definite extent ; but the 
primitive adverbs express the most general circumstances 
that are considered in connection with a fact, and answer 
to the questions how ? when ? where ? whether ? but they 
are for this reason deserving of particular attention, together 
with their compounds and derivatives. 

2. To this class belong the negative particles : non, haud, 
and ne ; the affirmatives : nae, quidem, and utique, certainly 
(from which word the negative adverb neutiquam, by no 
means, is formed), nempe, namely, surely, and the interro- 
gative cur, why ? the words which express, in a general 
way, the mode of an action, viz. paene, fere, and ferme > 
nearly, almost ; temere, at random ; rite, duly, according to 
custom ; vix, scarcely ; nimis (and nimium, see § 267.), too 
much ; satis or sat, enough, sufficiently ; saltern, at least ; 
sic and ita, so, thus ; and item and itidem, just so, and the 
double form identidem, which, however, has assumed the 
meaning of a particle of time, " constantly," " one time like 
the other ; " perinde and proinde (derived from inde), as 
though, like ; secus, otherwise, differently ; immo (that is, hi 
modo), in some manner ; the adverbs of place : uspiam and 
usquam, somewhere \ nusquam, no where ; procul, far ; prope^ 


near; ubi, where? ibi, there; unde, whence? inde, hence, 
together with their numerous compounds and correlatives, of 
which we shall speak presently; the adverbs of time ; quando, 
when ? with its compounds aliquando, once ; quandoque, at 
some time ; quandocunque, whenever ; quondam, formerly ; 
nunc, now ; tunc and turn, then ; unquam, ever ; nunquam, 
never ; jam, already; etiam (from et and jam) and quoque, 
also ; etiamnunc and etiamtum, still, yet ; semel, once ; bis, 
twice (the other adverbial numerals, see Chap. XXXIII.) ; 
saepe, often ; usque, ever ; heri or here, yesterday ; eras, to- 
morrow ; olim, formerly ; mox, soon after ; simul, at once ; 
tandem, at last or length ; demum, not until ; from inde are 
derived deinde and exinde, or abridged dein and exin, there- 
upon, afterwards ; subinde, immediately after, or repeatedly ; 
deinceps, in succession ; denique, lastly : further, the adverbs 
with the suffix per : semper, always ; nuper, lately ; parum- 
per and paulisper, for a short time ; tantisper, for so long, 
commonly to indicate a short time, " for so short a time." 
(See § 270.) 

Most of the prepositions are originally adverbs, but as 
they usually take the case of a substantive after them, they 
are regarded as a distinct class of the parts of speech. But 
they must still be looked upon as adverbs when they are 
joined with a verb without a case ; as i prae, go before ; 
pone subit conjunx, "behind there follows the wife." Hence 
it happens that clam, secretly, and coram, in the presence 
of, are generally reckoned among the prepositions, whereas 
palam, publicly, is universally called an adverb, though it is 
formed precisely in the same manner. Ante and post, when 
used as adverbs, generally have the lengthened forms anted 
and posted (also antehac and posthac), but occur as adverbs 
also without any change of form. 

[§ 288.] 3. The Adverbs of Place, mentioned above, 
tibi, where ? and unde, whence ? together with the adverbs 
derived from the relative pronoun, viz. quo, whither? and 
qua, in what way ? stand in a certain relation to other ad- 
verbSj demonstratives, relatives, and indefinites, which are 
formed in the same manner. All together form a system of 
adverbial correlatives, similar to that of the pronominal 
adjectives. (See above, § 130.) The interrogative form is 
the simplest, and (as in English) is the same as that of the 
relative. The relative acquires a more general meaning, 
either by being doubled, or by the suffix cunque, which is 




expressed in English by " ever," as in " wherever." With- 
out any relative meaning, the simple form acquires a more 
general signification by the suffix que, or by the addition of 
the particular words vis and libet. The demonstrative is 
formed from the pronoun is, and its meaning is strengthened 
by the suffix dem. The indefinite is formed by the prefix 
ali, or before a vowel alio, from aliquis. We thus obtain the 
following correlative adverbs : — 







Ubi, where ? 

ubi, where. 

ibi, there. 

alicubi, some- 







1 every 
| when 



Unde, whence ? 

unde, whence. 

hide, thence. 

alicunde, from 


1 from 



some place. 


I every 



J wher< 

Quo, whither ? 

quo, whither. 

eo, thither. 

aliquo, to some 


i to 





I ever} 


J plact 

Qua, in what 

qua, in the 

ea, in that 

aliqua, in some 


1 in 

direction ? in 

way in which. 




J- ever; 

what way. 



) way 

[§ 289.] To these we must add those which are formed 
by composition with alius, nullus, uter, and answer to the 
question where ? alibi, elsewhere ; nullibi, nowhere (for 
which, however, nusquam is more commonly used) ; utrubi 
or utrobi, in which of two places ? with the answer utrobique 
in each of the two places. Inibi is a strengthening form of 
ibi, and signifies " in the place itself." To the question 
whence ? answer aliunde, from another place ; utrimque, from 
both sides. To the question whither ? answer alio, to another 
place ; to utro, to which of two sides ? answer utroque, to 
both sides, and neutro, to neither ; further, quopiam and 
quoquam, to some place ; intro, into ; retro, back ; ultro, be- 
yond ; citro, this side. 

We add the correlatives to the question whither ? quorsum 
or quorsus ? (contracted from quoversum or quoversus). The 
answers to them likewise end in us and um: horsum, hither; 
aliorsum, towards another place ; quoquoversus, towards every 


side ; introrsum, inward ; prorsum, forward ; retrorsum, back- 
ward, and others. 

[§ 291.] 4. The above-mentioned demonstratives, ibi, there, 
inde, hence, and eo, thither, are used only with reference to 
relative sentences, which precede ; e. g. ubi te heri vidi, ibi 
nolim te iterum conspicere, where I saw thee yesterday, there 
I do not wish to see thee again ; unde venerat, eo rediit, he 
returned thither, whence he had come. More definite demon- 
stratives, therefore, are requisite, and they are formed in 
Latin from the three demonstrative pronouns by means of 
special terminations. 

The place where ? hie, istic, illic, (there), 
whither? hue, istuc, illuc, (thither), 
whence? hinc, istine, Mine, (thence). 

These adverbs are employed with the same difference which 
we pointed out above (§ 127.) as existing between the pro- 
nouns hie, iste, and ille, so that hie, hue, and hinc point to the 
place where I, the speaker, am ; istic, istuc, and istine, to the 
place of the second person, to whom I speak ; and illic, illuc, 
and Mine to the place of the third person or persons, who are 
spoken of. The following are compounds of hue and hinc : 
adhuc, until now ; hucusque, as far as this place ; abhinc and 
dehinc, from this moment (counting backwards). 



[§ 293.] 1. The Comparison of Adverbs is throughout de- 
pendent upon the comparison of adjectives, for those adverbs 
only have degrees of comparison, which are derived from 
adjectives or participles by the termination e (o) or ter ; and 
wherever the comparison of adjectives is wanting altogether 
or partly, the same deficiency occurs in their adverbs. 

2. The comparative of adverbs is the same as the neuter 
of the comparative of adjectives, and the superlative is de- 
rived from the superlative of the adjectives by changing the 
termination us into e; e. g. doctior, doctius ; elegantior, ele- 

i 2 


gantius ; emendatior, emendatius ; superlative: doctissimus, 
doctissime ; elegantissime, emendatissime ; summus, summe. 
The positives in o (e. g. cito, raro) also make the superlative 
in e ; meritissimo and tutissimo however are more commonly 
used than meritissime and tutissime. 

[§ 294.] 3. The primitive adverbs, and those derived from 
other words by the terminations im and tus, together with 
the various adverbs enumerated in § 270. foil., that is, in 
general all adverbs which are not derived from adjectives 
and participles by the endings e (or o instead of it) and ter, 
do not admit the degrees of comparison. The only exceptions 
are diu and saepe: diutius, diutissime ; saepius, saepissime. 
Nuper has a superlative nuperrime, but no comparative. 



[§ 295.] 1. Prepositions are indeclinable words, or, to use 
the grammatical term, particles, which express the relations 
of nouns to one another or to verbs : e. g. a town in Italy ; a 
journey through Italy ; my love for you ; the first century 
after Christ ; he came out of his house ; he lives near Berlin ; 
on the Rhine, &c. They govern in Latin either the accusa- 
tive or ablative, and some (though mostly in a different sense) 
both cases. Their Latin name is derived from the fact of 
their being placed, with a few exceptions, before the noun. 
We have already observed (§ 276.) that a considerable num- 
ber of these particles are properly adverbs, but are justly 
reckoned among the prepositions, as they more or less 
frequently govern a case. Apart from their etymology, and 
considering only their practical application in the language, 
we have the following classes of prepositions : — 

1. Prepositions with the Accusative, 

Ad, to, or up to. 

Apud, with, near. 

Ante, before (in regard to both time and place). 


Adversus and adversum, against. 

Cis, citra,, on this Side. 

Circa and circum, around, about. 

Circiter, about (indefinite time or number). 

Contrciy against. 

Erga, towards. 

Extra, without. 

Infra, beneath, below (the contrary of supra). 

Inter, among, between. 

Intray within (the contrary of extra). 

Juxta, near, beside. 

Ob, on account of. 

Penes, in the power of. 

Per, through. 

Pone, behindc 

Post, after (both of time and space). 

Praeter, beside. 

Prope, near. 

Propter, near, on account of. 

Secundum, after (in time or succession), in accordance with, 

as secundum naturam vivere. 
Supra, above. , 

Trans, on the other side. 
Versus (is put after its noun), towards a place ; e. g. in Gal- 

Ham versus, Massiliam versus. 
Ultra, beyond. 

2. Prepositions with the Ablative. 

A, ab, abs {a, before consonants ; ab, before vowels and some 
consonants ; and abs only in the combination of abs te 
for which, however, a te also is used), from, by. 

Absque, without (obsolete). 

Coram, before, or in the presence of. 

Cum, with. 

De, down from, concerning. 

E and ex (e before consonants only, ex before both vowels 
and consonants), out of, from. 

Prae, before, owing to. 

Pro, before, for. 

Sine, without. 

Tenus (is put after its noun), as far as, up to. 

i 3 


3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative. 

In, with the accus. — 1. into, on, to, to the question Whither? 
— 2. against. With the ablat. in, on, to the question 
Where ? 

Sub, with the accus. — 1. under, to the question Whither? — 
2. about or towards, in an indefinite statement of time, 
as sub vesperam, towards evening. With the ablat. 
under, to the question Where ? Desub is also used in 
this sense. 

Super, with the accus., above, over ; with the ablat., upon, 
concerning, like de. 

Subter, under, beneath, is used with the accusative, whether 
it expresses being in or motion to a place ; it rarely oc- 
curs w T ith the ablative, and is in general little used. 

[§ 324.] As regards the position of prepositions, it was 
remarked above, that versus and tenus are placed after their 
case. The same is the case with the four prepositions ante, 
contra, inter and propter, when they are joined with a 
relative pronoun ; e. g. quos inter, for inter quos. These 
same four prepositions ante, contra, inter, and propter, 
together with the monosyllabic ob, post, de, ex, and in, are 
frequently placed between the adjective and substantive ; 
e. g. medios inter hostes, magna ex parte, aliquot post menses, 
and still more frequently between the relative pronoun and 
the substantive ; e. g. qua in re, quam ob causam. The 
preposition cum is always placed after or rather appended to 
the ablative of the personal pronouns me, te, se, nobis and 
vobis ; as mecum, tecum, nobiscum, &c. The same is com- 
monly the case with the ablatives of the relative pronoun, 
quo, qua, and quibus, but we may also say, cum quo, cum 
qua and cum quibus. 




[§ 325.] The majority of the prepositions are used also 
to form compound words, especially verbs, modifying, 
by their own meaning, that of the words to which they are 
joined. The prepositions themselves often undergo a change 
in their pronunciation and orthography, on account of the 
initial letter of the verb to which they are prefixed. But 
there is no established usage, and we find, e. g. sometimes 
adloquor, and sometimes alloquor, and in like manner impono 
and inpono, conlega and collega. But we prefer the system 
of assimilation. 

Ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before the con- 
sonants d, j, v, m ; before other consonants it undergoes an 
assimilation, that is, the d is changed into the letter which 
follows it, and before qu into the kindred c, as in acquiro, 
acquiesco. Its signification remains the same as usual, as in 
adjungo, assilmo, affero, appono, alloquor. 

Ante remains unchanged; its meaning is "before," as in 
antepono, antefero. 

Circum remains unchanged, and retains, in writing, its m 
even before vowels, although in pronunciation it was lost. 
Only in circumeo and its derivatives the m is often dropped, 
as circueo. Its meaning is " around," " about," as in cir- 
cumago, circumdo, circumfero. 

Inter remains unchanged, except in the word intelligo. 
Its meaning is "between" or "among," as in interpono, 

Ob remains generally unchanged, and undergoes the 
assimilation only before c, f, g, and p. Its meaning of 
" against" or " before " appears in oppono, offero, occurro, 

[§ 328.] Per remains unchanged, except in pellicio. The 
r is dropped only in the word pejero, I commit a perjurium. 
Its meaning is "through," as in perlego, perluceo, perago. 
When added to adjectives it strengthens their meaning 
(§ 107.), but in perfidies and perjuries, it has the power of a 
negative particle. 

Post remains unchanged, except in pomoerium and pomeri- 

I 4 


dianus, in which st is dropped ; its meaning is " after/' as in 

Praeter remains unchanged, and signifies " passing by," as 
in praetereo, praetermitto. 

Trans remains unchanged before vowels, and for the 
most part also before consonants ; but trado, traduco, trajicio, 
are more frequent . than transdo, transduco, transjicio. 
When the verb begins with s, the s at the end of trans is 
better omitted, and we should write transcribo, transilio. 
Its meaning "through," "over," or "across," appears in 
transeo, trajicib, and transmitto, I cross (a river J ; trado, 

[§ 327.] A, ab, abs, viz. : a before m and v ; ab before 
vowels and most consonants; in aufero (to distingnish it 
from affero) and aufugio, ab is changed into av or au ; abs 
occurs only before c and t Its meaning is "from" or 
" away," as in amitto, avehor, abeo, abjicio, abrado, aufero, 
abscondo, abstineo. 

De, "down" or "away from," as in dejicio, descendo, 
detraho, detero, rub off; despicio, look down upon, despise. 
In some compounds, especially adjectives, it has a negative 
power, as in decolor, deformis, demens, desipio, despero. 

E and ex, viz. : ex before vowels, and before consonants 
sometimes e and sometimes ex : ex before c, p, q, s, t, except 
in escendo and epbto ; before f it assimilates to it ; e is used 
before all the other consonants, except in exlex. The s after x 
is generally thrown out, as exequor, exilium, expecto, extinguo. 
Its meaning "out of" or "from," appears in ejicio, emineo, 
endto, eripio, effero (extuli), excello, expono, exquiro, extraho, 
exaudio, exigo, exulcero, &c. The idea of completion is 
implied in several of these compounds, as in efficio, enarro, 

[§ 328.] In is changed into im, before b and p and 
another m, and is assimilated to I and /*. Its meaning is 
"in" or "into," as in incurro, impono, illido, irrumpo. 
When prefixed to adjectives and participles it has a negative 
power, e. g. indoctus, incautus, ineptus (from aptus), insi- 
piens, improvidus, imprudens, imparatus, the negative of 
paratus, because there is no verb imparo. 

Prae remains unchanged, and its meaning is " before," as 
in praefero, praecipio, pfaeripio. 

Pro remains unchanged. For the purpose of avoiding 
hiatus, a d is inserted in prodeo, prodigo, and in those forms 


of the verb prosum in which the initial e would cause hiatus, 
as prodes, prodcst, proderam. (See above, § 156.) Its 
meaning " forth" or " forward," appears in profero, procurro, 
prodco, projicio, prospicio. 

[§ 329.] Sub remains unchanged before vowels, but under- 
goes assimilation before consonants, or the b is dropped. Its 
meaning is " under," as in summitto, suppono, sustineo ; or 
"from under," as in subduco, summoveo, surripio ; an 
approach from below, is expressed in subeo, succedo, suspicio, 
look up to, esteem; and to do a thing instead of another 
person, in subsortior. It weakens the meaning in such 
verbs as subrideo, subvereor, and in adjectives, such as sub- 
absurdus, subtristis, subrusticus, subobscurus. In this last 
sense the b is not assimilated to r. 

Super, " above," as in superimpono, supersto, supersedeo, 
set myself above, or omit. 

Subter, " from under," as in subterfugio. 

Com for cum appears in this form only before b, p, m ; 
before Z, n, r, the final m is assimilated to these letters, and 
before all other consonants it is changed into n. Before 
vowels the m is dropped, e. g. co'eo, cohaereo, and in addition 
to this a contraction takes place in cogo and cogito (from 
coago, coagito). The m is retained only in a few words, as 
comes, comitium, comitor, comedo. It signifies "with" or 
" together," as in conjungo, confero, compono, collido, colligo, 
cor r ado, co'eo, coalesco, cohaereo. In some verbs and par- 
ticiples it merely strengthens the meaning, as corrumpo, 
concerpo, confringo, consceleratus. 

£§ 330.] Note. We must not leave unnoticed here what are called the 
inseparable prepositions, that is, some little words, which are never used 
by themselves, but occur only in compound verbs and adjectives, where 
they modify the meaning in the same way as the above-mentioned se- 
parable prepositions. The following is a list of them : 

Amb (from the Greek aficpi), " around," " about," as in ambio, amburo 
(ambustus,) ambigo, ambiguus. In amplector, amputo, the b is dropped on 
account of the p - before palatals amb is changed into an ; e. g. anceps, 
anquiro, and also before/, in the word anfractus. 

Dis or di, denotes separation, as in disjicio, diripio, distraho, digero, 
dijudi'ro, dispono, dissero, distinguo, dimitto (to be distinguished from 
demitto). It strengthens the meaning in discupio. 

Re signifies "back :" remitto, rejicio, revertor. Before a vowel or an h 9 
a d is inserted : redeo, redigo, redhibeo. The d in reddo, I give back, is of 
a different kind. Re denotes separation in resolvo, revello, retego, recingo, 
recludo, refringo, reseco ; and in relego, rebibo, and others, it denotes 

i 5 


Se, " aside," " on one side :" seduco, sevoco, secubo, sepono, sejungo. In 
adjectives it signifies " without:" securus, sobrius for sebrius (non ebrius), 
socors for secors. 

The prefixes ne and ve are of a somewhat different nature : ne has 
negative power, as in vefas, nemo (ne homo), nescio. Ve is likewise negative, 
but occurs in a much smaller number of words, viz. in vesanus and vecors 
(vecordia), senseless. In vegrandis and vepattidus, it seems to denote 



[§33i.] 1. Conjunctions are those indeclinable parts of 
speech which express the relations in which sentences stand 
to one another. They therefore are, as it were, the links of 
propositions, whence their name conjunctions. 

2. In regard to their form (jigura), they are either simple 
or compound. Of the former kind are, e. g. et, ac, at, sed, 
nam; and of the latter atque, itaque, attamen, siquidem, 
enimvero, verumenimvero. 

3. In reference to their signification, they may be divided 
into the following classes. They denote : 

[§ 332.] 1. A union {conjunctions copulativae), as et, ac, 
atque, and the enclitic que, as well as the negative belong- 
ing to the verb, neque or nee, or doubled so as to become an 
affirmative, nee {neque) non, equivalent to et. Etiam and 
quoque also belong to this class, together with the adverbial 
item and itidem. As these particles unite things which are 
of a kind, so the disjunctive conjunctions, signifying " or," 
connect things which are distinct from each other. They 
are aut, vel, the suffix ve, and sive or seu. 

Note. Ac is never used before vowels (which, however, do not include 
j) or before an h ; atque occurs most frequently before vowels, but before 
consonants also. 

Etiam stands before the word whieh has the emphasis, and quoque 
after it. When propositions are to be connected, etiam is better than 

The Latin language is fond of doubling the conjunctions of this 
kind, whereby words and propositions are more emphatically brought 
under one general idea. The English " as well as " is expressed by 


et — que, 
que — et, and 

que — que, which is found only in poetry. 
Negative propositions are connected in English by '"neither — nor," and 
in Latin by 

neque — neque, or nee — nee. 
Propositions, one of which is negative and the other affirmative, "on the 
one hand, but not on the other," or " not on the one hand, but on the 
other," are connected by 

et — neque 

neque — et. 

Our "either — or," is expressed by aut — aut, or vel — vel. Sive — 

sive leaves it undecided, as to how a matter is to be taken. Modo — 

modo, and nunc — nunc, are equivalent to sometimes — sometimes; quum — 

turn to both — and. 

[§ 340.] 2. The following express a comparison, " as," 
"like," "than as if" {conjunctiones co?nparativae) : ut or 
uti, sicut, velut, prout, praeut, the poetical ceu, quam, tam- 
quam, quasi, ut si, ac si, together with ac and atque, when 
they signify " as," which is the case after adjectives and 
adverbs denoting similarity or dissimilarity, such as par, 
aeque, juxta, perinde, alius, aliter, &c. 

[§ 341.] 3. The following express a concession with the 
general signification " although" (conjunctiones concessivae) : 
etsi, etiamsi, tametsi (or tamenetsi), quamquam, quamvis, 
quantumvis, quamlibet, licet, together with ut in the sense 
of "even if" or "although," and quum, when it signifies 
" although." 

[§ 342.] 4. The following express a condition, the funda- 
mental signification being "if" (conjunctiones conditionales): 
si. sin, nisi or ni, simodo, dummodo, if only, if but (for which 
dam and modo are also used alone), dummodo ne, or simply 
modo ne or dumne. 

[§ 344.] o. The following express a conclusion or infer- 
ence with the general signification of " therefore ; " " conse- 
quently" (conjunctiones conclusivae) : ergo, igitur, itaque, eo, 
ideo, iccirco, proinde, propterea, and the relative conjunc- 
tions, signifying "wherefore:" quapropter quare, quamob- 
rem, quocirca, unde. 

[§ 345.] 6. The following express a cause, or reason, 
with the meaning of "for," and "because" (conjunctiones 
causales): nam, namque, enim, etenim, quia, quod, quoniam, 
quippe, quum, quando, quandoquidem, siquidem. 

[§ 34 7.] 7. The following express a purpose or object, 

\ 6 


with the signification of " in order that," or, " in order that 
not" {conjunctiones finales): ut or uti, quo, ne or ut ne, neve 
or neu, quln, quominus. 

[§ 348.] 8. The following express an opposition, with the 
signification of " but " (conjunctiones adversativae) : sed, 
autem, verum, vero, at, at enim, atqui, tamen, attdmen, sed- 
tamen, veruntdmen, at vero, enimvero, verumenimvero, ce- 

[§ 350.] 9. Time is expressed by the conjunctiones tern- 
porales : quum, quum primum, ut, ut primum, ubi, postquam, 
antequam and priusquam, quando, simulac or simulatque or 
simul alone, dum, usque dum, donee, quoad, 

[§ 351.] 10. The following interrogative particles likewise 
belong to the conjunctions : num, utrum, an, and the suffix 
ne, which forms with non a special interrogative particle 
nonne ; also ec and en, as they appear in ecquis, ecquando 
and enumquam, and numquid, ecquid, when used as pure in- 
terrogative particles. 

Note. Num and ec (ew) and their compounds give a negative meaning 
to direct questions, that is, they are used in the supposition that the answer 
will be " no ;" e. g. num putas me tarn dementem fuisse ? you surely do not 
believe that, &c. 

Utrum in accordance with its derivation (from uter, which of two) is 
used only in double questions, and is followed by an, 

[§ 355.] 11. Most conjunctions are placed at the begin- 
ning of the proposition, which they introduce ; only these 
few, enim, autem, vero, together with quidem and quoque, 
are placed after the first word of a proposition, or after the 
second, when the first two belong together, or when one of 
them is the auxiliary verb esse. Quidem and quoque, when 
belonging to single words, may take any place in a proposi- 
tion, but they are always placed after the word, which has 
the emphasis. Itaque and igitur are commonly used with 
this distinction, that itaque stands first, while igitur is placed 
after the first, and sometimes even after several words of a 
proposition. But tamen may be put either at the beginning 
of a proposition, or after the first word. 


CHAP. Lxvni. 


[§ 359.] 1. Interjections are sounds uttered under the in- 
fluence of strong emotions. They are indeclinable, and stand 
in no close connection with the rest of a sentence ; for the 
dative and accusative, which are joined with some of them, 
are easily explained by an ellipsis. See §§ 402. and 403. 

2. The number of interjections in any language cannot be 
fixed. Those which occur most frequently in Latin authors 
are the following. 

a) Of joy : io, iu, ha, he, hahahe, euoe, euax. 

b) Of grief: vae, heu, eheu, ohe, au, hei, pro. 

c) Of astonishment : o, en or ecce, hui, hem, ehem, aha, 
atat, papae, vah ; and of disgust : phui, apage. (See § 222.) 

d) Of calling : heus, o, eho, ehodum ; of attestation : pro, 
also written proh. 

e) Of praise or flattery : eia, euge. 

[§ 360.] 3. Other parts of speech, especially substantives 
and adjectives, adverbs and verbs, and even complex expres- 
sions, such as oaths and invocations, must in particular con- 
nections be regarded as interjections. Such nouns are : pax 
(be still !) ; malum, indignum, nefandum, miserum, misera- 
ble — to express astonishment and indignation ; macte, and 
with a plural macti, expresses approbation. Adverbs : nae, 
profecto, cito, bene, belle ! Verbs used as interjections are, 
quaeso, precor, oro, obsecro, amabo (to all of which te or vos 
may be added), used in imploring and requesting. So also 
age, agite, cedo, sodes (for si audes), sis, sultis (for si vis, si 
wltis), and agesis, agedum, agitedum. 

[§ 361 -] 4. Among the invocations of the gods, the fol- 
lowing are particularly frequent : mehercule, mehercle, her- 
cule, hercle, or mehercides, medius fidius, mecastor, ecastor, 
pol, edepol, per deum, per deum immortalem, per deos, per 
Jovem, pro (or proh) Juppiter, pro sancte (supreme) Jup- 
piter, pro dii immortales, pro deum fidem, pro deum atque 
hominum fidem, pro deum or pro deum immortalium (scil. 
fidem), and several others of this kind. 





[§ 362.] 1. The subject of a proposition is that of which 
any thing is declared, and the predicate that which is declared 
of the subject. 

The subject appears either in the form of a substantive, or 
in that of an adjective or pronoun, supplying the place of a 
substantive. Whenever there is no such grammatical sub- 
ject, the indeclinable part of speech or proposition which 
takes its place, is treated as a substantive of the neuter gen- 
der. (Comp. § 43.) 

|_§ 365."] 2. The predicate appears either in the form of a 
verb, or of the auxiliary esse combined with a noun. 

The predicate accommodates itself as much as possible to 
its subject. When the predicate is a verb, it must be in the 
same number as the subject; e.g. arbor viret, the tree is 
green; arbores virent, the trees are green. When the predi- 
cate is an adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, combined 
with the auxiliary esse, it takes the number and gender of 
the subject, and esse takes the number of the subject, e. g. 
puer est modestus, libri sunt met, prata sunt secta. 

When the predicate is a substantive with the auxiliary 
esse, it is independent of the subject both in regard to number 
and gender ; e. g. captivi militum praeda fuerant ; amicitia 
vinculum quoddam est hominum inter se. But when a sub- 
stantive has two forms, one masculine and the other feminine, 
as rex, regina ; magister, magistra ; inventor, inventrix ; cor- 
rupter, corruptrix ; praeceptor, praeceptrix, the predicate 
must be in the same gender as the subject; e. g. licentia cor- 
ruptrix est morum; stilus optimus est dicendi effector et ma- 


gister. When the subject is a neuter the predicate takes the 
masculine form, the latter being more nearly allied to the 
neuter than the feminine; e.g. tempus vitae magister est 
When the subject is a noun epicene (see § 42.), the predicate 
follows its grammatical gender ; as aquila volucrum regina, 
jida ministra Jovis. 

It is only by way of exception that esse is sometimes con- 
nected with adverbs of place, such as aliquis or aliquid prope, 
propter, longe, procul est, or when esse signifies "to be in a 
condition ;" e. g. rectissime sunt apud te omnia, everything 
with you is in a very good state or condition. 

[§ 366.] Note. Collective nouns, that is, such as denote a multitude 
of individual persons or things, e. g. multitude, turba, vis, exercitus,juventus, 
nobilitas, gens, plebs, vulyus, sometimes have a plural verb for their pre- 
dicate. For the same reason a plural verb is sometimes joined as 
predicate with quisque and uterque. 

[§ 37O 3. When nouns are combined with one another, 
without being connected by the verb esse, or by a relative 
pronoun and esse, in such a manner as to form only one idea, 
as in "a good man," the adjective, participle, or pronoun 
follows the substantive in gender, number, and case ; e. g. ^ 
huic modesto puero credo, hanc modestam virginem diligo. ** 

When two substantives are united with each other in this 
way, they are said to stand in apposition to each other, and 
the one substantive explains and defines the other ; e. g. 
oppidum Paestum, arbor laurus, Taurus rnons, Socrates 
vir sapientissimus. The explanatory substantive (substan- 
tivum appositum) takes the same case as the one which it 
serves to explain ; e. g. Socratem, sapientissimum virum, 
Athenienses interfecerunt They may differ in number and 
gender, as urbs Athenae ; pisces signum ; fratrem tuum, 
delicias mea's, vidi ; but when the substantive in apposition 
has two genders, it takes the one which answers to that 
of the other substantive. The predicate likewise follows 
the substantive which is to be explained, as Tulliola, deli- 
ciolae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat ; Quum duo 
fulmina nostri imperii subito in Hispania, On. et P. Sci- 
piones, extincti occidissent, for the words duo fulmina, though 
placed first, are only in apposition. When plural names of 
places are explained by the apposition urbs, oppidum, civitas, 
the predicate generally agrees with the apposition ; e. g. 
Volsinii, oppidum Tuscorum opulentissimum, concrematum 


O vitae philosophia dux (magistra), virtutis indagatrix ex- 

pultrixque vitiorum ! 
Pythagoras velut genitricem virtutum frugalitatem omnibus 

ingerebat (commendabat). 

[§ 371.] 4. When a relative or demonstrative pronoun 
refers to a noun in another sentence, the pronoun agrees 
with it in gender and number ; e. g. tarn modestus Me puer 
est, quern vidisti, de quo audivisti, cujus tutor es, ut omnes 
eum diligant, 

[§ 372.] Note, Exception to this rule : when a word of a preceding 
proposition or this proposition itself, is explained by a substantive with 
the verbs esse, dicere, vocare, appellare, nominare, habere, putare, &c. or their 
passives, the relative pronoun usually takes the gender and number of the 
explanatory substantive which follows ; e. g. Thebae ipsae, quod Boeotiae 
caput est ; animal plenum rationis, quern vocamus hominem ; domicilia con- 
juncta, quas urbes dicimus ; Romae fanum Dianae populi Latini cum 
populo Romano fecerunt: ea erat confessio, caput rerum Romam esse; Si 
omnia facienda sunt, quae amid velint, non amicitiae tales, sed conjurationes 
putandae sunt, i. e. such things or connections cannot be looked upon as 
friendships, but are conspiracies. So also : ista quidem vis, surely this is 
force ; haec fuga est, non profectio ; ea ipsa causa belli fuit, for id ipsum, &c. 
Idem velle et idem nolle, ea demum Jirma amicitia est, 

[§ 373.] 5. When the subject consists of several nouns in 
the singular, the predicate is generally in the plural, if either 
all or some of those nouns denote persons ; but if they denote 
things, either the singular or plural may be used.. If, how- 
ever, one of the nouns is in the plural, the predicate must 
likewise be in the plural, unless it attach itself more espe- 
cially to the nearest substantive in the singular. 

Antonius et Octavianus vicerunt Brutum et Cassium apud 

Cum tempus necessitasque postulate decertandum manu est y 

et mors servituti turpitudinique anteponenda. 
Beneficium et gratia homines inter se conjungunt. 
Vita, mors, divitiae, paupertas omnes homines vehementis- 

sime permovenU 

[§ 376 -] 6. With regard to the gender, which the predi- 
cate (an adjective, participle, or pronoun), takes, when it 
belongs to several nouns, the following rules must be ob- 
served : — 

a) When the nouns are of one gender, the predicate (ad- 
jective, participle, or pronoun,) takes the same. 


b) When they are of different genders, the masculine (in 
case of their denoting living beings) is preferred to the 
feminine, and the predicate accordingly takes the masculine. 
When the nouns denote things, the predicate takes the 
neuter, and when they denote both living beings and things 
mixed together, it takes either the gender of the living 
beings, or the neuter. 

Jam pridem pater milii et mater mortui sunt. 

Labor voluptasque, dissimilia natura, societate quadam inter 

se naturali juncta sunt. 
Jane, fac aeternos pacem pacisque ministros ! 
Romani, si me scelus fratris, te senectus absumpserit, regem 

regnumque Macedoniae suafutura sciunt. 

Or the predicate (adjective, participle, or pronoun), agrees 
only with one of the nouns, and is supplied by the mind for 
the others ; this is the case especially, when the subject con- 
sists of nouns denoting both living beings and things. 

Thrasybulus contemptus est primo a tyrannis atque ejus soli- 

L. Brutus exulem et regem ipsum et liberos ejus, et gentem 

Tarquiniorum essejussit 
Hominis utilitati agri omnes et maria parent. 

[§ 378 '] 7. When the personal pronouns ego, tu, nos, vos, 
combined with one or more other nouns, form the subject of 
a proposition, the predicate follows the first person in pre- 
ference to the second and third, and the second in preference 
to the third. 

Si tu et Tullia, lux nostra, valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero 

Quid est quod tu aut ilia cum Fortuna hoc nomine queri 

possitis? < 




[§ 379 »] !• The subject of a proposition is in the nomina- 
tive (see § 362.), and the noun of the predicate only when it 
is connected with the subject by esse or the similar verbs : 
apparere, appear ; existere, fieri, evadere, come into exist- 
ence, become yvideri, seem, appear; manere, remain ; or the 
passives of the actives mentioned in § 394. ; viz. did, appel- 
lari, existimari, haberi, &c. ; e. g. Justus videbatur, he ap- 
peared just; rex appellabatur, he was called king. The 
personal pronouns ego, tu, ille, nos, vos, and Mi are implied 
in the terminations of the verb, and are expressed only when 
they denote emphasis or opposition. 

In rebus angustis animosus atquefortis appare. 

Appius adeo novum sibi ingenium induerat, ut plebicola re- 

pente omnisque aurae popularis captator evaderet. 
Ego reges ejeci, vos tyrannos introdueitis ; ego libertatem, 

quae non erat, peperi, vos partani servare non vidtis, says 

L. Brutus to the Romans. 

Note. The construction of the accusative with the infinitive is the 
only case in which the subject is not in the nominative, but in the 
accusative. (See § 599.) In this case the noun of the predicate, with 
the above-mentioned verbs, is likewise in the accusative. 

[§ 381.] 2. The nominative is sometimes not expressed in 
Latin, and the word homines is understood with a verb in 
the third person plural active, in such phrases as laudant 
hunc regem, they, or people, praise this king ; dicunt, tra- 
dunt, ferunt hunc regem esse justum, people say that this 
king is just. 



[§ .382.] 1. The accusative denotes the immediate object of 
an action, and is therefore joined to all transitive verbs, 


whether active or deponent, to express the person or thing 
affected by the action implied in such verbs ; e. g. pater amat 
(tuetur) jilium. When the verb is active, the same proposi- 
tion may be expressed without change of meaning in the 
passive voice, the object or accusative becoming the subject 
or nominative ; thus instead of pater amat filium, we may 
say filius amatur a patre. v « 

The transitive or intransitive nature of a verb depends 
entirely upon its meaning (see § 142.), which must be learned 
from the dictionary. It must however be observed that many 
Latin verbs may acquire a transitive meaning, besides their 
original intransitive one, and accordingly govern the accusa- 
tive ; e. g. doleo signifies, I feel pain, or I am sorry ; but it 
has also a transitive meaning, I lament, and may therefore 
govern an accusative ; e. g. doleo casum tuum, I lament thy 
misfortune. Real intransitives are, by way of exception, 
joined sometimes with the accusative of some neuter pronoun; 
e.g. hoc gaudeo, hoc laetor, I rejoice at this; unum omnes 
student; but not gaudeo hanc rem, or student hanc rem. 

[§ 386.] 2. Intransitive verbs which imply motion, as ire, 
vadere, volare, and some also which imply "being in a place," 
asjacere, stare, and seder e, acquire a transitive meaning by 
being compounded with a preposition, and accordingly govern 
the accusative. This, however, is generally the case only in 
verbs compounded with the prepositions circum, per, praeter, 
trans, and super, and in those compound verbs which have 
acquired a figurative meaning. Such verbs become perfect 
transitives, and the accusative which they take in the active 
form of a proposition as their object, becomes the nominative 
of the subject, when the proposition is changed into the pas- 
sive form ; e. g. Jiumen transitur, societas initur, mors pro 
republica obitur. With other compounds the accusative is 
only tolerated, for generally the preposition is repeated, or 
the dative is used instead of the preposition with its case 
(§ 415.). 

[ § 387.] Note. Hence we commonly say, e. g. accedo ad te, I step up to thee, 
or tibi, 1 join thee ; but rarely accedo muros or terrain. Adno, I swim up to, 
commonly ad naves, urbem, or navibus, urbi ; but rarely naves, urbem. Homo 
advolvitur ad genua, or genibus ; advolvitur genua also may be said. Some 
compound verbs (though not those compounded with circum, per, praeter, 
trans and super) either lose their intransitive meaning altogether, or 
retain it along with the transitive one, and accordingly govern the ac- 
cusative either exclusively, or only in their particular transitive meaning. 
Of this kind are adeo and convenio in the sense of " I step up to a person 


for the purpose of speaking to him ;" aggredior (and adorior), coeo, I con- 
clude, e. g. an alliance ; excedo and egredior, I transgress, e. g. the 
bounds ; obto, I visit, undertake ; occumbo (mortem), I suffer death, or 
die ; subeo, I undertake. But every thing depends upon the meaning of 
such verbs, which must be learned from a Dictionary. 

[§ 388.] 3. The active verbs deficio, juvo, adjuvo, defugio, 
effugio, profugio, refugio, and subterfugio, and the deponents 
imitor, sequor, and sector govern the accusative. They are 
real transitives and the actives have a personal passive. 
Fortes for tuna adjuvat. 
Nemo mortem effugere potest, 
Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur. 

Note. The compounds of sequor (§209.) likewise govern the ac- 
cusative : obsequor, I comply with, alone governs the dative. 

[§ 390.] 4. Five impersonal verbs (§ 225.), which ex- 
press certain feelings, viz. piget (I am) vexed ; pudet (I am) 
ashamed ; poenitet (I) repent ; taedet (I am) disgusted, and 
miseret, (I) pity, take an accusative of the person affected. 
As to the case by which the thing exciting such a feeling is 
expressed, see § 441. 

Decet, it is becoming, and its compounds likewise govern 
the accusative of the person, but they differ from the above- 
mentioned impersonal verbs, inasmuch as decet and its com- 
pounds may have a nominative for their subject, though not 
a personal one. 

Candida pax homines, trux decet iraferas. 

[§ 391.] 5. The verbs docere (teach) with its compounds 
edocere and dedocere and celare (conceal), have two accusa- 
tives of the object, — one of the thing, and another of the 
person, as Antigonus iter, quod habebat adversus Eumenem, 
omnes celabat. 

Fortuna belli artem victos quoque docet 
Catilina juventutem, quam illexerat, multis modis mala fact- 

nora edocebat 

Note. When such a proposition takes the passive form, the accusative 
of the person becomes the nominative, as omnes celabantur ab Antigono ; 
but the thing may remain in the accusative, e. g. Latinae legiones longa 
societate militiam Romanam edoctae ; omnes belli artes edoctus. But the 
thing may be expressed also by the preposition de, as celatus sum a te hac 
de re ; judices de his rebus docentur. t 

[§ 393.] 6. The verbs posco, reposco, fiagito, I demand ; 
oro, rogo, I entreat ; interrogo and percontor, I ask or in- 


quire, also admit a double accusative, one of the person, and 
another of the thing, but the verbs which denote demanding 
or entreating also take the ablative of the person with the 
preposition ab, and those denoting inquiring may take the 
ablative of the thing with de. Peto, postulo and quaero are 
never used with a double accusative, but the first two have 
always the ablative of the person with ab, and quaero with 
ab, de or ex. 

Nulla salus bello, pacem te poscimus omnes. 

Legati Hennenses ad Verrem adeunt eumque simulacrum Ce- 

reris et Victoriae reposcunt, 
Pusionem quendam Socrates apudPlatonem interrogat quae* 

dam geometrica. 

[§ 394.] 7. The following verbs (which in the passive 
voice have two nominatives) have in the active two accusa- 
tives, one of the object and the other of the predicate : di- 
cere, vocare, appellare, nominare, nuncupare, also scribere 
and inscribere ; ducere, habere, judicare, existimare, nume- 
rare, putare {arbitrarily intelligerey agnoscere, reperire, 
invenirey facere (pass. fieri), reddere, instituerey constituerey 
creare, deligerey designare, declarare, renwitiare, and others; 
se praebere, se praestare. Thus we say in the active, Cicero- 
nem universus populus adversus Catilinam consulem decla- 
ravity and in the passive, Cicero ab universe populo consul 
declaratus est 

Romulus urbem, quam condidit, Romam vocavit. 
Socrates totius mundi se incolam et civem arbitrabatur. 
Bene de me meritis gratum me praebeo. 
Scytharum gens antiquissima semper habita est 

[§ 395.] 8. The accusative is used with verbs and adjec- 
tives to express the extent of time and space, in answer to 
the questions: — how far? how long?, how broad? how deep? 
how thick ? e. g. nunquam pedem a me discessity he never 
moved one step from me ; a recta conscientia non transver- 
sum unguem oportet discedere, not one finger's breadth ; fossa 
duos pedes lata or longa ; cogitationem sobrii hominis punc- 
tum temporis suscipe, take, for one moment, the thought of a 
rational man ; tres annos mecum habitavit, or per tres annoSy 
which however implies that the' period was a long one. The 
ablative is not often used in this sense. 


Campus Marathon ab Athenis circiter milia passuum decern 

Quaedam bestiolae unum tantum diem vivunt. 
Decern annos Troja oppugnata est ab universa Graecia. 
Lacrimans in carcere mater nodes diesque assidebat. 

[§ 397.] Note. Old, in reference to the years which a person has lived, 
is expressed in Latin by natus, with an accusative of the time ; e. g. 
Decessit Alexander mensem unum, annos tres et triginta natus. 

[§ 398.] 9. The names of towns, and not unfrequently of 
small islands, are put in the accusative with verbs implying 
motion, without the preposition in or ad, which are required 
with the names of countries ; e. g. Juvenes JRomani Athenas 
studiorum causa projicisci solebant 

We may here mention at once all the rules relating to the 
construction of the names of towns. When they denote the 
place whence, they are in the ablative ;. when the place where? 
in the dative (locative). When we have to express " through 
a town," the preposition per is required. 

Note, With regard to names of towns denoting the place where ? there 
is no difficulty when they belong to the first declension or are plurals, as 
Romae, at Rome; Athenis, at Athens. If the names belong to the second 
declension they take the termination i, as Beneventi, Tarenti, &c, for 
the ending i is an ancient form of the dative of the second declension as 
in unl, nulll, When a name of a town belongs to the 3d declension, it 
often happens that by a natural change the i of the dative or locative has 
become e, e. g. Carthagini, Anxuri, Tiburi, Lacedaemoni, but also Car- 
tkagine, Lacedaemone; and the change of Carthagini into Carthagine is 
precisely similar to the change of heri into here. 

Demaratus quidam, Tarquinii regis pater, tyrannum Cypse- 

lum quod f err e non poterat, Tarquinios Corintho fugit, et 

ibi suas fortunas constituit. 
Dionysius tyrannus Syracusis expulsus Corinthi pueros do- 

Romae Consules, Athenis Archontes, Carthagine Suffetes, sive 

judices, quotannis creabantur, 

[§ 399 ] Note 1. When the words urbs, oppidum, locus, &c. follow the 
names of towns as appositions, they generally take a preposition ; e. g. 
Demaratus Corinthius se contulit Tarquinios, in urbem Etruriae floren- 
tissimam. In answer to the question where ? however, the simple ablative 
may be used, but never the dative or genitive ; e. g. Archias Antiochiae 
natus est, celebri quondam urbe et copiosa (or in celebri urbe). When these 
words, with their prepositions, precede the names of towns, the latter are 
invariably put in the same case ; e. g. ad urbem Ancyram, ex urbe Roma, 
ex oppido Thermis, in oppido Athenis, in oppido Adrumeio. 


[§ 400.] Note 2, The words domus and rus are treated like the names 
of towns, consequently domum (also domos in the plur. ) and rus, home, 
into the country ; domo and rure, from home, from the country ; domi, 
ruri (more frequent than rure), at home, in the country. Domi also takes 
the datives meae,tuae, suae, nostrae, vestrae, and alienae ; but if any other 
adjective is joined with it, or if the name of the possessor is added in the 
genitive, a preposition is commonly used; e. g. in ilia domo, in domo pub- 
lica, in privata domo, in domo Caesaris or ipsius. In the case of domum 
and domo, the rule is on the whole the same. Humi, on the ground, is 
used in the same way in answer to the question where ? and belli and 
militiae, always in combination with, or in opposition to, domi : belli 
domique, or domi bellique, domi militiaeque, at home and in the camp. 

[§ 401.] The poets may express by the accusative any 

locality answering to the question whither ? as Italiam fato 

profugus Laviniaque venit litora ; Speluncam Dido dux et 

Trojanus eandem deveniunt ; Verba refers aures non per- 

venientia nostras. 

[§ 402.] 10. In exclamations the accusative of the per- 
son or thing wondered at is used, either with the interjec- 
tions o, heu, eheu, or without them ; e. g. Heu me miserum ! 
O wretched man that I am ! heu dementiam existimantium ! 
O the folly of those who believe ! &c. ; me miserum I 
Huncine hominem ! hancine impudentiam, judices ! hancine 
audaciam ! fallacem hominum spem fragilemque fortu- 
nam et inaiies nostras contentiones ! 

[§ 403.] Note. With these as with all other interjections the vocative 
also is used when the person or thing itself is invoked. Vae and hei are 
usually joined with the dative, as vaemisero mihi ! vae victis ! Ecce and en 
are preferred with the nominative. 

[§404.] 11. The following prepositions govern the accu- 
sative : ad, apud, ante, adversus and adversum, cis and citra, 
circa and circum, circiter, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, 
intra, juxta, ob, penes, per, pone, post, praeter, prope, prop- 
ter, secundum, supra, trans, versus, ultra, and in and sub 
when joined with verbs of motion. Respecting super and 
subter see § 320. 



[§ 405.] 1. The dative is the case of reference, or if we 
compare it with the accusative, the case denoting the remoter 


object; for as the accusative serves to denote the effect or 
that which is acted upon, in contrast to the agent or active 
subject, so the dative denotes that with reference to which 
the subject acts, or in reference to which it possesses this or 
that quality. Hence the dative is used — 

a) With all transitive verbs, along with the accusative, either 
expressed or understood, to denote the person in reference to 
whom or for whom a thing is done ; e. g. date panem pau- 
peribus, mitto tibi librum, suadeo tibi, nuntiavit imperatori, 
promisit militibus. This rule implies that the person for 
whose benefit or loss anything is done, is expressed hy the 
dative (dativus commodi et incommodi) ; e. g. Pisistratus 
sibi, non patriae, Megarenses vicit ; Non scholae, sed vitae 

[§ 406.] b) With intransitive verbs, which though they 
usually do not govern any case, may yet express that the 
action is done with reference to something or somebody. We 
mention here especially vacare, nubere, and supplicare. Vaco 
signifies " I am free," hence vaco aliciii rei, I have leisure 
for a thing or occupy myself with it, as vaco philosophiae. 
Nubo originally signifies " I cover ; " and as according to an 
ancient custom the bride on her wedding-day covered her 
face, she was said nubere aliciii viro, " to cover herself for a 
man," that is, " to marry." Supplico signifies " I am a sup- 
pliant " (supplex), hence supplico alicui, I implore a person. 

Homo non sibi soli natus est, sed patriae, sed suis. 

Civitas Romana inter bellorum strepitum parum olim vacabat 

liberalibus disciplinis. 
Plures in Asia mulieres singulis viris solent nubere. 
Neque Caesari solum, sed etiam amicis ejus omnibus pro te, 

sicut adhuc feci, libentissime supplicabo. 

I[§ 407.] Note. Suadeo tibi hanc rem> has nothing that is strange to us, 
as we use the same construction in English. Persuadeo denotes the com- 
pletion of suadeo, and must be noticed here because its construction differs 
from that of our verb " to persuade." We use the passive form " I am 
persuaded," but in Latin we must say hoc (or any other neuter pronoun) 
mihi versuadetur, as the construction is managed in such a way as to make 
trie clause wnich follows the subject : persuadetur mihi, persuasum mihi est, 
mihi persuasum habeo. 

Mihi quidem nunquam persuaderi potuit, animos, dum in corporibus essent 
mortalibus, vivere, quum exissent ex his, emori. 

[§ 409.] 2. The dative is joined with all adjectives (and 
adverbs) whose meaning is incomplete, unless a person or an 


object is mentioned for or against whom, for whose benefit 
or loss the quality exists. Of this kind are those which ex- 
press utility or injury, pleasantness or unpleasantness, in- 
clination or disinclination, ease or difficulty, suitableness 
or unsuitableness, similarity or dissimilarity, equality or in- 

Adjectives expressing a friendly or hostile disposition to- 
wards a person, sometimes take the prepositions in, erga, ad- 
versus, instead of the dative; and utilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus^ 
generally take the preposition ad to express the thing for which 
any thing is useful or fit ; e. g. homo ad nullam rem utilis ; 
locus aptus ad insidias ; but the person to or for whom a 
thing is useful or fit, is always expressed by the dative. 

Canis nonne similis lupo ? atque, ut Ennius, " simia quam 
similis, turpissima bestia, nobis I" 

Fidelissimi ante omnia homini canis et equus. 

Invia virtuti nulla est via. 

Cunctis esto benignus, nulli blandus, paucis familiaris, omni- 
bus aequus. 

Note. The adjectives similis^ assimilis, consimilis, dissimilis, par and dis- 
par, take the genitive, when an internal resemblance, or a resemblance in 
character and disposition, is to be expressed. 

[§ 412.] 3. Hence the dative is joined with those intran- 
sitive verbs which express the same ideas as the adjectives 
mentioned in § 409., and also with those denoting, to com- 
mand, serve, trust, mistrust, approach, threaten, and to be 
angry. The following list contains the principal ones : pro- 
sum, auxilior, patrocinor, subvenio, medeor ; noceo, obsum, 
officio, incommodo, insidior ; faveo, indulgeo, studeo, parco, 
adulor, blandior, assentior; adversor, refragor, obsto, invideo, 
aemulor, obtrecto, convicior, maledico ; impero, pareo, cedo, 
obedio, obtempero, servio, inservio, ministro, Jido, confido, 
appropinquo, minor, irascor, stomachor, succenseo. To these 
must be added the impersonals convenit, it suits ; conducit 
and expedit, it is conducive, expedient ; dolet, it grieves. The 
beginner must take especial care not to use the passive of 
these verbs personally, to which he might easily be tempted 
by the English equivalents ; e. g. / am envied, I am molested, 
I am scolded, I am spared, and the like. In Latin the pas- 
sive is impersonal : mihi invidetur, obtrectatur, incommo- 
datur, mihi maledicitur, parcitur. 



Probus invidet nemini. 

Philosophia medetur animis. 

Antiochus se nee impensae, nee labori, nee periculo parsurum 

pollicebatur, donee liberam vere Graeciam atque in ea 

principes Aetolos fecisset 
Demosthenes ejus ipsius artis, cui studebat, primam litteram 

non peterat dicere. 

[§ 415.] 4. Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, 
ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, sub, and super, preserving, 
as compounds, the meaning of the prepositions, may be joined 
with a dative instead of repeating the preposition, or an 
equivalent one with the case it requires : e. g. Romani leges 
incidebant in aes, or aeri ; natura inscripsit in mentibus nos- 
tris, or mentibus nostris ; comparare bellum cum pace, or pact. 
They are either transitives, and as such have an accusative 
besides, or intransitives without an accusative of the object. 

The following are the most important transitive verbs of this kind : 
addo, affero, afflgo, adhibeo, adjicio, adjungo, admoveo, alligo, applico ; cir- 
cumjicio ; comparo, compono, confero, conjungo ; immisceo, impono, imprimo, 
incido, includo, infero, ingero* injicio, insero, inuro ; interjicio, interpono ; 
objicio, off undo, oppono ; postkabeo, postpono ; prae faro, praejicio, praepono ; 
subjicio, suppono, substerno. 

The following are intransitive : accedo, acquiesco, adhaereo, alludo, annuo, 
arrepo, assideo, asplro ; antecello ; cohaereo, colludo, congruo, consentio, con- 
sono ; excello ; incido, incubo and incumbo, indormio, inhaereo, inhio, 
immorior, immoror, innascor, insisto ; inierjaceo, intervenio ; obrepo, obstrepo, 
obversor ; praemineo, praesideo, praevaleo ; succumbo, supersto, supervivo, 
and the compounds of esse : adsum, insum, intersum, praesum., subsum, 

[§ 416.] It must be remarked in general that the preposi- 
tion or one equivalent to it, is usually repeated in verbs com- 
pounded with ad, con, and in : e. g. adhibeo, confero, con- 
jungo, communico, comparo, imprimo, inscribo, insum, and 
also interest in the sense of " there is a difference ; " e. g. 
studium adhibere ad disciplinas ; conferte (comparate, con- 
tendite) hanc pacem cum illo belio ; hospitio et amicitia 
mecum conjunctus est; consilia sua mecum communicavit ; 
in hac vita nihil inest nisi miseria. 

[§ 417.] The compounds of verbs of motion are construed 
with either the dative or the accusative, and some compounds 
ofjacere, stare and seder e, follow their analogy. (See § 386.) 
Hence the verbs o£ excelling, if their simple verbs denote mo- 
tion, are mostly construed with the accusative, and antecello, 
praecello and praemineo, which at least admit the accusative, 
follow their example. 


[§ 418.] 5. The verbs aspergo and inspergo, circumdo, 
and circumfundo, dono and impertio, exuo and induo, are 
used, either like the above-mentioned transitives, with an 
accusative of the thing and a dative of the person, or with 
an accusative of the person and an ablative of the thing ; 
e. g. circumdo alicui custodias, or circumdo aliquem cus- 
todiis, and consequently in the passive voice custodiae tibi 
circumdantur or (tu) circumdaris custodiis. So also : ma- 
culas aspergo vitae tuae, or maculis vitam tuam aspergo; 
dono tibi pecuniam, or pecunid te dono ; impertio tibi laudes, 
or laudibus te impertio, &c. 

[§ 419.] 6. With passive verbs the dative is sometimes 
used, instead of ab with the ablative. 
Quidquid in hac causa mild susceptum est, Quirites, id 

omne me rei publicae causa suscepisse confirmo. 
Barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intelligor ulli. 

Note. It is a rule of the Latin language always to join the dative in- 
stead of ab with the ablat. to the gerund and the participle future passive ; 
e g. moriendum mihi est. See § 649. 

[§ 420.] 7. Esse with the dative of a person expresses 
the English " to have," e. g. sunt mihi multi libri, I have 
many books, the same as habeo multos libros. 

Homini cum deo similitudo est. 

An nescis, longas regibus esse manus ? 

[§42i.] Hence mihi est nomen or cognomen (also cogno- 
mentum) signifies "I have a name," that is, "my name is" 
or "I am called." The name itself is put either in the 
nominative or the dative, being attracted by the dative of 
the person. 

Syracusis est fons aquae dulcis, cui nomen Arethusa est. 
Consules leges decemvirales, quibus tabulis duodecim est 
nomen, in aes incisas, in publico proposuerunt 

Note. The same is the case with the (passive) expressions datum, 
inditum, factum est nomen ; e. g. Tarquinius, cui cognomen Superbo ex 
moribus datum. The name itself is commonly put in the dative also with 
the active verbs dare, addere, indere, dicere, ponere, imponere, tribuere alicui 
nomen ; e. g. dare alicui cognomen tardo ac pingui ; desipiunt omnes aeque 
ac tu, qui tibi nomen insano posuere ; but it may also be put in the same 
case as nomen, that is, in the accus., as: stirps virilis, cui Ascanium parentes 
dixere nomen. 

The name may be expressed also by the genitive, according to the 
general rule that of two substantives joined to each other, one is put in 
the genitive ; e. g. Metellus praetor, cui ex virtute Macedonici nomen inditum 

K 2 



erat. This, however, is not the ordinary practice in the case of real proper 
names, but is generally confined to surnames. 

[§ 422.] 8. With the verbs esse, dare, mittere and venire, 
and others of the same meaning, besides the dative of the 
person, another is used to express the purpose, intention, 
and destination. 

Note. Dare belongs to this class both in its sense of" to give,*' and in 
that of "to put to one's account." Its analogy is followed by mitto and 
relinquo. The following verbs have a similar meaning : apponere, ducere, 
Iwbere, tribuere and vertere. Esse, in this respect, is equivalent to the 
English " to do," in " it does him honour," and the passives fieri, dari, 
duci, haberi, tribui, verti, have a similar meaning. Proficisci is sometimes 
construed like venire. 

Virtutes hominibus decori gloriaeque sunt. 
Attains, Asiae rex, regnum suum Romanis dono dedit. 
Mille Plataeenses Atheniensibus adversus Persas auxilio 
venerunt. » 

Note. There is a great variety of datives of this kind ; e. g. dono 
aliquid muneri, praemio ; relinquo milites auxilio, subsidio, praesidio, cus- 
todiae ,• tribuitur or datur mihi vitio, crimini, odio, probro, opprobrio, laudi, 
saluti, utilitati, emolumento, &c. 

CHAP. Lxxm. 


[§ 423.] 1. When two substantives not expressing the same 
thing are united with each other so as to form the expression 
of only one idea, one of them is in the genitive. This genitive, 
dependent upon a substantive, is in Latin of a double kind, 
according as it expresses either the subject or the object. 
The genitive is subjective, when it denotes that which does 
something or to which a thing belongs ; e. g. hominum facta, 
liber pueri: it is objective when it denotes that which is 
affected by the action or feeling spoken of; e. g. amor vir- 
tutis, taedium laboris, desiderium otii, remedium doloris. 

The objective genitive is used very extensively in Latin, 
for it is not only joined with those substantives which are 
derived from verbs governing the accusative — e. g. expug- 


natio urbis, the taking of the town; indagatio veri, the 
investigation of truth ; scientia linguae, the knowledge of a 
language ; amor patriae, the love of one's country ; cupiditas 
pecuniae, desire for money ; but with those also, the cor- 
responding verb of which requires either a different case, 
or a preposition ; e. g. taedium laboris, disgust for work ; 
fiducia virium suarum, confidence in his own strength ; con- 
tentio honorum, a contest for honours, &c. 
Nuper Gn. Domitium scimus M. Silano, consulari homini, 

diem dixisse propter unius hominis, Aegritomari, paterni 

amici atque hospitis, injurias. 
Est autem amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divinarum 

humanarumque rerum cum benevolentia et caritate summa 

Initium et causa belli (civilis) inexplebilis honorum Marii 
fames (fuit). 

Note. Something analogous to the Latin subjective and objective 
genitive occurs in English in such expressions as " God's love," that is, 
the love which God shows to men, and the " love of God," that is, the 
love which men bear to God. The Latin language having no such means 
of distinguishing, is frequently ambiguous; e. g. j ug a hominum may be 
either " the escape from men," or " the flight " or "escape of men," and in 
all such combinations as metus hostium, injuria mulierum, judicium Ferris, 
triumphus Bojorum, opinio deorwn, the genitive may be either subjective 
(active) or objective (passive) , but the context generally shows what is 
meant. In case of any real ambiguity, a preposition may be used 
in Latin instead of the genitive ; e. g. ex injuria in or adversus mulieres, 
in opinione de diis. This is the case especially with substantives denoting 
a disposition, either friendly or hostile towards any thing ; e. g. amor 
(animus) meus erga te ; odium, ira, simultas adversus inimicum. In general, 
however, a preposition is much more rarely used in joining two sub- 
stantives, and it is a part of the conciseness of the Latin language 
to express the relation of the genitive, if possible, by the genitive 

[§ 426.] 2. The genitive in the connection of two sub- 
stantives also expresses the external condition or the internal 
nature of a thing ; and if any of the tenses of esse, fieri, 
haberi, appears in such a combination, the genitive is not 
dependent upon these verbs, but must be explained by the 
omission of a substantive, such as homo and res. This at the 
same time constitutes the difference between the genitive 
of quality {genitivus qualitatis) and the ablative of quality 
with the verb esse. But as there is a special part of speech 
to express qualities, viz., the adjective, the quality can be 
expressed by a substantive only when this substantive itself 

K 3 


is qualified by an adjective. We cannot say, for example^ 
homo ingenii, a man of talent (which is expressed by homo 
ingeniosus), but we may say homo magni, summi, excellentis 
ingenii. Again, we cannot say homo annorum, but we may 
say homo viginti or quadraginta annorum. Comp. § 468. 

Athenienses belli duos duces deligunt? Periclem, spectatae 

virtutis virum, et Sophoclem, scriptorem tragoediarum. 
Titus facilitatis tantae fuit et liber alitatis, ut nemini quid- 

quam negaret. 
Hamilcar secum in Hispaniam duxit filium Hannibalem 

annorum novem. 
Spes unica populi Romania L. Quinctius, trans Tiberim 

quattuor jugerum colebat agrum. 

[§ 427> ] Note. The genitive thus serves to express all the attributes of 
a person or thing, relating to its extent, number, weight, duration, age, 
and the like, provided such attributes are expressed by the immediate con- 
nection of substantives. Thus we say colossus centum viginti pedum, a 
colossus of 120 feet in height; corona parvi ponderis, a crown of little 
weight ; Aristides exilio decern annorum multatus est ; but when the ad- 
jective longus or lotus is added, we must say fossa quindecim pedes lata ; 
in like manner puer decern annorum, but puer decern annos natus. (§ 395. 

[§ 429.] 3. The genitive is used to express the whole, of 
which anything is a part, or to which it belongs as a part. 
This is the case : a) with substantives denoting a certain 
measure of things of the same kind ; e. g. modius, medimnum 
tritici, libra /arris, magna vis auri, jugerum agri, ala equi- 
tum. This genitive may be termed genitivus generis, b) 
With all words which denote a part of a whole {genitivus 
partitivus) where we often use the preposition, " of " or 
" among." All comparatives and superlatives belong to this 
class of words ; e. g. doctior horum (duorum) juvenum ; doc- 
tissimus omnium ; eloquentissimus Romanorum, and also all 
words implying a number, whether they are real numerals, 
or pronouns and adjectives, as quis, aliquis, quidam, uter, 
alter, neuter, alteruter, uterque, utervis, aliquot, solus, 
nullus, nonnulli, multi, pauci ; or substantives, as nemo, 
pars, numerus. The genitive belonging to the superlative 
of adjectives is retained also with superlatives as adverbs. 
Thus we say optimus omnium est, and also optime omnium 

Graecorum oratorum praestantissimus fait Demosthenes. 
Populus Romanus legem dedit, ut consulum alter ex plebe 



Duo sunt aditus in Ciliciam ex Syria, quorum liter que par- 
vis praesidiis propter angustias intercludi potest. 

Note. Instead of the genitive we may also use the prepositions ex and 
inter, and sometimes de, but never ah. 

The words uter, alter, neuter, differ from quis, alius, nullus, by their 
referring to a whole consisting of only two. The difference between 
nostri, vestri, and nostrum, vestrum is that the forms ending in um are 
used as partitive genitives ; comp. § 131. 

[§ 432.] 4. The neuters of pronouns and of some adjec- 
tives used as pronouns, are joined with a genitive for two 
reasons : first, because in meaning they have become substan- 
tives, and secondly, because they express a part of a whole. 
Such neuters are : — hoc, id, Mud, istud, idem, quid and quod 
with their compounds (aliquid, quidquid, quippiam, quid- 
quam, quodcunque), aliud ; tantum, quantum, aliquantum, 
multum, plus, plurimum, minus, minimum, paulum and ni- 
mium with their diminutives and compounds ; tantulum, tan- 
tundem, quantulum, quantulumcunque, &c. To these we must 
add nihil, nothing, which is always used as a substantive ; 
and the adverbs satis, enough ; parum, too little ; abunde, 
affatim, abundantly. 

It is however to be observed that these neuters are used 
as substantives only in the nominative and accusative, and 
that they must not be dependent upon prepositions. 

Quantum incrementi Nilus capit, tantum spei in annum est. 
Procellae quanto plus habent virium, tanto minus temporis. 
Pythagoras, quum in geometria quiddam novi invenisset, 

Musis bovem immolasse dicitur. 
Justitia nihil expetit praemii, nihil pretii. 
Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum in Catilina fuit. 

[§ 433.] Note. The genitive joined with these neuters is often not a 
real substantive, but the neuter of an adjective, which is used as a sub- 
stantive, as above quiddam novi. It must be observed here, that only 
adjectives of the second declension (in um) can be treated as substantives, 
and not those of the third in e, nor the comparatives in us. We may 
therefore say aliquid novum and aliquid novi, but only aliquid memorabik, 
and gravius aliquid ; and not aliquid memorabilis, or aliquid gravioris. 

[§ 435.] 5. The neuters of adjectives in general, both in 
the singular and plural, are sometimes used as substantives, 
and joined with a genitive, e. g. exiguum campi ante castra 
erat, for which it would be more common to say, exiguus 
campus; in ultima Celtiberiae penetrare, summa tectorum 

k 4 


obtinere, instead of in ultimam Celtiberiam penetrare, and 
summa tecta obtinere. 

[§ 436.] 6. Many adjectives denoting a relation to a thing 
(adjectiva relatiya), especially those which express partak- 
ing, desiring, fulness, experience, capacity, or remembering, 
and their contraries, are joined with the genitive of a sub- 
stantive or pronoun. Thus we say memor promissi, remem- 
bering a promise ; compos mentis, in possession of his mind. 
Such relations are expressed in English by prepositions. 

The following in particular are construed in this way : — 
particeps, expers, consors, exsors ; cupidus, studiosus, avidus, 
avarus ; plenus, capax, insatiabilis, fecundus, fertilis, ferax, 
sterilis ; peritus, imperitus, conscius, inscius, gnarus, ignarus, 
rudis, prudens, providus, compos, impos, potens and impotens ; 
memor, immemor, tenax, curiosus, incuriosus. 

Pythagoras sapientiae studiosos appellavit philosophos. 

Themistocles peritissimos belli navalis fecit Athenienses. 

Venturae memor es jam nunc estote senectae. 
Nescia mens hominumfati sortisque futurae. / 

[§ 438.] 7. The participles present active are joined with 
a genitive wheiythey do not express a simple act or a mo- 
mentary condition, but, like adjectives, a permanent quality 
or condition. The following list contains those most in 
use: — amans, appetens, colens, fugiens, intelligens, metuens, 
negligens, observans, retinens, tolerans, patiens, impatiens, 
temperans, intemperans ; e. g. amans patriae, Gracchi aman- 
fissimi plebis Romanae, appetens laudis, fugiens laboris, immi- 
nentium intelligens, officii negligens, miles patiens or impa- 
tiens solis, pulveris, tempestatum. 

Epaminondas adeo fuit veritatis diligens, ut ne joco quidem 

Momatffesemper appetentes gloriae praeter ceteras gentes at- 

que^pidi laudis fuerunt 

[§ 439.] 8. VVith verbs of reminding, remembering and 
forgetting (admoneo, commoneo, commonefacio aliquem ; me- 
mini, reminiscor, recordor, also in mentem mihi venit ; obli- 
viscor), the person or the thing, of which any one reminds 
another or himself, or which he forgets, is expressed by the 
genitive ; but there are many instances also in which the . 
thing is expressed by the accusative. 
Medicus, ut primum mentis compotem esse regem sensit, modo 


matris sororumque, modo tantae victoriae appropinquantis 

admonere non destitit 
Hannibal milites adhortatus est, ut reminiscerentur pristinae 

virtutis suae, neve mulierum libeimmque (for et liberorum) 

Tu, C. Caesar, oblivisci nihil soles, nisi injurias. 
Ulud semper memento : qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse nequit, 

nequicquam sapit. 

[§ 441.] 9. The impersonal verbs pudet, piget, poenitet, 
taedet and miseret, require the person in whom the feeling 
exists to be in the accusative, and the thing which produces 
the feeling in the genitive. The thing producing the feeling 
may also be expressed by an infinitive, or by a sentence with 
quod or with an interrogative particle, e. g. pudet me hoc fe- 
cisse, poenitet me quod te offendi, non poenitet me quantum 
prqfecerim. As to the forms of these verbs, see § 22 o. 

Malo, me fortunae poeniteat, quam victoriae pudeat. 
Eorum nos magis miseret, qui nostram misericordiam non 

requirunt, quam qui illam ejfiagitant. 
Socratem non puduit fateri, se multas res nescire. 
Quern poenitet peccasse, paene est innocens. 

[§ 442.] Note. The personal verbs misereor and miseresco, " I pity," 
are joined with a genitive, like the impersonal verb miseret. Miserari and 
ci/mmiserari (to pity), on the other hand, require the accusative. 

Pudet requires a genit. also, in the sense of " being restrained by shame 
or respect for a person." 

[§ 444.] 10. The verbs of estimating or valuing and their 
passives (aestimare, ducere, facere, fieri, habere, pendere, 
putare, taxaresmdL esse) are joined with the genitive, when the 
value is expressed in a general way by an adjective, but with 
the ablative, when it is expressed by a substantive. (Comp. 
§ 456.) Genitives of this kind are i — magni, permagni, 
pluris, plurimi, maximi, parvi, minoris, minimi, tanti, quanti, 
and the compounds tantldem, quantlvis, quanticunque : but 
never multi and majoris. The substantive to be understood 
with these genitives is pretii, which is sometimes expressed 
(with esse). 

Si prata et hortidos tanti aestimamus, quanti est aestimanda 

virtus ? 
Mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo. 

[§ 445.] The same rule applies^|gfegeneral statements of 

K 5 


price with the ' verbs of buying ', selling ', lending ', and hiring 
(emere, vender e, the passive venire, conducere, locare, and as 
passives in sense, stare and constare, prostare and licere, to 
be exposed for sale). But the ablatives magno, permagno, 
plurimo, parvo, minimo, nihilo, are used very frequently in- 
stead of the genitives. 

Mercatores non tantldem vendunt, quanti emerunt 
Nulla pestis humano generi pluris stetit, quam ira. 
Non potest parvo res magna constare. 
Parvo fames constat, magno fastidium. 

[§ 448.] 1 1 . The genitive is used to denote the crime or 
offence, with the verbs accuso, incuso, arguo, interrogo, in* 
simulo, increpo, infamo ; convinco, coarguo ; judico, damno, 
condemno ; absolvo, liber o, pur go ; arcesso, cito, defer v, pos- 
tulo, reum facio, alicui diem dico, cum aliquo ago. The 
genitive joined to these verbs depends upon the substantive 
crimine or nomine, which is understood, but sometimes also 

Miltiades proditionis est accusatus, quod, quum Parum ex- 

pugnare posset, e pugna discessisset 
Thrasybulus legem tulit, ne quis ante actarum rerum accusa- 

retur neve multaretur. 

[ § 447 ] Note. The punishment, with the verbs of condemning, is 
commonly expressed by the genitive ; e. g. capitis, mortis, multae, pecuniae, 
quadrupli, octupli, and less frequently by the ablative, capile, morte, multa, 
pecunia. The ablative, however, is used invariably when a definite sum 
is mentioned ; e. g. decern, quindecim, milibus aeris. Sometimes we find 
the preposition ad or in : adpoenam, ad bestias, ad metalla, in metaUum, in 

[§ 448.] 12. The genitive is used with the verbs esse and 
fieri, in the sense of "it is a person's business, office, lot, or 
property," the substantive res or negotium being understood : 
e. g. hoc est praeceptoris, this is the business of the teacher ; 
non est mearum virium, it is beyond my strength ; Asia 
Romanorum facta est, Asia became the property of the 

But instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns mei, 
tui, sui, nostri, vestri, the neuters of the possessives meum, 
tuum, suum, nostrum, vestrum est, erat, &c, are used. 

Cujusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore 


Sapientis judicis est, semper non quid ipse velit, sed quid lex 

et religio cogat, cogitare. 
Bello Gallico praeter Capitolium omnia hostium erant. 
Tuum est, videre quid agatur. 

[§ 449.] 13. A similar ellipsis takes place with the imper- 
sonal verb interest, it is of interest or importance (to me), the 
person to whom any thing is of importance being expressed 
by the genitive ; but instead of the genitive of the personal 
pronouns, the possessives mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are 
used. The same is the case with the impersonal refert (pro- 
bably a compound for remfert), which has the same meaning. 
These possessives in the case of interest are accusatives neu- 
ter plural, commoda being understood ; but in the case of 
refert the a of those pronouns is long, which is accounted for 
by supposing that originally the phrase was rem fert meam, 
tuam, &c. The thing which is of interest or importance is 
not expressed by a substantive, but sometimes by the neuter 
of a pronoun ; e. g. hoc mea interest, and usually by an accusa- 
tive with the infinitive, or by ut and the interrogative parti- 
cles with the subjunctive: e. g. multum mea interest te esse 
diligent em, or ut diligens sis, (utrum) diligens sis nee ne. 

Semper Milo, quantum interesset P. Clodii, se perire, cogi- 

Caesar dicere solebat, non tarn sua, quam reipublicae inter- 

esse, uti salvus esset. 
Quid refert, utrum voluerim fieri, an factum gaudeam ? 

[§ 450.] Note. The degree of importance is expressed by adverbs or 
neuter adjectives, or by their genitives : magis, magnopere, vehementer, 
parum, minime, tarn, tantopere ; multum, plus., plurimum, permultum, infinitum, 
mirum quantum, minus, nihil, aliquid, quiddam, tantum, quantum; tanti, 
quanti, magni, permagni, parvi. 



[§ 451.] The Ablative serves to denote certain relations 
of substantives, which are expressed in most other languages 
by prepositions. 

K 6 


Note. This is an important difference between the ablative and the 
other oblique cases ; for the latter expressing necessary relations between 
nouns, occur in all languages which possess cases of inflection, and do not, 
like the French or English, express those relations by prepositions. But 
the ablative is a peculiarity of the Latin language, which might indeed 
be dispensed with, but which contributes greatly to its expressive con- 

1. The ablative is used first with passive verbs to denote 
the thing by which any thing is effected {ahlativus rei efficien- 
tis), and which in the active construction is expressed by the 
nominative : e. g. sol mundum illustrate and sole mundus 
illustratur ; fecunditas arborum me delectat, smdfecunditate 
arborum delector. If that by which any thing is effected is 
a person, the preposition ab is required with the ablative, 
with the sole exception of the participles of verbs denoting 
" to be born " (natus, genitus, ortus), to which the name of 
the father or family is generally joined in the ablative without 
a preposition. Ab cannot be used with the ablative of a 
thing by which any thing is effected, unless the thing be 

Dei providentid mundus administratur. 

Non est consentaneum, qui metu non frangatur, eum frangi 

cupiditate ; nee qui invictum se a labore praestiterit, vinci 

a voluptate. 

[§ 452.] 2. An ablative expressing the cause (ahlativus 
causae) is joined with adjectives, which, if changed into a 
verb, would require a passive construction : e. g.fessus, aeger, 
saucius (equivalent to qui fatigatus, morbo affectus, vulne- 
ratus est) — and with intransitive verbs, for which we may 
generally substitute some passive verb, of at least a similar 
meaning, as interiit fame, consumptus est fame ; gaudeo ho- 
nore tuo, delector honore tuo. Thus verbs expressing feeling 
or emotion are construed with the ablative of the thing which 
is the cause of the feeling or emotion, as doleo fratris morte, 
lacrimabat gaudio. Sometimes the prepositions propter and 
per are used instead of such an ablative, and when a person 
is described as the cause of an emotion, they are just as neces- 
sary as ab is with passive verbs. 

We must notice in particular the following verbs : — Glo- 
rior, I boast ; laboro, I suffer from ; nitor and innitor, I lean 
upon ; sto, I depend upon a thing ; fido and confido, I trust 
in a thing, and the verbs constare, contineri 9 to consist of, 
are construed with the ablat, to denote that of which a thing 


consists ; but constare is joined more frequently with ex or 
in, and contineri in the sense of " to be contained in a thing," 
is generally used with in ; nitor with in and the ablat., and 
fido and confido with the dat. 

Concordia res parvae crescunt, discordid maximae dila- 

Est adolescentis majores natu vereri exque his deligere opti- 

mos et probatissimos, quorum consilio atque auctoritate 

Virtute decet, non sanguine niti. 
Diversis duobus vitiis, avaritia et luxuria, civitas Romana 

Delicto dolere, correctione gaudere nos oportet 

[§ 454.] Note. With transitive verbs also, the cause or the thing in 
consequence of which anything is done, is not expressed by the ablative 
but by the preposition propter or a circumlocution with causa, e. g. 
instead of joco dicere,joco mentiri, we find joci causa dicere or mentiri • hoc 
onus suscepi tua causa ; honoris tui causa, propter amicitiam nostram. 
When the cause is a state of feeling, the best Latin writers prefer a cir- 
cumlocution with the perfect participle of some verb denoting " to in- 
duce ; " e. g. to do a thing from some desire, cupiditate ductus, motus, 
captus, &c. 

[§ 455.] 3. An ablative is joined with verbs of every kind 
to express the means or instrument by which a thing is done 
(ablativus instrument). Thus we say manu ducere aliquem, 
to lead a person by the hand ; equo, curru, nave vehi, the 
horse, carriage, and ships being the means of moving. 

Benivolentiam civium blanditiis colligere turpe est 
Cornibus tauri, apri deniibus, morsu leones, aliae fuga se, 

aliae (bestiae) occultatione tutantur. 
Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret 

Note. When a person is the instrument by which anything is effected, 
the ablative is rarely used, but generally the preposition per, or the cir- 
cumlocution with opera alicujus, which is so frequent, especially with 
possessive pronouns, that mea, tua, sua, Sec. opera are exactly the same 
as per me, per te, per se, &c. 

[§ 456.] 4. Hence with verbs of buying and selling, of 
estimation, value, and the like, the price or value of a thing 
is expressed by the ablative, provided it is indicated by a 
definite sum or a substantive. 

Note. Respecting the genitive in general expressions, see § 444., 


where it is observed that, contrary to the general rule, the ablatives 
magna, permagno, piurimo, parvo, minima, are often joined to verbs denoting 
" to buy" and " sell." 

Darius mille talentis percussorem Alexandri emere voluit 

Viginti talentis unam orationem Isocrates vendidit. 

Denis in diem assibus anima et corpus militum aestimantur. 

E§ 457 «] 5. The ablative is joined with nouns (both sub- 
stantive and adjective) and verbs to express a particular 
circumstance or limitation, where in English the expressions 
"with regard to," "as to," or "in" are used: e. g. Nemo 
Romanorum Ciceroni par fait, or Ciceronem aequavit elo- 
quentia, in eloquence, or with regard to eloquence. Hence 
a great number of expressions by which a statement is 
modified or limited, as mea sententia, frequently with the 
addition of quidem ; natione Syrus, a Syrian by birth ; 
genere facile primus ; Hamilcar cognomine Barcas, &c. 

Agesilaus claudus fait (claudicabat) altero pede. 
Sunt quidam homines, non re, sed nomine. 

[§ 460.] 6. The ablative is used with verbs denoting 
plenty or want, and with the corresponding transitives of 
filling, endowing, depriving. (Ablativus copiae aut inopiae.) 
Verbs of this kind are: — 1. abundare, redundare, affluere, 
circumfluere, florere, vigere ; car ere, egere, indigere, vacare ; 
2. complere, explere, implere, cumulare, satiare ; ajfficere, 
donare, ornare, auger e ; privare, spoliare, orbare, fraudare, 
nudare, exuere, and many others of a similar meaning. 

Ger mania rivis fluminibusque abundat 

Quam Dionysio erat miserum, car ere consuetudine amicorum, 

societate victus, sermone omnino familiari ! 
Arcesilas philosophus quum acumine ingenii floruit, turn 

admirabili quodam lepore dicendi. 
Consilio et auctoritate non modo non orbari, sed etiam augeri 

senectus solet 
Mens est praedita motu sempiterno, 

[§ 46i.] Note 1. We must pay especial attention to the verb afficere, 
properly " endow with," but it is used in a great many ways, and may 
sometimes be translated by "to do something to a person : " afficere 
aliquem honore, beneficio, laetitia* praemio, ignominia, injuria, poena, morte, 
sepultura. Notice also praeditus, endowed, equivalent to affectus. 

[§ 462.] Note 2. The adjectives denoting full and empty are some- 
times joined with the ablative although as adjectiva relativa they take a 


genitive (see § 436). Refertus, filled, as a participle of the verb refercio 
has regularly the ablative. 

Indigeo is very frequently joined with a genitive. 

[§ 464.] 7. Opus est, there is need, is used either as an 
impersonal verb, in which case it takes, like the verbs 
denoting want, an ablative, e. g. duce (exemplis) nobis opus 
est, or personally, in which case the thing needed is ex- 
pressed by the nominative, e. g. dux nobis opus est, exempla 
nobis opus sunt. The latter construction is most frequent 
with the neuters of pronouns and adjectives. 

Athenienses Philippidem cursorem Lacedaemonem miserunt, 

ut nuntiaret, quam celeri opus esset auxilio. 
Themistocles celeriter quae opus erant reperiebat 

[§ 465.] 8. The ablative is joined with the deponent 
verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior and vescor, and their com- 
pounds abutor, perfruor, defungor and perfungor. 

Hannibal quum victoria posset uti, frui maluit. 

Qui adipisci veram gloriam volet, justitiae fungatur of- 

Numidae plerumque lacte etferina came vesceba?itur. 

[§ 466.] Note. The five deponents here mentioned were joined in the 
early language with the accusative, whence afterward their participle fut. 
pass, continued to be regularly used. Potior occurs also with the gen- 
itive ; e. g. regni, imperii, and especially in the phrase rerum potiri, to 
assume the supremacy. 

[§ 467 *] 9. The adjectives dignus, indignus and contentus 
are joined with the ablative of the thing of which we are 
worthy, unworthy, and with which we are satisfied. Dig- 
nari, to be deemed worthy, or, as a deponent, to deem 
worthy, is construed like dignus. 

Quam multi luce indigni sunt, et tamen dies oritur ! 
Quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse con- 

[§ 468.] 10. The verbs of removing, preventing, deliver- 
ing, and others which denote separation, are construed with 
the ablative of the thing, without any of the prepositions 
ab, de or ex ; but when separation from a person is expressed 
the preposition ab is always used. The principal verbs of 
this class are: — pellere, depellere, expellere, ejicere, movere, 
amovere, demovere, removere; abire, exire, decedere, desistere, 
evadere ; liberare, expedire, solvere; arcere, prohibere, ex- 


cludere, inter cludere, ahstinere ; together with the adjectives 
liber i immunis, purus, vacuus and alienus, which may be 
used either with the preposition ab or the ablative alone, 
e. g. liber a delictis and liber omni metu, but the verbs 
exolvere, exonerare and levare, although implying liberation, 
are always construed with the ablative alone. 

Note. The verbs which denote " to distinguish " and " to differ," viz. 
distinguere, discernere, secernere, differre, discrepare, dissidere, distare, abhor- 
rere, together with alienare and abalienare, are generally joined only with 
the preposition ab, and the ablat. alone is rare and poetical. 

X. Brutus civitatem dominatu regio liberavit. 

Esse pro cive, qui civis non sit, rectum est non licere, usu 

vero urbis prohibere peregrinos sane inhumanum est. 
Apud veteres Germanos quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto 

nefas habebatur. 
Tu, Juppiter, hunc a tuis aris, a tectis urbis, a moenibus, a 

vita for tunis que civium arcebis. 

[§471.] 11. The ablative is used with esse (either ex- 
pressed or understood) to denote a quality of a person or a 
thing (ablativus qualitatis). But the ablative is used only 
when the substantive denoting the quality does not stand 
alone (as in the case of the genitive, see § 426.), but is 
joined with an adjective or pronoun-adjective. Hence we 
cannot say, e. g. Caesar fuit ingenio, or homo ingenio, a man 
of talent (which would be expressed by an adjective), but 
we say Caesar magno, summo, or excettenti ingenio, or homo 
summo ingenio. 

Agesilaus staturafuit humili et corpore exiguo. 

Omnes habentur et dicuniur tyranni, qui potestate sunt per~ 

petua in ea civitate, quae libertate usa est. 
L. Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magna vi et animi et 

corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. 

Note. With regard to the difference between the ablative and the 
genitive of quality, the genitive is more comprehensive, all ideas of 
measure being expressed by this case alone ; but in other respects the dis- 
tinction is not very clear. Thus we may say homo magna prudentia or 
magnae prudentiae. But the ablat. depends upon esse, while the genit. is 
in immediate connection with the noun. 

[§ 472.] 12. If the manner in which any thing is done is 
expressed by a substantive, it usually takes the preposition 
cum ; e. g. cum fide amicitiam colere ; litter ae cum cur a 
diligentiaque scriptae ; cum voluptate audire. These ex- > 


pressions are equivalent to fideliter colere, diligenter scrip tae, 
libenter audire, &c. If an adjective is joined with the sub- 
stantive, the ablative alone (ablativus modi) is generally 
used, and the preposition cum is joined to it only when an 
additional circumstance, and not an essential characteristic of 
the action, is to be expressed. The substantives denoting 
manner, as modus, ratio, mos, and others, never take the 
preposition cum. 

Quid est aliud gigantum modo bellare cum diis, nisi naturae 

repugnare ? 
Legiones nostrae in eum saepe locum profectae sunt alacri 

animo et erecto, unde se nunquam redituras arbitraren- 

Epaminondas a judicio capitis maxima discessit gloria. 
Miltiades, cum Parum expugnare non potuisset, Athenas 

magna cum qffensione civium suorum rediit. 

[§ 473.] Note. If we compare the above rules with those given under 
Nos. 1. and 2., the ablative expressing company alone is excluded, for 
company is expressed by cum, even in such cases as servi cum tells 
comprehensi sunt, cum ferro in aliquem invader e, when we are speaking of 
instruments which a person has (if he uses them, it becomes an ablativus 
instrumenti) ; further, Romam veni cum febri, I came to Rome as soon 
as the fever broke out ; cum nuntio exire, as soon as the news arrived ; 
cum occasu solis copias educere, as soon as the sun set. 

[§ 475.] 13. a) The ablative, without a preposition, is 
used to express the point of time at which any thing hap- 

Qua node natus Alexander est, eddem Dianae Ephesiae tern- 
plum deflagravit. 

Pompejus extrema pueritia miles fuit summi imperatoris, 
ineunte adolescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator. 

[§ 476.] b) The ablative is also used to express the time 
before and the time after a thing happened, and ante and 
post are in this case placed after the ablative. The meaning, 
however, is the same as when ante and post are joined with 
the accusative in the usual order, just as we may sometimes 
say, in the same sense, " three years after," and " after three 
years," post tres annos decessit, and tribus annis post decessit. 
In this connection the ordinal numerals may be employed, as 
well as the cardinal ones : post tertium annum, and tertio 
anno post, are the same as tribus annis post ; for by this, as 
by the former expressions, the Romans did not imply that a 


period of three full years bad intervened, but tbey included 
in the calculation the beginning and the end. When ante or 
post stands last (as in tribus annis post or tertio anno post), 
it may be followed by an accusative to denote the time after 
and before which any thing took place. 

Themistocles fecit idem, quod viginti annis ante apud nosfe- 

cerat Coriolanus. 
L. Sextius primus de plebe consul f actus est annis post Bo- 

mam conditam trecentis duodenonaginta, 

[§ 478.] c) The length of time before the present moment 
is expressed by abhinc, generally with the accusative, but 
also with the ablative; e. g. Demosthenes abhinc annos prope 
trecentos fuit, and abhinc annis quattuor. The same mean- 
ing is also expressed by ante, with the pronoun hie, as in 
ante hos sex menses ; ante haec tria saecula. 

[§ 479.] d) The length of time ivithin which a thing hap- 
pens may be expressed either by the ablative alone or by in 
with the ablative, or by intra with the accusative. 

Agamemnon cum universa Graecia vix decern annis unam 

cepit urbem. 
Senatus decrevit, ut legati Jugurthae, nisi regnum ipsumque 

deditum venissent, in diebus proximis decern Italia dece- 


[§ 481.] 14. The ablative without a preposition is used 
in some particular combinations, to denote the place where ? 
as terra marique, by land and by sea. Eespecting names 
of towns, see § 398. The preposition in is omitted with 
the word loco (and locis), when it is joined with an ad- 
jective, and has the derivative meaning of "occasion;" e.g. 
hoc loco, multis locis, aliquot locis, secundo loco, meliore loco 
res nostrae sunt; but this is done more rarely when locus has 
its proper meaning of "spot" or "place." Libro joined with 
an adjective or pronoun, as hoc, primo, tertio, is used without 
in, when the whole book is meant, and with in when merely 
a portion or passage is meant. 

The poets observe no limits in the use of the ablative 
without in to denote a place where ? They further use the 
ablative without ex or ab to indicate the place whence ? 

[§ 483.] 15. The ablative is used with adjectives in the 
comparative degree, instead of quam with the nominative, or 
in the construction of the accusative with the infinitive, instead 


of quam with the accusative of the subject ; e. g. Nemo Ro- 
manorum fuit eloquentior Cicerone ; neminem Romanorum 
eloquentiorem fuisse vetere$ judicarunt Cicerone. The abla- 
tive instead of quam with the accusative of the object occurs 
more rarely, but when the object is a relative pronoun, the 
ablative is generally used. 
Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum. 
Phidiae simulacris, quibus nihil in illo genere perfectius vi- 
demus, cogitare tamen possumus pulchriora. 

[§ 485.] Note 1. Minus, plus, and amplius, when joined to numerals 
are used with and without quam, generally as indeclinable words, and 
without influence upon the construction ; minus duo milia hominum ex 
tanto exercitu effugerunt, instead of quam duo millia ; amplius trecentos 
milites (or trecentos amplius milites) habuit ; cum trecentis non amplius mi- 
litibus effugit. 

[§ 486.] Note 2. The English word " still," joined with comparatives, 
is expressed by etiam, and sometimes by vel, but never by adhuc. 

[§ 487.] 16. The ablative is used to express the measure 
or amount by which one thing surpasses another, or is sur- 
passed by it. Paulo, multo, quo, eo, quanto, tanto, tantulo, 
aliquanto, hoc, are ablatives of this kind. 

Hibernia dimidio minor est quam Britannia. 
Homines quo plura habent, eo cupiunt ampliora. 

[§ 489.] 17. The ablative is governed by the prepositions 
ab (a, abs), absque, clam, coram, cum, de, ex (e), prae, pro, 
sine, tenus (is placed after its case) \ by in and sub when 
they answer to the question where ? and by super in the 
sense of de, " concerning," or " with regard to." Subter is 
joined indifferently either with the ablative or the accusative, 
though more frequently with the latter. 

The preposition in is generally joined with the ablative 
after the verbs of placing (pono, loco, colloco, statuo, constituo, 
and consido), although strictly speaking they express motion, 
and therefore should have in with the accusative. 

Aegyptii ac Babylonii omnem cur am in siderum cognitione 

Herculem hominum fama, beneficiorum memor, in concilio 

coelestium collocavit 




[§ 492.] The vocative is not in any immediate connection 
with either nouns or verbs, but is inserted to express the 
object to which our words are addressed. 


[§ 493.] 1. The tenses of the Latin verb are used on the 
whole in the same way as those of the English verb, with 
the exception of some peculiarities, which are explained in 
§ 500. foil. (Comp. § 150.) The only general rule that can be 
laid down is this : we must first determine whether the action 
or condition to be expressed falls in the present, the past, or 
the future, and in what relation it stands to other actions or 
conditions with which it is connected. For example, Iiuas 
writing, and / had vjritten, are both actions belonging to the 
past, but in regard to their relation they differ, for in the 
, sentence, " / was ivriting ivhen the shot ivas heard" the act 
j of writing was not completed when the shot was heard ; 
whereas in the sentence <; / had written, when my friend 
arrived," the act of writing was completed when the other 
(the arrival of my friend) occurred. The -same difference 
exists between, 1 shall ivrite to-morrow, and / shall have 
written to-morrow ; between / am writing to-day, i. e. I am 
engaged in an act not yet terminated, and / have written to- 
day, which expresses an act already terminated. This last 
is the proper signification of the Latin perfect, as advenit 
pater, the father has arrived, that is, he is here now. Ho- 
race, at the close of a work, says : exegi monumentum aere 
perennius ; an orator, at the conclusion of his speech, says : 
dixi, that is, " I have done ;" and Virgil, with great emphasis : 
fuimus Troes, fait Ilium, i. e. we are no longer Trojans, 
Ilium is no more. 

[§ 494.] 2. The Latin language therefore has two tenses 


for each of the three great divisions of time, — past, present, 
and future ; one expressing a complete and the other an in- 
complete action. And the six tenses of the Latin verb are 
thus the result of a combination of time and relation. 

f scribo, I write, or am writing — present time, and action going on. 
\ scripsi, I nave written, — present time, and action terminated. 
f scribebam, I was writing, or wrote, — past time, and action going on. 
\ scripseram, I had written, — past time, and action terminated. 

{scribam, I shall write, or be writing, — future time, and action not 
scripsero, I shall have written, — future time and action completed. 

3. The passive has the same tenses with the same mean- 
ings ; but with this difference, that they do not express an 
action, but a condition or suffering. 

flaudor, I am praised, — present time, and condition still going on. 
1 laudatus sum, I have been praised, — present time, and condition ter- 
flaudabar, I was praised, — past time, and condition going on. 
i laudatus eram, I had been praised, — past time, and condition ter- 
f laudabor, I shall be praised, — future time, and condition not completed. 
i laudatus ero, I shall have been praised, — future time, and condition 
(_ completed. 

[§ 496.] 4. The tenses of the present and past time, that; 
is, the present, perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect, have also a 
subjunctive mood, as scribam, scripserim, scribebam, scrip- 
sissem, and in the passive, scribar, scriptus sim, scribere?\ 
scriptus essem. For the relations in which the subjunctive 
is required, see Chap. LXXVUX As tenses, these subjunc- 
tives do not differ from the tenses of the indicative. 

o. Neither the active nor the passive voice has a subjunc- 
tive of the future, and the deficiency is supplied by other 
means. When the idea of futurity is already implied in 
another part of the proposition, some other tense of the sub- 
junctive supplies the place of the future, viz. the present and 
imperfect supply the place of the future subjunctive, and the 
perfect and pluperfect that of the future perfect. The choice 
of one or other of these four subjunctives is to be determined 
by the time expressed by the leading verb of the proposition, 
and by the relation of the action, being either completed or 
not completed ; e. g. Affirmo tibi, si hoc beneficium mihi tri- 
buas, me magnopere gavisurum, and affirmabam tibi, si illud 


beneficium mihi tribueres, magnopere me gavisurum. It is 
clear that tribuas and tribueres here supply the place of the 
future subjunctive, for in the indicative we say si mihi tri- 
bues — magnopere gaudebo. Again, Affirmo tibi, si hoc\ 
beneficium mihi tribueris, me quamcunque possim gratiam tibi 
relaturum, and affirmabat mihi, si illud beneficium ipsi tri- 
buissem, se quamcunque posset gratiam mihi relaturum, 
where tribueris and tribuissem supply the place of the future 
perfect, for in the indicative we should say si hoc beneficium 
mihi tribueris (from tribuero), quamcunque potero gratiam 
tibi referam, when you shall have shown me this kindness. 
The same is the case in the passive voice : affirmo tibi, si 
hoc beneficium mihi tribuatur, me magnopere gavisurum ; 
affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi tribueretur, magno- 
pere me gavisurum ; affirmo tibi, me, si hoc beneficium mihi 
tributum sit (or fuerit), quamcunque possim gratiam tibi re- 
laturum ; affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi tributum 
esset (or fuisset), quamcunque possem gratiam me tibi rela- 

[§ 497.] If no future has gone before, and the construc- 
tion of the sentence requires the subjunctive, the participle 
future active is employed for this purpose, with the appro- 
priate tense of the verb esse. This paraphrased conjugation 
(conjugatio paraphrasticd), as it is called, properly expresses 
an intended action; but the subjunctives with sim and essem 
are used also as regular subjunctives of the future, the idea 
of intention passing over into that of futurity ; e.g.JVon dubito 
quin rediturus sit, I do not doubt that he will return ; non 
dubitabam quin rediturus esset, I did not doubt that he would 
return. The perfects rediturus fuerim and rediturus fuissem 
retain their original meaning, implying intention ; e. g. non 
dubito quin rediturus fuerit, I do not doubt that he has had 
the intention to return. If we want simply to express fu- 
turity, we must use the circumlocution with futurum sit and 
futurum esset; e. g. nescio num futurum sit, ut eras hoc ipso 
tempore jam redierit, and nesciebam num futurum esset, ut 
postridie eo ipso tempore jam redisset. This same circumlo- 
cution must be employed in the passive, since the participle 
future passive implies necessity, and cannot be used in the 
sense of a simple future ; e. g. non dubito, quin futurum sit, 
ut laudetur, I do not doubt that he will be praised ; multi 
non dubitabant, quin futurum esset, ut Caesar a Pompejo 
vinceretur, that Caesar would be conquered by Pompey. 


[§ 498.] 6. This conjugatio periphrastica, which is 
formed by means of the participle future active and the 
auxiliary verb esse, is peculiar to the Latin language, and 
is used to express an intended action, or, in the case of 
intransitive verbs, a state or condition which is to come 
to pass. It has its six tenses like the ordinary conjuga- 
tion. The realization depends either on the will of the 
subject or on that of others, or upon circumstances. In the 
first case we say in English, " I intend," or " am on the point 
of," and in the others, " I am to " (be, or do a thing), i. e. 
others wish that I should do it ; e. g. scripturus sum, I in- 
tend writing, or am to write ; scripturus eram, I intended 
writing, or was to write ; scripturus fui, I have been intend- 
ing to write, &c.-\ 

[§ 499.] 7. The participle future passive in ndus, or the 
participle of necessity (participium necessitatis), in combina- 
tion w r ith the tenses of the verb esse, forms another distinct 
conjugation denoting future necessity and not future suffer- 
ing, for epistola scribenda est, for example, does not signify 
" the letter is about to be written," which is expressed by the 
simple future epistola scribelur, but " the letter must be writ- 
ten," there being either an internal or external necessity for 
its being written, either of which is expressed in English by 
" the letter is to be written." This conjugation may accord- 
ingly be regarded as the passive of the conjugatio periphras- 
tica. The tenses are the same as those of the auxiliary verb 
esse, and in so far do not differ from the general rule. 

[§ 500.] 8. The perfect indicative, both active and passive, 
has in Latin, besides its signification of an action terminated 
at the present time, that of an aorist, that is, it is used to 
relate events of the past, which are simply conceived as facts, 
without any regard to their being terminated or not termi- 
nated, in respect to each other ; e. g. Itaque Caesar armis 
rem gerere constituit, exercitum finibus Italiae admovit, Ru- 
biconem tvansiit, Romam et aer avium occupavit, Pompejum 
cedentem pevsecutus est, eumque in campis Phavsalicis devicit. 
In English the imperfect (or more correctly called the pre- 
terite) is used as an aorist to relate events of the past, and 
hence we translate the above passage: — Caesar resolved 
to use armed force, he advanced with his army to the 
frontiers of Italy, passed the Rubicon, took possession of 
Rome and the treasury, pursued Pompey, and defeated him 
in the plain of Pharsalus. But the Latin imperfect is never 


used in this sense ; it always expresses an incomplete or con- ? 
tinuing action or condition in past time, the ancient correct 
rule being perfecto procedit, imperfecto insistit oratio. 

[§ 5oi.] Note. In L'atin, as in many modern languages, the present 
tense is often used instead of the aorist of the past, when the writer or 
speaker in his imagination transfers himself to the past, which thus 
becomes to him present, as it were. Narrators by this figure frequently 
render their descriptions very animated; but in regard to dependent 
sentences, they often regard such a present as a regular perfect, and 
accordingly use the imperfect or pluperfect in the dependent sentence 
which follows. 

[§ 502.] 9. The peculiar character of the Latin imperfect 
therefore is to express a repeated action, manners, customs, 
and institutions, which are described as continuing at 
some given period in past time, and completely answers to 
the English compound tense, "I was writing," "he was 
Socrates dicere solebat (or dicebat), omnes in eo, quod scirent, 

satis esse eloquentes. 
Anseres Romae publice alebantur in Capitblio. 

[§ 504.] 10. The perfect subjunctive has not this mean- 
ing of an aorist, but is always used to express a terminated 
action with reference to the present time, and thus completely 
answers to the perfect in English. The imperfect subjunctive, 
on the other hand, in historical narratives has the aorist sense 
of the perfect indicative, when past events are mentioned 
without reference to the action or condition being continued 
or not. 

Note. This difference is easily perceived; e.g. puer de tecto decidit,ut cms 
fregerit, "the boy has fallen from the roof, so that he has broken his leg," 
is not a narrative but the statement of an event completed at the present 
time ; but puer de tecto decidit, ut crus frangeret, " the boy fell from the 
roof, so that he broke his leg," is a real historical narrative, for the per- 
fect decidit is here used in its aorist sense, and the imperfect subjunctive- 
supplies its place in the dependent clause. 

A comparison with the English language thus leads to this 
conclusion, that the perfect and imperfect subjunctive are 
used in Latin in the same sense as in English ; but the per- 
fect indicative in Latin, as an historical tense, answers to the 
English imperfect, and the Latin imperfect indicative to the 
English paraphrased tense " I was " with a participle. 
Mulier tarn vehementer lapidem de tecto dejecit, ut regis 

(Pyrrhi) caput et galeam perfringcret. 

[§ 505.] 11. The duration and completion of an action in 


reference to another are expressed in Latin more accurately 
than in English, by the imperfect and pluperfect When one 
action must be completed before another can begin, the for- 
mer is invariably expressed by the pluperfect ; e. g. quum 
domum intrasset, quum in forum venisset, animadvertit ; 
quum amicum conspexisset, dixit, &c, " when he had entered 
the house, he perceived." We are less accurate in saying 
" when I entered the house, I perceived," or " I entered the 
house, and perceived." But this cannot be done in Latin, 
and the pluperfect is used wherever the relation of the actions 
requires it. 

Lysander quum per speculatores comperisset, vidgum Athe- 
niensium in terram exisse navesque paene inanes relictas, 
tempus rei gerendae non dimisit. 

[§ £06.] But in narratives the conjunction dum (while, 
as) is generally joined with the present indicative ; and the 
conjunctions postquam, ubi, ubi primum, ut, ut primum, 
quum primum, simul ac, simul atque, all of which are 
equivalent to the English " as soon as," are generally joined 
with the historical perfect, and not with the pluperfect, as 
might be expected from the succession of the actions indi- 
cated by these conjunctions. 

Dum ea Romani parant consult antque, jam Saguntum sum- 
ma vi oppugnabatur. 

Unus ex captivis domum abiit, quod fallaci reditu in castra 
jurejurando se exsolvisset Quod ubi innotuit relatumque 
ad senatum est, omnes censuerunt comprehendendum et 
custodibus publice datis deducendum ad Hannibalem esse. 

[§ 509.] 12. In the use of the two futures the Latin lan- 
guage is likewise more accurate than the English. For when 
a future action is spoken of, either in the future or in the 
imperative (or in the subjunctive used imperatively), and 
another is joined with it, which has not yet come to* pass, 
the latter also is put in the future if the actions are conceived 
as continuing together, and in the future perfect, if the one 
must be completed before the other can begin. This is per- 
fectly in accordance with the ideas expressed by these tenses; 
but it must be specially mentioned, because in English we 
often use the present instead of the future, especially in the 
case of the verbs "I can" and "I will;" e. g. faciam si po- 
tero, I shall do it, if I can ; facito hoc, ubi voles, do it when 


you will ; because owing to the awkwardness of the future 
perfect, we frequently supply its place either by the simple 
future or by the present ; e. g. ut sementem feceris, ita metes, 
as you sow, so will you reap. 

Adolescentes quum relaxare animos et dare se jucunditati 
volent, caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verecundiae. 

De Carthagine vereri non ante desinam, quam illam excisam 
esse cognovero. 

[§ 512.] ' 13. The tenses of the indicative may be con- 
nected in any way which the intention of the speaker may 
require ; e. g. " I am writing now, but this time yesterday I 
took a walk;" "\know the person whom you will see to- 
morrow." But in dependent clauses, that is, in the sub- 
junctive, similar tenses alone can be connected with one 
another, that is, the tenses of the present (present and 
perfect) and the tenses of the past (imperfect and pluperfect). 
In the rules respecting the succession of tenses, or the depend- 
ence of sentences upon one another, everything depends 
upon time, for the present time is suited only to the present, 
and the past only to the past; the relation of an action 
depending only upon itself, is never doubtful. Hence we 
have only to remember, that the perfect naturally, and in 
the subjunctive always, expresses present time, and that 

The Present and Perfect are followed by a Present and 
Perfect, and 

The Imperfect and Pluperfect by an Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect ; 
E. g. scio quid agas and scio quid egeris; audivi quid agas 
and audivi quid egeris ; but sciebam quid ageres, and sciebam 
quid egisses ; audiveram quid ageres, and audiveram quid 

[§ 513.] This simple rule respecting the succession of 
tenses becomes somewhat difficult through the double sig- 
nification of the perfect indicative. In the above rule it was 
treated only as the present of a completed action (in which 
sense it is equivalent to the English perfect) ; but as it is at 
the same time an aorist of the past (see § 500.), it is also 
connected with the tenses of past time, viz. with the im- 
perfect and pluperfect. The above rule, therefore, must be 
completed by the following addition : — 


The historical perfect is followed by the imperfect and 

E. g. Audivi quid ageres and audivi quid egisses. The 
two meanings of the perfect and their influence upon the 
tense of the dependent verb may be seen in the following 
examples : — 

Verves Siciliam per triennium ita vexavit ac perdidit, ut ea 
restitui in antiquum statum nullo modo possit, says Cicero 
with reference to the actual state of Sicily. 

Conon quum patriam obsideri audisset, non quaesivit, ubi 
ipse tuto viveret, sed unde praesidio posset esse civibus 
suis, says Nepos in speaking of past events. 

[§ 516.] The futures are similar to the tenses of the 
present, for only that which is past stands apart and by itself. 
Hence, a future is followed by a present or a perfect, e. g. 
mox intelligam, quantum me ames or amaveris, but not 
quantum me amares or amasses. The same is the case with 
the future perfect : si cognovero, quemadmodum te geras or 
te gesseris. But as the four subjunctives of the conjugatio 
periphrastica (formed by the future participle and esse) are 
regarded as subjunctives of the futures, these paraphrased 
tenses may be dependent upon preterites, and a mutual 
dependence exists between the presents and futures, but 
only a partial one between the preterites and futures, since 
the futures only may depend upon preterites, but not vice 
versa ; e. g . ignorabam quid dicturus esset, but not discam 
quid heri facer es for discam quid heri feceris. 

The complete rule respecting the succession of tenses, 
therefore, is this : the tenses of the present and future, i. e. 
the present, perfect (in its proper sense), and the two futures 
are followed by the tenses of the present, i. e. by the present 
and the perfect subjunctive ; and the tenses of the past, i. e. 
the imperfect, pluperfect, and the historical perfect, are fol- 
lowed by the tenses of the past, i. e. by the imperfect and 
pluperfect subjunctive. 





[§ 517.] 1. The indicative is used in every proposition the 
substance of which is expressed absolutely and as a fact, 
e. g. I go, thou wrotest, he believed. 

Hence the indicative is employed even in the expression 
of conditions and suppositions with the particles si, nisi, etsi 
and etiamsi, if an event is supposed actually to take place, or 
(with nisi) not to take place. 

Mors aut plane negligenda est, si omnino extinguit animum, 
aut etiam optanda, si aliquo eum deducit, ubi sit futurus 

Sifeceris id, quod ostendis, magnam habebo gratiam, si non 
feceris, ignoscam. 

Adhuc certe, nisi ego insanio, stulte omnia et ineaute fiunt. 

Ista Veritas, etiamsi jucunda non est, mihi tamen grata est. 

[§ 518.] Notel. The following peculiarities deserve to be noticed as 
differing from the English. 

. The verbs oportet, necesse est, debeo, convenit, possum, licet, and par, fas, 
aequum, justum, consentaneum est, or aequius, melius, utilius, optabilius est, 
are put in the indicative of a preterite (imperf., pluperf., and the his- 
torical perfect), where we should expect the imperfect or pluperfect 
subjunctive. The imperfect indicative in this case expresses things which 
are not, but the time for which is not yet passed ; and the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative things which have not been, but the time for which 
is passed ; e. g. Ad mortem te ducijam pridem oportebat, i. e. thy execution 
was necessary and is still so ; hence it ought to take place. 

[§ 521.] Note 2. The Latins commonly use the indicative after many 
general and relative expressions, some/«c^ being implied. This is the 
case after pronouns and relative adverbs which are either doubled or 
have the suffix cunque : quisquis, quicunque, utut, utcunque, and others ; 
e. g. Utcunque sese res habet, tua est culpa, however this may be, the 
fault is thine : quicunque is est, whoever he may be. 

[§ 522.] Note 3. In the same way sentences connected by sive — sive 
commonly have the verb in the indicative ; e. g. sive tacebis, sive loquere % 
mihi perinde est ; sive verum est, sive falsum, mihi quidem ita renuntiatum 




[§ 523.] 1. The subjunctive is used in general, when a pro- 
position is stated, not as a fact, but merely as a conception 
of the mind. 

Note. The subjunctive is only a particular form which is given to a 
proposition ; its substance does not come into consideration. Hence u I 
believe," " I suspect," are expressed by the indicative, although these words 
indicate only certain conceptions, but my belief and suspicion are stated as 
real acts. When, on the other hand, I say " I should believe," " I should 
think," the acts of believing and thinking are represented as mere con- 
ceptions, which perhaps do not exist at all, or even cannot exist. Hence 
the Latins always use the subjunctive when a sentence is to express an 
intention either that something is to be effected or prevented, for the 
actions here exist only as conceptions ; e. g. pecuniam homini do, ut me 
defendat, ne me accuset. The English language, which has no subjunctive, 
avails itself of a variety of auxiliary verbs to express the nature of the 
subjunctive, as may, might, could, should, would. 

[§ 524.] 2. We must here first notice the difference be- 
tween the four tenses of the subjunctive in hypothetical or 
conditional sentences, both in that part of the sentence 
containing the condition (protasis, beginning with the con- 
junctions si, nisi, etsi, etiamsi, tdmetsi), and in the one con- 
taining the inference or conclusion (apodosis). The present 
and perfect subjunctive are used when a condition is to be 
expressed together with the suggestion that it does exist or 
may exist ; but the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are 
used when a condition is expressed together with the sug- 
gestion that it did not or could not exist ; and the imperfect 
in this case implies present time as in English ; e. g. si velit, 
" if he wishes," or " should wish/' implying that he either 
actually wishes or at least may wish : in the consequent 
member of the proposition (the apodosis), the present or per- 
fect subjunctive or indicative may stand ; but si vellet, "if he 
wished," implies that he does not or cannot wish, and here 
the apodosis requires the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. 
The subjunctive without si may have the same meaning, e. g. 
facer em, "I should do," implying that I do not or cannot do; 
vellem, " I should wish," implying that I might have a wish, 
but that in fact I do not wish, seeing that it would be of no 

L 3 


avail. Velim and cupiam thus do not much differ from volo 
and cupio. 

The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive therefore are 
necessary in hypothetical sentences ; but the present and 
perfect subj unctive differ only slightly from the indicative, 
and their use cannot be fixed by grammatical rules. The 
indicative gives to a sentence the form of reality ; whereas 
the subjunctive represents it as a mere conception, which 
however may at the same time be a reality ; e. g. etiamsi 
te non laudo or laudabo, tamen, &c, even if I do not or 
shall not praise thee, — the reality is admitted ; etiamsi te 
non laudem or laudaverim, if (perhaps) I should not praise 
thee, or should not have praised thee, — the possibility is 
conceived. The use of the present and perfect subjunctive 
in these cases arises in some measure from the circumstance 
that an indefinite person is addressed in Latin by the second 
person singular, but only in the subjunctive ; hence the sub- 
junctive is used in such cases even where the indicative 
would be necessary, if a definite person were addressed. It 
must further be observed that these two subjunctives supply 
the place of the subjunctive of the two futures. Comp. § 496. 

The following may serve as examples of both cases : — 

Si Neptunus, quod Theseo promiserat, nonfecisset, Theseus 

filio Hippolyto non esset orbatus. 
Dies deficiat, si velim numerare, quibus bonis male evenerit, 

nee minus si commemorem, quibus improbis optime. 
Si gladium quis apud te sana mente deposuerit, repetat in- 

saniens : reddere peccatum sit, officium non reddere. 
Memoria minuitur 9 nisi earn exerceas, aut si sis natura tar- 


Note. The above rule respecting the difference of the subjunctives, is 
observed also in hypothetical sentences, if the leading verb is in the pre- 
sent ; but if an historical tense precedes, the rule respecting the succession 
of tenses (§ 512. ) again comes into operation, and the distinction between 
things possible and not possible is not expressed. 

[§ 527.] 3. Hence the present subjunctive is used also in 
independent propositions to soften an assertion or statement, 
and without any essential difference from the present indica- 
tive or the future. We generally express the same by " I 
may" or "I might" (the subjunctive as a potential mood) ; 
e. g. Forsitan quaeratis ; nemo istud tibi concedat ; quis du- 
bitet f velim (nolim, malim) sic existimes. 


The perfect subjunctive may likewise be used in the sense 
of a softened perfect indicative ; e. g.forsitan temere fecerim, 
I may perhaps have acted inconsiderately ; but the perfect 
subjunctive, when used independently, generally has the 
meaning of a softened future, and in so far is equivalent to 
the present subjunctive. 
Quid videatur ei magnum in rebus humanis, cut aeternitas 

omnis totiusque mundi nota sit magnitudo ? 
Hoc sine ulla dubitatione confirmaverim, eloquentiam rem 

esse omnium difficillimam. 
Tu vero Platonem nee nimis valde unquam, nee nimis saepe 

Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico. j 

[§ 529.] 4. The subjunctive is further used in indepen- ^ 
dent sentences to express a wish or desire (optative). In the 
second and third persons of the present (to some extent also ' 
of the perfect) it supplies the place of the imperative ; e. g. 
dicas equivalent to die, loquare to loquere, especially when 
the person is indefinite ; further dicat, faciat, loquatur. The 
present subjunctive is used in the first person to express an 
assurance ; e. g. moriar, inteream, peream ; and in the plural 
a request, which may be addressed to ourselves as well as 
others ; e. g. eamus, moriamur, nunc revertamur ad proposi- 
tion ! let us go ! let us die ! let us return ! The imperfect 
and pluperfect are used to express wishes belonging to the 
past time, when a thing ought to have been or to have been 
done ; e. g. diceret, dixisset, he should have said. 

Connected with this optative is the use of the subjunctive | 
(called in this case concessivus), to express a concession or i 
admission, both with and without the conjunctions ut and 
licet ; e. g. dicat, he may say ; diceret, he might say ; dixerit, 
he may have said ; and so on through all the tenses. 

The negative with these subjunctives (optative and con- 
cessive) is usually not non but ne ; e. g. ne dicas, ne dicat, 
ne dixeris (this negative way is the most common case of 
the perfect subjunct. being used in the sense of the present); 
further, ne vivam, ne desperemus, ne fuerit, equivalent to 
licet 7ion fuerit. 

Meminenmus, etiam adversus infimos justitiam esse servan- 

Nihil incommodo valetudinis tuae feceris. 
Emas, non quod opus est, sed quod necesse est. 

L 4 


Bonis impii ne placare audeant deos ; Flatonem audiant, 
qui vetat dubitare, qua sit mente futurus deus, cum vir 
nemo bonus ab improbo se donari velit. 
Naturam expellas Jurca, tamen usque recurret 
JVe sit summum malum dolor, malum certe est 

[§ 530.] 5. Lastly, the subjunctive is used, in all its tenses, 
in independent sentences to express a doubtful question con- 
taining a negative sense (conjunctivus dubitativus) ; e. g. quo 
earn ? whither shall I go ? quo irem ? whither should I go ? 
quo eas ? whither wilt thou go ? quo ires ? whither would'st 
thou go ? quo iverim ? whither was I to have gone ? quo ivis- 
sent f whither should I have gone ? The answer implied in 
all these cases is "nowhere;" for in questions to which we 
expect an affirmative answer, the indicative is used. 
Cur non confitear, quod necesse est ? 
Cum tempestate pugnem pericuhse potius, quam illi obtem- 

perem et paream ? 
Valerius quotidie cantabat : erat enim scenicus : quidfaceret 

aliud ? 

[§ 531.] 6. Dependent sentences in which an intention or 
purpose or a direction towards the future is expressed, take 
the subjunctive. The conjunctions ut, ne, quo, quln, quo- 
minus serve to connect such sentences with others, and con- 
sequently govern the subjunctive, the tenses of which must 
be chosen as required by the tense of the verb in the leading 
clause. (See above, § 512, foil.) 

a) Ut or uti (that or in order that) refers either to some- 
thing future which is the intention, object, result or effect of 
another action (which is often expressed in English by " in 
order to," or simply " to " with the infinitive), or when used 
after the words sic, ita, tarn, talis, tantus, ejusmodi, &c, it 
expresses a quality or the nature of a thing in the form of a 
result. The English conjunction " that," which introduces 
clauses supplying the place either of a nominative or accu- 
sative, cannot be rendered by ut, as " it is a consolation for 
the subjects that the king is a just man," equivalent to " the 
king's justice is a consolation," &c. ; or " I know that the king 
is just," equivalent to " I know the king's justice." 

Esse oportet ut vivas, non vivere ut cdas. 

Py lades Ores tern se esse dixit, ut pro illo necaretur. 

Nemo tarn malus est, ut videri velit 

Sol efficit ut omnia jftoreant 


[§ 532.] b) Ne (in order that not, or, lest) is used only to 
express a negative intention or intended effect ; e. g. cur a ne 
denuo in morbum incidas, or haec vitae ratio effecit, ne denuo 
in morbum inciderem. Ut non is used, on the other hand, 
when an effect is to be expressed without an intention, that 
is, a simple result or consequence, and when a quality is to 
be determined, in which case the adverbs ita, sic, tarn are 
either expressed or understood ; e. g. turn forte aegrotabam, 
ut ad nuptias tuas venire non possem ; i. e. in consequence 
of my illness, but no intention is expressed. Ut non is 
further used when the negation does not refer to the whole 
clause, but only to a part of it or to a particular word : 
e. g. dedi tibi pecuniam, ut emeres non vinum, sed panem. 

Nemo prudens punit, ut ait Plato, quia peccatum est, sed ne 

Nihil agitis, inquit Arria, potestis enim efficere, ut male mo- 

riar ; ne moriar, non potestis, 

[§ 533.] It is a peculiarity of the Latin language to treat 
the verbs metuo, timeo, vereor, as implying an intention. 
They are therefore followed by ne, when anything is to be 
prevented, or when it is wished that something should not 
happen ; e. g. metuo, ne frustra laborem susceperis ; and 
by ut, when it is wished that something should take place ; 
e. g. vereor, ut mature venias. These same verbs are fol- 
lowed by the infinitive when they express only a state of 
mind, without implying any wish either the one way or the 
other ; e. g. metuo manus admovere, vereor dicere ; but vereor 
ut apte dicam. 

Vereor, ne, dum minuere velim laborem, augeam. 
Adulator es, si quern laudant, vereri se dicunt, ut illius facta 
verbis consequi possint, 

[§ 535.] Note. Neve (or neu, composed of ne and ve) signifies " or in 
order that not," or " and in order that not," and is therefore not to be 
confounded with neque (or wee). It stands to ne in the same relation 
that neque does to non. 

[§ 536.] c) Quo is properly the ablative of the relative 
pronoun, and stands for ut eo (§ 567.), " in order that," or 
" that by this means." But it is commonly joined only with 
comparatives. Non quo answers to the English, " not that," 
or "not as if" (instead of which, however, we may also say 
non quod), and non quin to "not as if not." The apodosis 

l 5 


following after such a sentence begins with sed quod or sed 
quia and the indicative or with ut and the subjunctive. 
Ager non semel aratur, sed novatur et iteratur, quo meliores 

fetus possit et grandiores edere. 
Legem brevem esse oportet, quo facilius ab imperitis teneatur. 
Ad te litter as dedi, non quo haberem magnopere, quod scri- 

berem, sed ut loquerer tecum absens. 

[§ 538.] d) Quin is used after negative sentences and 
doubtful questions with quis and qybid, which differ only in 
form from affirmative propositions with nemo and nihil, 
first, for qui non, quae non, quod non, and secondly for 
ut non (" that not " or " without " when followed by a 
participle). Quin, equivalent to a relative pronoun with non, 
is used especially after the expressions nemo, nullus, nihil, 
vix, aegre — est, reperitur, invenitur ; the use of quin for 
ut non cannot be limited to particular expressions, but we 
must especially observe the phrase facere non possum quin, 
and in the passive voice, fieri non potest quin, where the 
double negative renders the affirmative meaning more em- 

Nihil tarn difficile est, quin quaerendo investigari possit 
Nunquam tarn male est Siculis, quin aliquid facete et com- 
mode dicant 
Facere non potui, quin tibi et senteniiam et voluntatem de- 
clararem meam, 

[§ 540.] From this we must distinguish the use of quin 
after non dubito, non est dubium, non ambigo (I doubt not), 
and many other expressions containing a negation ; as non 
abest; nihil, paulum, non multum abest ; non, vix, aegre abs- 
tineo ; tenere me, or temperari mihi non possum ; non impe- 
dio, non recuso, nihil praetermitto, and the like. For in these 
cases the negative contained in quin is superfluous, and is 
only a sort of continuation of the preceding non ; hence it is 
generally not expressed in English, quin being rendered by 
" that," or by " to " with an infinitive. E. g. non dubito quin 
domi sit, I have no doubt, (that) he is at home ; nulla mora 
fuit, quin decernerent bellum, they did not hesitate to decree 
war. Hence, as quin in this case is only a form of expres- 
sion, non is superadded, if the dependent clause is to have 
a really negative meaning. Thus we find not unfrequently, 
at least, non dubito quin non, which is easily explained by 
translating non dubito quin by " I believe," e. g. non dubito 


quin qffensionem negligentiae vitare atque effugere non pos- 
sim, I believe that I cannot escape the charge of negligence. 
Dux Me Graeciae nusquam optat, ut Ajacis similes habeat 

decern, sed ut Nestoris ; quod si acciderit, non dubitat quin 

brevi Troja sit peritura, 
Num dubitas quin specimen naturae capi deceat ex optima 

quaque natura ? Cic. Tusc. i. 14. 
Quis igitur dubitet, quin in virtute divitiae sint 9 
Ego nihil praetermisi, quantum facere potui, quin Pompejum 

a Caesaris conjunctione avocarem.. 
Infesta contio vix inhiberi potuit, quin protinus suo more 

saxa in Polemonem jaceret. 

Note. When dubito and non dubito signify " I scruple " or " hesitate," 
and the clause following contains the same subject, they are generally 
followed by the infinitive ; e. g. non dubito respondere. 

Quin, in accordance with its formation from qui (the ablat. of qui, quis) 
and non, also signifies "why not?" and in this sense it is joined with the 
indicative or imperative, as quin dicis, or quin die statim, well say it at once. 

[§ 543.] e) Quominus (for ut eo minus, in order that not) 
is used only after verbs expressing a hindrance, where also 
ne, and if a negative precedes, quin may be used. The 
principal verbs of this kind are : — deterrere, impedire, inter- 
cedes, obsistere, obstare, officere, pxphibere, recusare, repug- 
nare ; but there are several other expressions which convey 
the same meaning, e. g. stat or Jit per me, I am the cause ; 
non pugno, nihil moror, non contineo me, &c. \J^ 
Cimon nunquam in hortis custodem imposuit, ne quis im- 
pediretur, quominus ejus rebus, quibus quisque vellet, 
Parmenio, quum audisset, venenum a Philippo medico regi 
parari, deterrere eum voluit epistola scripta, quominus 
medicamentum biberet, quod medicus dare constitueret 
[§ 545.] 7. The subjunctive is used in clauses which are 
introduced into others, after relative pronouns and con- 
junctionSj when those propositions express the thoughts or 
words of another person. (In many cases they are the 
thoughts or words of the speaker himself, but he then speaks 
of himself as of a third person.) To make this general rule 
more clear, we shall explain the various cases in which 
such clauses are inserted. 

a) Clauses inserted in the construction of the accusative 
with the infinitive, when they are to express the thoughts 
or words of the person spoken of, or when they form an 

L 6 


essential part of the statement implied in the accusat. with 
the infinitive. 

Socrates dicere solebat, omnes in eo, quod scirent, satis esse 

Mos est Athenis laudari in contione eos, qui sint in proeliis 

Quid potest esse tarn apertum, tamque perspicuum, quum 

coelum suspeximus, coelestiaque contemplati sumus, quam 

esse aliquod numen praestantissimae mentis, quo haec 

regantur. \ 

[§ 547.] b) Clauses introduced into a proposition which 
is expressed by the subjunctive, are likewise in the sub- 
junctive, when they are to be considered as an essential part 
of the leading proposition, being included in the purpose, 
request, precept or command of a person, or (with si) m the 
supposed circumstances, e. g. Rex imperavit, ut, quae bello 
opus essent, pararentur. 

Eo simus animo, ut nihil in malis ducamus, quod sit vel a 
deo immortcdi, vel a natura constitutum. 

Memoria erat tanta (Hortensius) quantam in nullo cogno- 
visse me arbitror, ut, quae secum commentatus esset, ea 
sine scripto verbis eisdem redderet, quibus cogitavisset 

[§ 549.] c) Lastly, when a proposition containing the 
statement of a fact, and therefore expressed by the indicative, 
has another dependent upon it or added to it (by a con- 
junction or a relative pronoun), the dependent clause is 
expressed by the subjunctive, provided the substance of it 
is alleged as the sentiment or the words of the person spoken 
of, and not of the speaker himself. Thus the proposition : 
Noctu ambulabat in publico Themistocles, quod somnum 
caper e non posset suggests, that Themistocles himself gave 
this reason for his walking at night. But I, the writer of 
the proposition, may express the reason as my own remark, 
and in this case the indicative poterat is required, as well as 

Socrates accusatus est, quod corrumperet juventutem et 

novas superstitiones induceret. 
Aristides nonne ob earn causam expulsus est patria, quod 

praeter modum Justus esset? 

Note 1. The clause beginning with quod in the second of these ex- 
amples contains the reasons alleged by the accusers of Socrates ; and the 


subjunctive in the last example indicates that the reason there stated was 
alleged by the Athenians themselves, according to the well-known story, 
and it remains uncertain whether Aristides was really so just ; but this 
uncertainty would not exist if the indicative had been used. 

[ § 550.] Note 2. When a clause thus appended or inserted contains the 
sentiment of the subject of the leading sentence, or his own words, all 
references to him are expressed by the reflective pronoun sui, sibi, se, and 
by the possessive suus ; e. g. necessitate coactus domino navis qui sit aperit, 
multa pollicens, si se conservasset • f rater in somnis me rogavit ut, qnoniam 
sihi vivo non subvenissem, mortem suam ne inultam esse paterer. 

[§ 552."] 8. All sentences which contain an indirect ques- 
tion, that is, which state the subject of a direct question in a 
manner which makes them dependent upon some other verb, 
have the verb in the subjunctive mood. An indirect ques- 
tion, not to mention the verb " to ask" itself, generally 
depends upon verbs and expressions which usually require 
the accusative with the infinitive. 

"~" All the words which are used in direct questions are also 
used in introducing indirect or dependent questions, viz. 
quis, quid; qui, quae, quod ; quot, qualis, quantus, quam, 
ubi, unde, quare, cur, uter, quo (whither?), quomodo, utrum, 
an, ne (the suffix), num. 

Saepe ne utile quidem est scire, quidfuturum sit 
Qualis sit animus, ipse animus nescit 
Incertum est, quo te loco mors expectet. 

Tarquinius Superbus Prisci Tarqainii regis filius neposne 
fuerit, parum liquet 

[§ 554.] Note. With regard to disjunctive or double questions, both 
direct and indirect, expressed by " whether — or," it must be observed 
that the English "or " is never translated by aid or vel, but by an or by 
the suffix ne. The first question is introduced by utrum, or likewise 
by ne, or has no interrogative particle at all. Hence there are four forms 
of such double questions : — 

1. utrum {utrumne) — an 

2. — an (mine) 

3. the suffix ne — an 

4. — the suffix ne. 

The English " or not " in the second part, which is u^ed without a 
verb, unless the one preceding be understood, is expressed in Latin by 
annon or necne, the latter occurring only in indirect questions. 

[§ 5.55.] 9. Eelative pronouns and relative adverbs re- 
quire the subjunctive (besides the cases already mentioned 
in § 549.) when the connection of the propositions is based 
upon a conception, that is, when the clause introduced by 


the relative does not merely contain some additional feature, 
but is connected with the preceding clause in such a manner 
as to express either a consequence, an inherent quality, or a . 
cause, a motive and purpose. 

E. g. Miles, quern metus mortis non perturbaret, a soldier whom fear of 
death could not disturb. Here the clause introduced by the relative 
pronoun contains an inherent quality of the miles, which may at the same 
time be expressed as a consequence : — of such a character, that death 
could not frighten him. Let us take another case : O miserum senem, qui 
mortem contemnendam esse in tarn longa aetate non viderit : here the clause 
qui — viderit does not contain a mere additional characteristic or quality, 
but rather the cause, why I call the old man wretched. 

Subjunctives of this kind are expressed in English in 
different ways, as " a soldier not to be disturbed by fear of 
death," " O wretched old man, not to have learnt," &c. The 
particular cases in which a relative introduces clauses with 
the subjunctive, are: — 

[§ 556.~] a) When one of the demonstratives is, hie, Me, 
talis, tantus, ejusmodi, hujusmodi, or tarn with an adjective 
precedes, and is modified or qualified by a sentence which 
follows. Here the relative pronoun may be resolved by ut, 
so that cujus is equivalent to ut mei, tui, sui, illius, ejus ; cui 
to ut mihi, tibi, ei, sibi, and. so on through all the cases of 
the singular and plural. ^ 

Qui potest temper antiam laudare is, qui summum bonum in 

voluptate ponat ! 
Non sumus ii, quibus nihil verum esse videatur, sed ii, qui 

omnibus veris falsa quaedam adjuncta esse dicamus. 
Nulla gens tarn /era, nemo omnium tarn immanis est, cujus 

mentem non imbuerit deorum opinio. 

[§ 558.] The relative pronoun is sometimes used with the 
subjunctive, without a demonstrative preceding it, provided 
it be understood. # 

Nunc dicis, quod ad rem pertineat. 

Nonne satius est mutum esse, quam quod nemo intelligat 
dicer e ? 

[§ 560.] In like manner the subjunctive is used with 
comparatives after quam qui (through all its cases), for here 
too the degree is defined and modified by a clause imply- 
ing an innate quality and a consequence, so that quam qui 
is equivalent to quam ut, which in fact sometimes occurs. 


Major sum quam cui possit for tuna nocere, says !Niobe in 

her madness. 
- B 561 ] *) After indefinite and general expressions (both 
affirmative and negative) the relative with the subjunctive 
introduces the clause containing the circumstances which 
characterize the class indefinitely referred to. Such ex- 
pressions are est, sunt, reperiuntur, inveniuntur, existunt, 
exoriuntur (scil. homines) ; the general negatives nemo, 
nullus, nihil est ; the negative indefinite questions quis est ? 
quid est? qui, quae, quod (as interrogative adjectives), 
quotus, quisque, quantum est? &c. In all these cases a 
demonstrative may be understood before the relative. V 
Sunt qui censeant, una animum et corpus occidere, ani- 

mumque in corpore extingui. 
Nihil est, quod tarn miseros facial, quam impietas et scelus. 
Quotus enim quisque est, cui sapientia omnibus omnium di- 

vitiis praeponenda videatur ? 
Quae latebra est, in quam non intret metus mortis ? 
Quid dulcius quam habere, quicum omnia audeas sic loqui 

ut tecum ? 

[§ 564.] c) When the clause introduced by the relative 
contains the reason of what precedes, the verb is put in the 
subjunctive. The connection between such sentences may 
also be expressed by " because " or " since/' instead of the 
relative : — 

fortunate adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem 

inveneris ! 
Caninius fuit mirifica vigilantia, qui suo toto consulatu som- 

num non viderit 
Quern ardor em studii censetis fuisse in Archimede, qui, dum 

in pulvere quaedam describit attentius, nepatriam quidem 

captam esse senserit! 

[§ 567 -] d) When the clause introduced by the relative 
expresses the intention and object of the action of the pre- 
ceding clause, the relative is followed by the subjunctive. 
The relative in this case is equivalent to ut 

Sunt autem multi, qui eripiunt aliis, quod aliis largiantar. 
Populus Romanus sibi tribunos creavit, per quos contra se- 

natum et consules tutus esse posset. 
Super tabernaculum regis, unde ab omnibus conspici posset, 

imago solis crystallo inclusa fulgebat, \ 


[§ 568.] e) After the adjectives dignus, indignus, aptus 
and idoneus, the relatives are used with the subjunctive, as 
dignus est, indignus est, qui laudetur. 

Voluptas non est digna, ad quam sapiens respiciah 

[§ 569.] f) Lastly we must here notice the circumstance 
that in a narrative the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive 
are sometimes used after relative pronouns and adverbs, when 
actions of repeated occurrence are spoken of. The indicative 
however occurs in these cases, even more frequently than 
the subjunctive. 

Nemo Pyrrhum, qua tulisset impetum, sustinere valuit. 

[§ 571.] 10. It has already been remarked that all con- 
junctions, and more especially those which indicate a cause, 
require the subjunctive, when they introduce sentences con- 
taining the thoughts or words of another person. It there- 
fore now remains to speak of those conjunctions which 
require the subjunctive on account of their peculiar signifi- 

The particles expressing a wish, utinam, ut, and O si, go- 
vern the subjunctive, because the wish exists only as a 
conception of the mind ; but there is this difference in regard 
to the tenses, that the present and perfect are used of wishes 
which are conceived as possible, and the imperfect and plu- 
perfect of those which are to be described as not in accord- 
ance with reality. The English, " Oh, would that not " 
should properly be expressed in Latin only by utinam ne^ 
but utinam non is frequently used instead of it.^r 

[§ 572.] Quasi (aeque, perinde, non secus), ac si, tarn- 
quam si, velut si, or tamquam and velut alone, all of which 
signify " as if," "as though," . always introduce a clause 
which contains only a conception of the mind, and are con- 
sequently used with the subjunctive. The tense depends 
upon that of the leading verb : Sic cogitandum est, tamquam 
aliquis in pectus intimum inspicere possit. 

Dummodo (if only, if but), for which dum or modo is 
also used alone, governs the subjunctive because it expresses 
an intention or a purpose conceived by the mind; when 
joined with a negative, it becomes dummodo ne, dum ne, modo 
ne ; e. g. multi omnia recta et honesta negligunt, dummodo 
potentiam consequantur. - 

[§ 573.] Ut, in the sense of "even if," or "although," 
expresses a supposition merely as a conception, and ac- 


cordingly governs the subjunctive. It takes the negative 
non ; the same however may be expressed by ne with the 
concessive subjunctive. So also nedum or nedum ut, not to 
mention that. 

Ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas. 

Optimis temporibus elarissimi atque amplissimi viri vim 
tribuniciam sustinere non potuerunt : nedum his temporibus 
sine judiciorum remediis salvi esse possimus. 

[§ 574.] Quamvis, as distinct from quamquam, is often 
used in the sense of quantumvis and quamlibet, i. e. " how- 
ever much," with the subjunctive. Licet (although), properly 
a verb which has become a conjunction, has the same mean- 
ing and construction as quamvis. 
Licet strenuum metum putes esse, velocior tamen spes est 

[§ 575 ] The particles of time dum, donee and quoad have 
the indicative, when they are used in the sense of quamdiu 
or " as long as ;" in the sense of "until," they may have 
either mood ; the indicative, if a thing is expressed as a fact, 
and the subjunctive, if it is merely conceived as a thing which 
may possibly be realised, or if at the same time a purpose is 
implied in the clause. 

Lacedaemoniorum gens fortis fuit, dum Lycurgi leges vi- 

Iratis aut subtrahendi sunt ii, in quos impetum conantur 

facere, dum se ipsi colligant, aut rogandi orandique sunt, 

ut, si qicdki habent ulciscendi vim, differant in tempus 

aliud, dum defer v esc at ira. s, 

[§ 576.] Antequam and priusquam in narratives are 
generally used with the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, 
if there is some connection between the preceding and the 
subsequent action (but if the simple priority of one action to 
another is expressed, the indicative is used) ; e. g. discede 
antequam rex veniat ; discessit antequam rex veniret. 

[§ 577.] 1 1 . With regard to quum, there is this difference, 
that quum cansale governs the subjunctive, and quum tern- 
porale by itself requires the indicative, for quum is properly a 
relative adverb of time, corresponding to the demonstrative 
adverb turn, as in turn — quitrru, then — when. If therefore 
nothing further is to be expressed, it is j cined with the in- 
dicative. But when quum expresses the relation of cause 


and effect, it governs the subjunctive, e. g. quum sciam, 
quum scirem, quum intellexerim, quum intellexissem, i. e. as 
I know, as I knew, as I have learnt, as I had learnt — I will 
do this or that. When it has the meaning of " though " or 
"although," it is likewise joined only with the subjunctive, 
e. g. Phocion fuit perpetuo pauper, quum ditissimus esse 
posset. V 

[§ 578.] In a narrative however quum temporale is joined 
with the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, because in a 
continuous narrative, a preceding event is always conceived 
and represented as the cause of a subsequent one ; e. g. 
Caesar, quum Pompejum apud Pharsalum vicisset, in Asiam 
trajecit : here we perceive a combination of time and cause, 
which is expressed by the subjunctive. This is always the 
case in historical narratives, although if we consider only 
the relation of time or priority, we might believe the in- 
dicative also to be correct. Examples are extremely nu- 
merous. See § 505. 

[§ 579 «] But when quum is a pure particle of time, that 
is, when it does not occur in a narrative, and when no rela- 
tion of cause and effect is to be expressed, it may be joined 
with all the tenses of the indicative, even with the imperfect 
and pluperfect, in the sense of eo tempore quum, or turn 
quum, which expressions, in fact, often occur. 
Qui non defendit injuriam, neque propulsat a suis, quum 

potest, injuste facit. 
Sed da operam, ut valeas, et, si valebis, quum recte navigari 

poterit, turn naviges. 
Verres eonfecto itinere, quum ad aliquod oppidum verier at 

(an action often repeated), eadem lectica usque in cubicu- 

lum deferebatur. 

[§ 580.] 12. The following must be observed as pecu- 
liarities in the use of quum temporale: 1. Quum is joined 
with the perfect or imperfect indicative to express simul- 
taneous occurrences which are indicated in English by 
"while." This simultaneousness is marked more empha- 
tically by adding interea or interim. The perfect in this 
case is used in historical narratives, and the imperfect in 
descriptions. \2. Quum is joined with all tenses of the indi- 
cative, and more especially with the present to express the 
decided beginning of an action, in which case it does not 
introduce a protasis, but rather an apodosis. It is commonly 


preceded by adverbs, as jam, nondum, vix, aegre, or quum 
itself is joined with repente or subito. 

Catulus, quum ex vobis quaereret, si in uno Cn. Pompejo 
omnia poneretis, si quid eo factum esset, in quo spem essetis 
habituri: cepit magnum suae virtutis fructum ac dignitatis, 
quum omnesprope una voce, in eo ipso vos spem habituros 
esse, dixistis. 

Caedebatur virgis in medio foro Messanae civis Romanics, 
judices, quum interea nullus gemitus, nulla vox alia istius 
miseri inter dolorem crepitumque plagarum audiebatur, 
nisi haec : civis Romanus sum. 

Evolarat jam e conspectu fere fugiens quadriremis, quum 
etiamtum ceterae naves uno in loco moliebantur. 

Jam in conspectu, sed extra teli jactum utraque acies erat, 
quum priores Persae inconditum et trucem sustulere cla- 

Jamque, qui Dareium veliebant equi, confossi hastis et dolore 
efferati, jugum quatere et regem curru excutere coeperant, 
quum ille, veritus ne vivus veniret in hostium potestatem, 
desilit, et in equum, qui ad hoc sequebatur, imponitur. 



[§ 583.] 1. The imperative, both in the active and passive, 
has two forms — the imperative present and the imperative 
future. (See § 151.) Both express a command, but also a 
wish, an advice or exhortation. The difference in the mean- 
ing of the two imperatives is this : — 

The imperative present expresses that something is to be 
done directly or at once ; as lege, read ! morere, die ! or that 
a thing which exists at present is to continue to exist, as 

The imperative future puts the command in connection 
with some other action, and expresses that something is to 
be done in future, when, or as soon as, something else h^s 
taken place. It is however not necessary that the other ac- 
tion should be expressed in words, but in many cases it is 
supplied by the mind. 


Quum valetudini tuae consulueris, turn consulito navigationi. 
Prius audite paucis ; quod cum dixero, si placuerit, Jacitote. 
Cras petito : dabitur ; nunc abi. 

[§ 584.] 2. Hence the imperative future is properly used 
in contracts, laws, and wills, inasmuch as it is stipulated in 
them that things are to be done after a certain time ; furtheV, 
in precepts and rules of conduct, that is, to express actions 
which are to be repeated as often as the occasion may occur. 
Regio imperio duo sunto, iique consules appellantor, militiae 

summum jus habento, nemini parento, Mis salus populi 

suprema lex esto. 
Ignoscito saepe alteri, nunquam tibi.^S 

[§ 585.] 3. With the imperative the English "not" must 
be rendered by ne and " nor " by neve, but not by non or 

Hominem mortuum (inquit lex in duodecim tabulis) in urbe 
ne sepelito neve urito. 

[§586.] 4. The "following forms are used instead of both 
tenses of the imperative : — 

a) The future, which however takes the negative non, if 
anything is forbidden ; e. g. fades, or non fades hoc. 

b) The third person of the present subjunctive, both in an 
affirmative and negative (ne) command, is even more fre- 
quently used than the imperative. 

c) The second person of the perfect subjunctive, usually 
with a negative (ne), as ne dixeris, nemini dixeris. 

5. The affirmative imperative is paraphrased by cura (or 
curato) ut, fac tit, or fac alone with the subjunctive ; e. g. 
car a ut quam primum venias,facite ut recordemi?ii,fac animo 
forti magnoque sis. The negative imperative is paraphrased 
by fac ne, cave ne, or commonly by cave alone (without ne), 
with the present or perfect subjunctive : cave putes, cave 
dixeris ; but especially by noli with the infinitive : noli pu- 
tare, nolite (nolitote) existimare. 

Quod dubitas, ne feceris. 

Magnum fac animum habeas et spem bonam. 





[§ 588.] 1. The infinitive expresses the action or condition 
implied in the verb in the form of an abstract generality, 
without specifying either person, number, or time ; it merely 
indicates the relations of an action, that is, whether it "is in 
progress or completed. Scribere, to write, expresses the 
action as in progress ; scripsisse, to have written, as com- 
pleted. To what time the action thus described belongs, is 
determined by the verb on which the infinitive depends. 

Note. The one of these infinitives is usually called the present and the 
other the perfect infinitive. The former name is incorrect, for it is not the 
present time that is expressed by scribere, since, besides volo scribere, we 
may say, (fieri) volebam scribere, volueram scribere, and (eras) volam scribere ; 
but the action is described only as in progress. The infinitives should 
therefore rather be called infinitivus rei infectae and infinitivus rei perfectae. 
If, however, we compare the two infinitives with the tenses of the verb, 
we are naturally struck by the resemblance between scribere and scribo, 
and between scripsisse and scripsi ; although, with regard to the relation 
of the action, the imperfect scribebam, and the pluperfect scripseram have 
the same claim as scribo and scripsi. Hence the first infinitive is also 
called infinitivus praesentis et imperfecti, and the other infinitivus perfecti 
et plusquamperfecti ; but neither of these designations comprises the whole 
of their signification. 

[§ 591.] 2. In the passive voice there are also two infini- 
tives, the one to express the progress of a state of suffering, 
and the other the completed state of suffering. The one is 
called the infinitive present, and the other the infinitive per- 
fect ; the former is simple, laudari, to be praised ; the second 
is formed by a combination of the participle perfect with the 
verb esse, as laudatus esse, or in the accusative laudatum 
esse, to have been praised ; the participle of course takes the 
number and gender of the object to which it refers. 

[§ 593.] 3. Besides these infinitives expressing an action 
or a state in progress and completed, there is, both in the 
active and passive, an infinitive of future time (infinitivus 
futuri), which denotes an action or condition as continued. 
It is formed in the active by a combination of the participle 
future active with esse, as laudaturum esse ; and in the pas- 
sive by a combination of the supine in urn with iri, as lau- 


datum iri. The former, owing to its participle, may take 
different genders and numbers, the latter admits of no such 
change ; e. g. Reus videbatur damnatum iri ; homines arbi- 
trantur se beneficos visum iri. yj >. 

Note. The future participle in urus properly expresses an intention 
or desire ; and in this sense it takes the infinitives esse and fuisse, as 
laudaturum esse, to intend praising ; laudaturum fuisse, to have intended 
praising; scio te scripturum fuisse, I know that you have had the intention 
to write. The infinitive of an action that had once been intended (scrip- 
turum fuisse) is further used, especially in the apodosis of hypothetical 
sentences belonging to the past, where in direct speech the pluperfect 
subjunctive would be used, as etiamsi obtemperasset auspiciis, idem even- 
turum fuisse puto. Laudandum esse cannot be used as an infinit. fut. pass., 
for the participles in dus denote necessity. 

[§ 594.] 4. Besides this a circumlocution may be em- 
ployed for the infinitive of future time, by means of futurum 
esse or fore followed by ut with the subjunctive. Here, too, 
the difference between an action continued and an action 
completed in future time may be expressed : the former by 
the present and imperfect, and the latter by the perfect and 
pluperfect of the subjunctive. The choice of one of these 
four subjunctive tenses depends upon that of the leading 
verb ; e. g. credo fore ut epistolam scribas, and credebam 
fore ut epistolam scriberes, both expressing a continued ac- 
tion in future time ; but credo fore ut epistolam scripseris, 
and credebam fore ut epistolam scrip sisses, expressing a com- 
pleted action in future time. And so also in the passive : 
credo fore ut epistola scribatur, and credebam fore ut epis- 
tola scriberetur, both expressing a continued state of future 
suffering ; but in order to express a completed state in future 
time, we avail ourselves in the passive of the participle per- 
fect scriptus, which was wanting in the active ; hence credo 
and credebam epistolam scriptam fore. This circumlocution 
by means of futurum esse or fore ut is necessary when the 
verb has no supine or participle future active, which is the 
case with many intransitives. Hence we cannot say other- 
wise, for example, than spero futurum esse {fore) ut sapias, 
ut te hujus rei poeniteat, ut brevi omnibus his incommodis 
medeare. But it is also used in many other cases, and in 
the passive this form occurs almost more frequently than the 
infinitive formed by the supine with iri. 

Video te velle in coelum migrare, et spero fore ut contingat 
id nobis. 


Non eram nescius, fore ut hie noster labor in varias repre- 

hensiones incurreret. 
Ptolemaeus mathematicus Othoni persuaserat, fore ut in im- 

perium ascisceretur. * 

[§ 597 -] -5. The infinitive may be regarded as a verbal sub- 
stantive of the neuter gender, with two cases — the nomina- 
tive and accusative ; differing from other substantives of the 
same kind in this respect that it governs the case which it 
requires as a real verb, and at the same time expresses the 
complete or incomplete state of an action. The infinitive 
must be considered as the nominative, when it is the subject 
of a sentence, that is, when anything is declared of it ; e. g. 
invidere non cadit in sapientem, where invidere is equivalent 
to invidia ; virtus est vitium fug ere, i. e. fug a vitii ; est ars 
difficilis recte rempublicam regere, i. e. recta gubernatio rei- 
publicae; ignoscere amico humanum est. The infinitive must 
be considered as the accusative, when it is the object of a 
transitive verb, such as volo, cupio, audeo, conor facere or 
dicer e aliquid, just as we say cupio aliquam rem, nescio 
mentiri, didici vera dicere. 

Majus dedecus est parta amittere quam omnino non para- 

Didicisse fideliter artes emollit mores, nee sinit esseferos. 
Vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria uti nescis. 

[§ 599.] 6. When the infinitive has its own subject joined 
to it, it is put in the accusative. 

Note. An exception here presents itself in the historical infinitive 
(infinitivus historicus), to which the subject is joined in the nomina- 
tive. The historical infinitive is a peculiar mode of using the present 
infinitive in a narrative instead of the imperfect indicative, when actions 
or conditions are to be described in a lively and animated manner, as 
Philippus inopinantibus advenit. Quern quum adesse refugientes ex agris 
quidam pavidi nuntzassent, trepidare Damocritus ceterique duces : et erat 
forte meridianum tempus, quo plerique graves cibo sopiti jacebant : excitare 
igitur alii alios, jubere arma capere, alios dimittere ad revocandos, qui palati 
per agros praedabantur. 

[§ 600.] This is the construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive, which like the infinitive alone is used in two 
ways, either as the subject or as the object of a proposition. 
The accusative with the infinitive is the subject, wherever, if 
we would or could use a substantive in its place, it would be 
in the nominative. So it is especially when a substantive or 


adjective is added as a predicate by means of est, erat, fuit, 
&c, as justum, aequum, verisimile, consentaneum, apertum 
est, necesse est and opus est, or an impersonal verb, as appa- 
ret, constat, convenit, decet, licet, oportet, or the third person 
singular of the passive, as intelligitur, perspicitur, and the 
like; e. g. Victorem parcere victis aequum est, it is fair 
that the conqueror should spare the conquered, i. e. the cle- 
mency of the conqueror towards the conquered is fair. 

Hoc quidem apparet, nos ad agendum esse natos. 
Constat profecto ad salutem civium inventas esse leges. 
Legem hr event esse oportet, quo facilius ab imperitis te- 

Note. It is therefore incorrect to say that this accusative with the 
infinitive is dependent on verum, constat, &c. ; for the accusative with the 
infinitive is the nominative or governing case. 

[§ 602.] 7. The accusative with the infinitive is the ob- 
ject, after verbs which have a sentence for their direct object, 
i. e. after those which denote an action of our external or 
internal faculties or a declaration {verba sentiendi et decla- 
randi). The principal verbs of this kind are : audio, video, 
sentio, animadverto, cognosco, intelligo, percipio, disco, scio, 
credo, arbitror, puto, opinor, duco, statuo, memini, recordor, 
obliviscor ; dico, trado, prodo, scribo, refero, nuntio, confir- 
mo, nego, ostendo, demonstro, perhibeo, promitto, polliceor, 
spondeo, and several others denoting feeling, knowing, think- 
ing, or saying. These and other verbs of the same kind, 
instead of being followed by a dependent clause with a 
conjunction (that, quod), require the infinitive, and the sub- 
ject of the dependent clause is put in the accusative. (In 
English the two clauses are sometimes put in juxtaposition 
without any sign of dependence or connection, e. g. he feels 
that he is unhappy, or he feels he is unhappy.) 

Sentit animus, se sua vi, non alien a, moverL 

Ego ne utilem quidem arbitror esse nobis futurarum rerum 

Pompejos, celebrem Campaniae urbem, desedisse terrae motu 


[§ 603 ] Note 1. The propositions which are in direct dependence 
upon the above-mentioned verbs are put in the accusative with the infini- 
tive ; the clauses inserted in such a proposition are, according to circum- 
stances, either in the indicative or the subjunctive, and in the latter more 
especially when they are inseparably connected with the proposition 


expressed by the accus. with the infinitive, containing either the words or 
sentiments of the person spoken of. (See § 545.) 

[§ 604.] The following remarks must be especially observed : 1 . ) The 
personal pronouns which are expressed in the other moods only in case 
of their having the emphasis, are always expressed with the infinitive. 2.) 
The reflective pronoun se, as well as the possessive suus, is employed when 
reference is made in the dependent clause to the subject of the leading 
one; and in explanatory clauses, when any thing is stated as the sen- 
timent of the subject. (§ 550.) We say, e. g. Caesar se non sui commodi 
causa arma cepisse dicebat, but an explanatory clause cannot always take 
these pronouns, as Caesar, quum eum nonnulli injustitiae accusarent, or 
Caesar, quod ejus causa a plerisque damnabatur, se non sui ccmmodi causa 
arma cepisse dicebat ; but when the explanatory clause contains the sen- 
timent of the subject, we use se and suus, e. g. Caesar, quod suum jus a 
senatu laesum esset, or postquam nihil sibi ac suis postulatis tributum esset, 
se non sua sed ipsius rei publicae causa arma cepisse dicebat. 

[§ 605.] This rule that the personal pronouns must be expressed (in 
the accus.) with the infinitive must be particularly attended to with re- 
gard to the verbs "to promise " and " to hope," since in English they are 
usually joined with the infinit. present without any pronoun. In Latin 
the pronouns are not only expressed, but the infinitive which follows is 
that of the future, e. g. promisit se venturum, daturum esse, spero hoc me 
assecuturum (with the omission of esse, as is very frequently the case with 
this infinitive and that of the perfect passive). 

[§ 606.] Note 2. When the use of an infinitive active would bring 
two accusatives together, one of the subject and the other of the object, 
and an ambiguity would be likely to arise, it is the rule to prefer the 
passive construction, by which the accusat. of the object becomes trie sub- 
ject, and the other is avoided or explained by the preposition ab or per : 
Ne fando quidem auditum est, crocodilum aut ibim aut felem violatum esse 
ab Aegyptio. If we were to say crocodilum violasse Aegyptium, there would 
certainly be a great ambiguity. 

[§ 607 -] 8. The accusative of the subject in the construc- 
tion of the accusative with the infinitive after the verbs 
denoting saying, showing, and believing (dicere, tradere, nar- 
rare, nuntiare, prodere, ostendere, credere, existimare, and 
some others of the same meaning), is regarded also as an 
accusative of the object, governed by those verbs, and hence 
the passive construction also is admissible, by which the ac- 
cusative becomes the nominative> This is the case especially 
when the subject of those verbs is indefinite, as dicunt (they 
or people say) me virum probum esse, or dicor vir probus 
esse, and so through all persons and tenses : diceris, dicitur 
vir probus esse ; dicimur, dicimini, dicuntur viri probi esse 
or fecisse. The same is frequently the case with the verbs 
jubere, vetare and prohibere, so that the passive of these 
verbs are used personally, as vetamur^ prohibemur hoc fa- 
cere, abire jussus sum, consules jubentur exercitum scribere. 



Further, instead of the impersonal videtur (it appears) with 
the accusat. with the infinity it is more common to say per- 
sonally videor, videris, videtur, videmur, videmini, videntur 
with the infinitive, as videor errasse, it appears that I have 
erred ; videor deceptus esse, it appears that I have been de- 

Xanthippe, Socratis philosophi uxor, morosa admodumfuisse 
fertur etjurgiosa. 

Regnante Tarquinio Superbo Sybarim et Crotonem Pytha- 
goras venisse reperitur. 

Athenis actor movere affectus vetabatur. 

[§ 608.] 9. The subject cannot be expressed with the 
infinitive, when it is an indefinite person, for the Romans 
had no word to express the English " one " (French on), and 
hence we say ignoscere amico humanum est, to forgive a 
friend is humane, or it is humane that one (or we) should 
forgive a friend^V 

But even in this case the verb esse and those denoting "to 
appear," " to be considered " or " called " require the predi- 
cate, if it be declinable, to agree with the non-expressed sub- 
ject in the accusative, e. g. ignoscere amico humanum est, 
recordantem benejiciorum ab eo acceptorum, it is humane 
that one should forgive a friend, remembering the benefit 
received of him. 

Contentum suis rebus esse maximae sunt certissimaeque di- 

Licet opera prodesse multis, beneficia petentem, commendan- 

tem magistratibus, vigilantem pro re alterius. 
Atticus maximum existimavit quaestum, memorem gratumque 

Magnis in laudibus totd fere fuit Graecid victor em Olympiae 


[§ 609.] 10. The accusative with the infinitive sometimes 
stands apparently quite independent, but is to be explained 
by an ellipsis of credibile est f verumne est? This is the 
case in exclamations, and, when the interrogative particle 
(ne) is annexed, in interrogations expressive of indignation ; 
e. g. Juno in Virgil (Aen. i. 37.) exclaims, Mene incepto de- 
sister e victam, Nee posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem I 
But it must be observed that a clause with ut may also be 
used to express a question with indignation, in which case 


we have to supply fieri potest ? e. g. victamne ut quisquam 
victrici 'patriae praeferat ? is it possible that any one should 
prefer ? 

[§ 610.] 11. The verbs, / can, shall, hasten, adventure, 
am accustomed, and others of the same kind, are followed in 
Latin as in English by the mere infinitive and not by a pro- 
position. When they are joined with esse, haberi, judicari, 
videri, &c, the predicate is put in the nominative, e. g. solet 
tristis videri, aude sapiens esse, debes esse diligens. 

But the verbs volo, nolo, malo ; cupio, opto, studeo, admit 
of a twofold construction : the mere infinitive is used after 
them, when the subject remains the same, and when they 
are followed by esse or any of the above-mentioned verbs, 
the predicate is in the nominative ; but the accusat. with 
the infinit. is used, when the subject is changed, or when 
the pronoun of the same person is repeated. On the one 
hand, therefore, we say volo eruditus fieri, and on the other 
volo te eruditum fieri, and volo me eruditum fieri. Hence 
it is indifferent whether I say discipulum me haberi volo, non 
doctorem, or discipulus haberi volo, non doctor ; principem 
se esse maluit quam videri, or princeps esse maluit quam 
videri. (Comp. § 613.) 

Volo is esse, quern tu me esse voluisti. 
Qui eget multis, gratum se videri studeat. 

[§ 613.] 12. There are many Latin verbs which, according 
to our notions, seem to require a proposition for their direct 
object, that is, the accusative with the infinitive, but which, 
nevertheless, are followed in Latin by ut with the subjunc- 
tive, either exclusively, or admit the construction of the 
accusat. with the infinit. besides. This arises from the cir- 
cumstance that such propositions may be or more properly 
must be conceived as expressing a design, purpose, effect, or 
result of the leading proposition which is indicated by ut (or 

a) The verbs patior and sino are generally followed by the 
infinitive, and more rarely by ut; the verbs opto, concedo, 
permitto, which have a more forcible meaning, may have 
either the infinitive, or ut ; posco, postulo, fiagito and cogo 
have more frequently ut than the infinitive. 

Phaethon optavit tit in cur rum patris toller etur (instead of 
tolli or se tolli). 

M 2 


Illud natura non patitur, ut aliorum spoliis nostras facili- 
tates, copras, opes augeamus. 

Augustus dominum se appellari ne a liberis quidem aut ne- 
potibus suis passus est 

[§ 614.] b) The verbs of resolving and endeavouring to 
do or | prevent a thing are followed by ut and ne, when the 
dependent clause has a subject of its own, but when the same 
subject remains they are generally followed by the infinitive 
(i. e. the nominat. with the infinit.), though ut is found in 
this case also. Verbs of this kind are : statuo, constituo, de- 
cerno, tento, paro, meditor, euro, nitor, contendo, and the 
phrases consilium capio, in animum induco, or animum in- 
duce. Hence, we may say constitui domi manere, as well 
as constitui ut domi manerem ; but we can say only constitui 
utfilius meustecum habitaret. Ut is used almost exclusively 
after the expressions operam do, I exert myself} id (hoc, illud) 
ago, I endeavour or exert myself; nihil antiquius habeo or 
duco, quam, nothing is of more importance to me ; and videre 
in the sense of curare. v 

Qui sapientes appellari volunt, inducant animum divitias, 

honores, opes contemnere, eaque, quae his contraria sunt, 

pro nihilo ducere. 
Debes explicare omnia vitia filii, quibus incensus parens 

potuerit animum inducere, ut naturam ipsam vinceret, ut 

amorem ilium penitus insitum ejiceret ex animo, ut 

denique patrem esse sese oblivisceretur. 
Omne animal se ipsum diligit, ac simul ut ortum est id agit, 

ut se conservet. 
Videndum est igitur, ut ea liberalitate utamur, quae prosit 

amicis, noceat nemini. 

[§ 615.] c) The verbs rogo, oro, praecor, peto, moneo, 
admoneo, commoneo, hortor, adhortor, cohortor, exhortor, 
suadeo,persuadeo, impello, perpello, excito, incito, impero, \ 
and some others, are followed by ut or ne in \ both cases, 
when the subject remains the same,\and when it is changed, 
and by the infinitive! only by way of exception. The com- 
plete accusat.\with the infinit. occurs with some of them only; 
when their meaning is different, as with moneo land admoneo 
in the sense of " I remind" ajperson that a thing is, not is to 
be ; with persuadeo in the sense of " I convince." But, on 
the other hand, even such verbs as nuntio, dico, scribo, are 


followed by ut, when the meaning is " I announce, say, or 

write with the intention that," &c. 

Illud te oro et hortor, ut in extrema parte muneris tui dili- 

gentissimus sis.^' 
Moneo obtestorque, ut kos, qui tibi genere propinqui sunt, 

caros habeas, neu malis alienos adjungere, quam sanguine 

conjunctos retinere. 
Themistocles persuasit populo, ut pecunia publica, quae ex 

metallis rediret, classis centum navium aedificaretur. 
Tibi persuade, praeter culpam et peccatum homini accidere 

nihil posse, quod sit horribile aut pertimescendum. 

[§ 617.] Note. The verbs of commanding, as imperare, mandare, prae- 
scribere, edicere (to issue a command), legem dare, decernere, are followed 
by ut according to the above rule. Jubere and vetare alone form an ex- 
ception, being construed with the accusat. with the infinit., but attention 
must be paid as to whether the infinit. active or passive is to be used ; 
e. g. militem occidi jussit, he ordered the soldier to be put to death ; eum 
abire jussit, he ordered him to depart ; vetuit castra vaUo muniri, and 
vetuit legatos ab opere discedere. 

£§ 618.] d) The verbs of effecting, viz. facio, efficio, per- 
ficio, impetro, and consequor, are never construed with the 
infinitive or the accusative with the infinitive, but with ut 
or ne ;{ since the relation of dependence upon these verbs is 
regarded in Latin as that of an intended result. ' Hence arises 
a frequent circumlocution by means of facer e ut to express a 
real fact, and instead of dimisit milites, we accordingly find 
fecit ut dimitteret milites, 

Epaminondas perfecit, ut auxilio sociorum Lacedaemonii 
privarentur. t y 

[§ 620.] 13. Hence it not unfrequently happens in nar- 
ratives, that the verbs of begging, commanding, admonishing, 
&c. are first followed by ut or ne and the subjunctive, and 
afterwards by the accusative with the infinitive, only the 
words or sentiments of the subject of the narrative being re- 
corded. For the purpose of explanation, we supply from the 
preceding verb the general idea of thinking or saying, which 
is implied in the leading verb ; e. g. Caesar exercitui imperavit, 
ne injussu suo concurreret : se, quum id fieri vellet, vexillo 
signum daturum. 

His (colonis Athen.) consulentibus nominatim Pythia prae^ 
cepit, ut Miltiadem sibi imperatorem sumerent : id sifecis- 
sent, incepta prosper a futura. 

m 3 


[§ 621.] 14. Lastly, ut is used, and not the accusative 
with the infinitive (which would here be the accusative of 
the subject): — 

a) After the expressions denoting " it happens \" fit {fieri 
non potest), accidit, incidit, contingit (chiefly of desirable 
things), evenit, usu venit, occurrit and est (it is the case or 
happens, and hence also after esto, be it that)._j_ 

b) After the words denoting " it remains," or " it follows :" 
futurum, extremum, prope, proximum, and reliquum est, re- 

linquitur, sequitur, restat^ &n& superest ; sometimes also acce- 
dit ut (" to this must be added that," where, however, quod 
is more common). 

Fieri autem potest, ut recte quis sentiat, et id, quod sentit, 

polite eloqui non possit. 
Persaepe evenit, ut utilitas cum honestate certet. 
Amicis quoniam satisfied, reliquum est, ut egomet mihi con- 


[§ 624.] 15. The verbs denoting willingness and permis- 
sion, which \may take ut instead of the accusative with the 
infinitive (yolo, nolo, malo, sino, permitto and licet) ; those 
which denote asking, advising, reminding (especially postulo, 
peto, rogo, oro, precor, hortor, suadeo, censeo, moneo, admo- 
neo), which are generally construed only with ut, and some 
others of a similar kind, as euro, decerno, mando, jubeo, may 
also be followed by the subjunctive alone, without ut To 
these we must add the two imperatives fac (in its periphras- 
tic sense " take care that") which usually takes ut, and cave, 
which usually takes ne ; for they too are frequently joined 
with the subjunctive alone. 

Malo te sapiens hostis metuat, quam stulti cives laudent. 
Summa militum alacritate, jubentium quocunque vellet duce- 

ret, oratio excepta est. 
Quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit, 

darent operam consules, ne quid respublica detrimenti ca- 

peret X 

[§ 625.] Note. Oportet and jiecesse est may likewise be followed either 
by the accusative with the infinitive, or by the subjunctive alone ; e. g. 
leges oportet breves sint ; virtus necesse est vitium aspemetur atque oderit. 

Opus est generally takes the infinitive ; ut occurs very rarely. 

[§ 626.] 16. The infinitive and the accusative with the 
infinitive, according to § 597., serve to represent a proposi- 


tion as a single thought, so that it resembles an abstract noun. 
Quod with a tense of the indicative or subjunctive, on the 
other hand, represents a proposition simply as a fact. This 
is obviously the case, e. g. when in replying to a person, we 
take up and repeat a previous remark of his. It is frequently 
indifferent whether we express a proposition by the accusa- 
tive with the infinitive, or by quod, as, for example, in those 
cases where %e predicate "it is agreeable" or " disagree- 
able," " it is pleasant " or "unpleasant," follows the propo- 
sition. But the infinitive is always more properly made the 
subject, when the predicate expresses an abstract idea ; but 
when it implies a fact, the proposition is more properly in- 
troduced by quod, to which is frequently joined a demonstra- 
tive pronoun hoc, id, Mud, in order to mark its character as 
a fact still more emphatically. 

Inter causas malorum nostrorum est, quod vivimus ad exem- 

Supra belli Latini metum id quoque accesserat, quod triginta 

jam conjurasse populos satis constabat. 
Ex tota laude Heguli Mud est admiratione dignum, quod 

captivos Poenorum retinendos censuit. 

[§ 627.] Note. The use of quod in repeating a previous expression or 
proposition of a person for the purpose of answering it occurs most fre- 
quently in letters : and quod in this case may be rendered in English by 
M with regard to," or " as regards ;" e. g. Quod scribis te velle scire, qui sit 
rei publicae status : summa dissensio est. Quod mihi de filia gratularis : 
agnosco humanitatem tuam. 

[§ 628.] 17. A purely objective proposition is expressed 
by quod only when it depends upon the very general tran- 
sitive verbs addere (mostly in the imperative adde hue) and 
facer e joined with an adverb, as bene facis quod me mones. 

Hippocrates, clarus arte medicinae, videtur honestissime 
fecisse, quod quosdam errores suos, ne posteri errarent, 
confessus est 

[§ 629.] But after the verbs denoting a feeling of pain 
or joy, and the outward expression of these feelings, viz. 
gaudeo, delector, angor, doleo, graviter fero, succenseo, 
poenitet, miror, admiror, glorior, gratulor, gratias ago, 
queror, indignor, and others of a similar meaning, we may 
either use quod in the sense of " because," or" " of " or 
" at the fact that," or the accusative with the infinitive. 
Whether quod is to be joined with the indicative or 

M 4 


subjunctive, must be determined by the general rules con- 
cerning these moods : the indicative expresses a fact, and 
the subjunctive a conception. 

Meum factum probari abs te triumpho gaudio. 

Quod spiratis, quod vocem mittitis, quod formas hominum 

habetis, indignantur. 
Vetus Mud Catonis admodum scitum est, qui mirari se ajebat, 

quod non rideret haruspex, haruspicem cum vidisset. 

[§ 630.] 18. Quod is used exclusively in explanatory or 
periphrastic propositions, which refer to a preceding demon- 
strative pronoun {hoc, id, Mud, istud), unless this pronoun 
be added in the nominative or accusative, as a pleonasm to 
verbs governing the accusative with the infinitive. Hence 
this rule finds its certain application only when the demon- 
strative pronoun is in some other case, or dependent upon a 

Mihi quidem videntur homines hac re maxime beluis praes- 

tare, quod loqui possunt. 
Socrates apud Platonem hoc Periclem ceteris praestitisse 

oratoribus dicit, quod is Anaxagorae fuerit auditor. 



[§ 631 -] *• The Participle expresses the action or condition 
of the verb in the form of an adjective, governing the case 
of the verb, and at the same time marking the complete or 
incomplete stateW the action or condition. In Latin, as in 
English, this form of the verb is very defective, for it has, 
in the active, one participle to express an action still going 
on, as scribens, writing ; and, in the passive, one to express 
the completed state of suffering, as scriptus, written ; con- 
sequently, there is no participle of a completed action (for 
which we say having written), nor of a state of suffering still 
going on. The Latin deponent is the only kind of verb which 
has the participles complete, its passive form having an 


active meaning : imitans, imitating, and imitatus, one who 
has imitated. 

To these, however, we must add two participles, one in 
the active and the other in the passive, which express the 
action or suffering as not yet begun, that is, as something 
which is to take place in future, whence they are called par- 
ticiples of the future. The participle future active properly 
expresses the intention to perform an action, as scripturus, 
one who intends or has to write, but has also the significa- 
tion of simple futurity, " one who is about to write." The 
participle future passive expresses in the nominative the 
necessity that something should be done or suffered, as 
epistola scribenda, a letter which must be written, and not 
one that will be written. In the other cases it serves 
to supply the very sensible want of a participle present pas- 
sive, expressing a state of suffering going on. But of this 
hereafter, § 652. foil. 

[§ 632.] Note. The want of the participle of a completed action in 
the active is often felt very sensibly, for neither circumlocution nor the 
change into the passive form (e. g. victoria, parta, after he had gained the 
victory) always conveys exactly what is meant. But the perfect parti- 
ciples of deponents are a very convenient means of supplying this want, 
as their number is not small, and it is always easy to find some deponent 
which is synonymous with an active ; in the case just mentioned we may 
say victoriam adeptus, assecutus, or consecutus. 

On the other hand, the Latin writers use many perfect participles of 
deponents in a passive sense, along with the proper active one ; as juratus, 
pransus, coenatus ; and ausus, gavisus, solitus, fisus, confisus, which are de- 
rived from semi-deponents. (§ 148.) 

[§ 635.] 2. Participles are employed in Latin more fre- 
quently than in English,- not only to express the verb in 
explanatory clauses, which are connected by a relative pro- 
noun with a noun of the leading sentence ; but clauses which 
are introduced by means of particles of time (e. g. as, ichen, 
although, since), may be expressed by participles, provided 
their subject occurs in the leading sentence, y 

Est enim lex nihil aliud, nisi recta et a numine deorum tracta 

ratio, imperans honesta, prohibens contraria. 
Curio, ad focum sedenti, magnum auri pondus Samnites 

quum attulissent, repudiati ab eo sunt 
Dionysius tyrannus, Syracusis expulsus, Corinthi pueros 

Dionysius, cultros metuens tonsorios, candenti carbone sibi 

adurebat copillum. 

M 5 


Risus interdum ita repente erumpit, ut eum cupientes tenere 

[§ 637.] 3. Substantives expressing the action of the 
verb ; e. g. the building, instituting, writing, hearing, are 
expressed by the participles perfect and future passive, the 
Latin language not always having substantives of this kind 
(at least they are not in common use). There is of course 
this difference, that the perfect participle is employed when 
the action is to be represented as completed, and the future 
participle, when it is conceived as still incomplete. (Eespect- 
ing the participle future passive, see § 649.) This is done in 
all the cases of such participles, and even when they are 
governed by the prepositions ad, anfe, ob, post, propter, ab, 
and ex ; e. g. hae litterae recitatae magnum luctum fecerunt, 
the reading of this letter ; Tarentum captum, the taking of 
Tarentum; receptus Hannibal, the reception of Hannibal; 
ob receptum Hannibalem, on account of the reception of 
Hannibal ; sibi quisque caesi regis expetebat decus, the glory 
of having killed, or of killing the king (for both expressions 
are here equivalent). 

Scipio propter Africam domitam Africanus appellatus est 
Thebae et ante Epaminondam natum et post ejus interitum 

perpetuo alieno paruerunt imperio, (So also post Christum 

natum, ab urbe condita, &c.) )< 

[§ 639.] 4. The participle future active is used especially 
with verbs of motion (such as go, send, &c.) to express a pur- 
pose, which we indicate in English by the particle " to ; the 
conjunction ut, or a relative pronoun with the subjunctive, 
however, is very commonly used in Latin instead of the 

Hannibal in Etruriam ducit, earn quoque gentem aut vi aut 
voluntate adjuncturus. 

[§ 640.] 5. In the cases hitherto considered the participle 
supplies the place of an inserted clause, the subject of which 
is a noun contained in the leading proposition. If, however, 
a new subject is introduced, it is put with the participle in 
the ablative, independent of the leading proposition. This 
construction is called the ablative absolute. (Ablativus 
absolutus or consequentiae.) A similar construction is some- 
times used in English, as "he could not live in his own 


country any longer, his influence being too great for the 
republic ; " but it is more common to express such sentences 
by the conjunctions " as " "when," or by a verbal substantive 
with a preposition, e. g. Cyro regnante, in the reign of 
Cyrus ; Cyro mortuo or occiso, after the death or fall of 
Cyrus, or after Cyrus had been killed. 
Pythagoras quum Tarquinio Superbo regnante in Italiam 

venisset, magnam Mam Graeciam quum honore disciplinae, 

turn etiam auctoritate tenuit. 
L. Valerii virtute, regibus exterminatis, libertas in re publica 

constituta est. 

[§ 642.] 6. An ablative absolute may also be used instead 
of the other particles " when," " since," "while," " although," 
which were mentioned in § 635. (Some writers even retain 
the conjunctions quamquam and quamvis with the ablat. 

JReluctante natura, irritus labor est. 
Eclipses non ubique cernuntur, aliquando propter nubila, 

saepius globo terrae obstante. 
Hand scio an, pietate adversus deos sub lata, fides etiam et 

societas generis humani et una excellentissima virtus jus- 

titia tollatur. 
Mucins solus in castra Porsenae venit, eumque interficere, 

proposita sibi morte, conatus est. 

[§ 644.] 7. Instead of a participle certain substantives 
also may be used, which express the action of a verb, as dux, 
comes, adjutor, and adjutrix, auctor, testis, judex, interpres, 
magister, praeceptor, and magistra, praeceptrix ; e. g. duce 
natura in the sense of ducente natura, under the guidance 
of nature ; comite fortuna, i. e. comitante fortuna ; judice 
Poly bio, according to the judgment of Polybius. So also 
official titles, as consul, praetor, imperator, rex, generally 
only to denote time, as Cicerone consule, in the consulship of 

Magis auctoribus (on the advice of the Magi) Xerxes infiam- 

masse templa Graeciae dicitur. 
Sapientia enim est una, quae maestitiam pellat ex animis, 

quaenos exhorrescere metu non sinat : qua praecep trice in 

tranquillitate vivi potest, omni cupiditatum ardore restincto. 
quam facile erat orbis imperium occupare, aut mihi, Ro~ 

manis militibus, aut, me rege, Romanis! 

M 6 


[§ 645.] As the Latins have no participle of esse in cur- 
rent use, an adjective alone must sometimes supply the place 
of a participle ; e. g. deo propitio, when God is gracious ; 
sereno coelo, aspera hieme, me ignaro, Mis consciis. 

Romani, Hannibale vivo, nunquam se sine insidiis futuros 

Obvius Jit Miloni Clodius expeditus, nulla rhedd, nullis 

impedimentis, nullis Graecis comitibus. 

[§ 647.] 8. The simple ablative of the participle perfect 
passive sometimes supplies the place of the whole construction 
of the ablative absolute, the proposition following being con- 
sidered as a noun of the neuter gender, and as the subject of 
the participle, e. g. Hannibal, cognito insidias sibi parari, 
fuga salutem quaesivit, equivalent to cognitis insidiis sibi 
paratis. This use however is confined to a few participles, 
as audito, cognito, comperto (in a passive sense), explorato, 
desperato, nuntiato, edicto. 

Alexander, audito Dareum appropinquare cum exercitu, ob- 
viam ire constituit 

[§ 649.] 9. The participle future passive has in the 
nominative (and in the construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive, in the accusative also) the signification of ne- 
cessity, and less frequently that of possibility : laudandus, 
one who must be praised, or ought to be praised. The 
person by whom a thing must be done is expressed with this 
participle by the dative, and not by the preposition ab. \ 

The neuter of this participle, joined with a tense of esse, 
retains the signification of necessity, as audendum est, mori- 
endum est, omnibus hominibus moriendum est, we must 
venture, we must die, &c. If the verb is transitive, the par- 
ticiple is made to agree with the subject in gender and 
number ; e. g. virtus laudanda est, virtue must be praised, or 
we must praise virtue ; omnes captivi occidendi sunt, all the 
prisoners must be put to death, or we must put to death, &c. ; 
liaec via tibi ineunda (ingredienda) est, you must take this 
road, or this road must be taken by you. 

Quum suo cuique judicio sit utendum, difficile factu est, me 

id sentire semper, quod tu velis. 
Diligentia in omnibus rebus plurimum valet : liaec praecipue 

colenda est nobis, haec semper adhibenda. 


[§ G52>] 10. In the remaining cases this participle usually 
supplies the place of the participle present passive, that is, it 
has the meaning of a continued passive state ; e. g. occupatus 
sum in Uteris scribendis, in letters which are being written ; 
peritus rei publicae regendae. A reference to future time 
also may be implied, but this arises from the connection, and 
not from the participle itself re. g. consilium libertatis recu- 
perandae ; missus erat ad naves comparandas. For the rest 
see the chapter on the Gerund. 

[§ 654.] 11. This participle should properly be formed 
only from active transitive verbs, but it is formed also from 
deponents which have a transitive meaning; e.g. in imi- 
tando hoc scriptore, i. e. if this writer is imitated. Of in- 
transitive verbs, however, only the neuter of this participle 
is used with est, erat, &c. : quiescendum est, dormiendum 
est, eundum est. * 



[§ 655.] 1. The Gerund is in form nothing else than the 
four oblique cases of the neuter of the participle future pas- 
sive. It governs the case of its verb, and with regard to 
its'" signification it supplies the place of a declinable infi- 
nitive present active, and is a verbal substantive, just as in 
English the present participle is used as a verbal substantive. 
Thus we find : illud ediscendo scribendoque commune est, 
this is common to learning by heart and writing ; amicitia 
dicta est ab amando. 

[§ 656.] 2. The relation of the gerund to the real parti- 
ciple future passive is this: as the gerund has an active 
meaning, e. g. consilium scribendi, the design of writing or 
to write, it may have an accusative as its object, as consilium 
scribepidi epistolam, and this construction may, without any 
change of meaning, be changed into the passive : consilium 
scribendae epistolae, the design of a letter to be written, or 
that a letter should be written. The accusative is thus 
changed into the case in which the gerund stood. This 


change into the passive may take place wherever no ambi- 
guity is likely to arise, i. e. wherever the gender is distin- 
guishable ; hence it generally does not take place, when the 
accusative dependent upon the gerund is the neuter of a 
pronoun or adjective; e.g. studium Mud efficiendi, cupido 
plura cognoscendi, not illius efficiendi, or plurium cognos- 
cendorum, because it would be impossible to see whether 
the genitives illius said plurium are masculine or neuter. 
Hence it is better to say lex appellata est a suum cuique tri- 
buendo, than a suo cuique tribuendo. But independently of 
this reason, the change of the active construction into the pas- 
sive with the participle future is sometimes avoided, even 
where no ambiguity would arise. £>- 

[§ 659.] 3. The particular cases in which the gerund, 
and, under the limitations above mentioned, the participle 
future passive are used, are the following: — 

a) The genitive of the gerund is used after substantives 
and after relative adjectives. (See § 436.) In English, sub- 
stantives and relative adjectives are followed either by " of" 
with the participle present, or by " to " with the infinitive ; 
e. g. ars dicendi, the art of speaking ; discendi cupidus, de- 
sirous to learn. Such substantives, among many others, are : 
ars, causa, consilium, consuetudo, cupiditas, facultas, occasio, 
potestas, spes, studium, voluntas. The ablatives causa and 
gratia are also joined with the genitive of the gerund : e. g. 
discendi causa, for the sake or purpose of learning ; quidam 
canes venandi gratia comparantur. 

Beate vivendi cupiditate incensi omnes sumus, 

Parsimonia, est scientia vitandi sumptus supervacuos, aut ars 

re familiari moderate utendL 
Epaminondas studiosus erat audiendi. -( 

b) If the verb governs the accusative, the passive construc- 
tion with the participle future is commonly preferred. 

Quis ignorat Gallos usque ad hanc diem retinere Mam im- 

manem ac barbaram consuetudinem hominum immolan- 

dorum ? 
Inita sunt a Catilina ejusque sociis consilia urbis delendae, 

civium trucidandorum, nominis Romani extinguendi. 
Timotheus rei militaris (belli gerendi) fait peritus, neque 

minus civitatis regendae. 

[§„ 660 ] ^ r °* e * T he ru * e respecting the agreement of the participle 


with the noun in gender andnumher is apparently violated in the genitive of 
the personal pronouns : for met, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, even when feminine, 
are joined with the neuter form of the participle ; for these genitives are 
properly derived from the neuters meum, tuum, swan, nostrum, vestrum. 
Hence we say : da mihi copiam tui placandi, both in speaking to a man 
and to a woman; haec dixi vestri adkortandi causa. 

[§ 664.] 4. The dative of the gerund is used after adjec- 
tives which govern this case (§ 409.), especially after u tills, 
inutills, noxlus, par, aptus, idoneus, and after substantives 
and verbs denoting a purpose or design. In this sense, how- 
ever, it is more common to use ad with the accusative of the 
gerund, or a clause with tit The expressions which from 
their meaning are most frequently joined with the dative of 
the gerund, are : studere, infantum esse, tempus impendere, 
tempus consumere or insumere, operam dare, sujficere, satis 
esse, deesse and esse in the sense "serving for," "being ade- 
quate to." The participle future passive, as was remarked 
above, is used when the verb governs an accusative. 

Aqua nitrosa utilis est bibendo. 

Brutus quum studere revocandis in urbem reglbus llberos 
suos comperisset, securl eos percussit. 

Tiberius quasi firmandae valetudini in Campaniam conces- 
sit, y 

[§ 666."] 5. The accusative of the gerund is invariably 
dependent upon prepositions, most frequently upon ad (to), 
or inter (during or amidst), but sometimes also upon ante, 
circa, and ob ; and in this case the change into the passive 
construction with the participle future, takes place almost 
invariably when the gerund governs an accusative. 

Mores puerorum se^ inter ludendum simplicius detegunt 
Musicen natura ipsa nobis videtur ad tolerandos facilius la- 
bores velut muneri dedisse. 

Note. The beginner must particularly attend to the use of the gerund 
(without a noun) with inter, which is equivalent to our "during" or 
" amidst ;" e. g. inter eundum, inter bibendum, inter ambulandum, inter 

[§667.] 6. The ablative of the gerund is used: — a) 
Without a preposition, as an ablativus instrumenti. b) With 
the prepositions ab, de, ex, and in. In the first case the 
construction is commonly, and in the latter always, changed 
into the passive, when the gerund governs an accusative. 


Hominis mens discendo alitur et cogitando* 

Super stitione tollenda non tollitur religio. 

Fortitudo in laboribus periculisque subeundis cernitur, tem~ 
perantia in praetermittendis voluptatibus, prudentia in 
delectu bonorum et malorum, justitia in suo cuique tri~ 
buendo. *< 



[§ 668.] 1. The two Supines are, in form, cases of a verbal 
substantive of the fourth declension, but they govern the case 
of their verb. 

2. The supine in urn is used with verbs which express 
motion to a place ; e. g. ire, prqficisci, contendere, pergere, 
festinare, venire, mittere, trajicere : and it indicates the ob- 
ject ; e. g. cubitum ire, to go to sleep : exploratum, frumen- 
tatum, pabulatum mittere, oratum obsecratumque venire. 
The same meaning is implied in the expression alicui nup- 
tum dare, to give a woman in marriage. But the Latin 
writers in general prefer using the gerund in the accusat. 
with ad, or in the genit. with causa, or the participle future 
active, instead of the supine. 

Philippus Argis a Pausania, quum spectatum ludos iret, 
juxta theatrum occisus est. (The same may be expressed 
by ad spectandos ludos, ludos spectandi causa, ludorum 
spectandorum causa, ludos spectaturus, or ut ludos spec- 
tar et.} f> 

[§ 670.] 3. The supine in u is used after the substantives 
fas, nefas, and opus, and after the adjectives good or bad, 
agreeable or disagreeable, worthy or unworthy, easy or diffi- 
cult, and some others of similar meaning. Of the adjectives 
which are joined with this supine, the following occur most 
frequently : honestus, turpis, jucundus, facilis, incredibilis, 
memorabilis, utilis, dignus and indignus. But the number 
of supines in u actually in use is very small, and almost 


limited to the following : dictu, audit u, cognitu, factu, in- 
ventu, memoratu, to which we may add natu (by birth, ac- 
cording to age), which occurs in the expressions grandis, 
major, minor, maximus, and minimus natu. 

Pleraque dictu quam re sunt faciliora. 

Quid est tarn jucundum cognitu atque auditu, quam sapien- 
tibus sententiis gravibusque verbis ornata oratio ? 



The words of a language consist of long and short syllables. 
In measuring syllables the time consumed in pronouncing a 
short syllable is taken as a standard, and this portion of time 
is called mora, A long syllable takes two morae, and is 
therefore, in this respect, equal to two short syllables. Which 
syllables, in the Latin language, are considered short, and 
which long, has been shown in Chap. III. From the com- 
bination of syllables of a certain quantity arise what are 
called Feet (pedes), of which there are four of two syllables, 
eight of three syllables, sixteen of four syllables, thirty-two 
of five syllables, &c, since the respective number of syl- 
lables admits of so many variations. For the sake of brevity, 
specific names have been given to those feet which consist 
of two, three, and four syllables : — 

a) of two syllables : 

v w Pyrrhichius ; bone, pater, lege. 

- - Spondeus ; audax, constans, virtus. 
v - Iambus ; potens, patres, legunt. 

- v Trochaeus, or Choreus ; laetus, fortis, gaudet. 

b) Of three syllables : 

v v v Tribrachys ; domine, dubius, legere. 

- - - Molossus ; mirari, libertas, legerunt. 

- v v Dactylus ; improbus, omnia, legerat. 

v - w Amphibrachys ; amare, peritus, legebat. 

w ^ - Anapaestus ; bonitas, meditans, legerent. 

v - - Bacchius ; dolor es, amavi, legebant. 

- v - Amphimacer, Creticus ; fecerant, leg er ant, cogitans. 

- - v Palimbacchius, Antibacchlus ; praeclarus, peccata, 


\J \J \J \J 

\J \s — 


c) Of four syllables : 

Proceleusmaticus ; celeriter, memoria, relegere. 

_ _ Dispondeus ; praeceptores, interrumpunt, perlege- 


_ Ionicus a minori ; adolescens, generosi, adamari. 

w Ionicus a majori ; sententia, mutabilis, perlegerat. 

w Ditrochaeus, Dichoreus ; educator, infidelis, eru- 

_ Diiambus ; amoenitas, renuntians, supervenis. 
u Antispastus ; verecundus, abundabit, perillustris. 
_ Choriambus ; impatiens, crediditas, eximios. 
M Paeon primus ; credibilis, historia, attonitus. 

2 secundus ; modestia, amabilis, idoneus. 

v tertius ; puerilis, opulentus, medicamen. 

j v> ^ - quartus ; celeritas, misericors, refugiens. 

^ - - _ Epitritus primus ; laborando, reformidant, salu~ 

- w - _ < secundus ; administrans, imperatrix, com- 


- - u _ tertius ; auctoritas, intelligens, dissentiens. 

- _ _ M — quartus ; assentator, infinities, naturalis. 

2. These feet are united with one another by Rhythm ; 
that is, the uniformity of the duration of time, in the raising 
and sinking of the voice, or Arsis (') and Thesis. 

3. The Arsis is either equal to the Thesis, or twice as 
long, as will be seen in the difference of the two feet, the 
Dactyl and the Trochee, t w u and £ ^ the Arsis (marked 
thus ') being combined with the long syllable. The same 
proportion exists when the Thesis precedes the Arsis 
in the Anapaest and Iambus „ £ and u i. The first 
species, in which the Arsis forms the beginning, is called the 
descending Rhythm ; the other in which the Thesis forms 
the beginning, the ascending. 

^ 4. The Iambic verse usually consists of the combination of 
six Iambi, whence it is called in Latin senarius, and in 
Greek trimeter, two united feet being termed a metrum (or 
dipodia). Its metre is this : — 

/ / \ / / \ / / 

V — \J — | W — W— \ KJ — O — 

but the last syllable of all verses is anceps, and the last foot 
of a senarius, therefore, may be a Pyrrhic : u £ 


Pure Iambic feet, however, would become monotonous, 
and hence a tribrachys may be employed in every place 
except the last, the long syllable being resolved into two 
shorts ; or, secondly, a Spondee may be substituted for the 
Iambus in all places except the last, and the Spondee again 
may be resolved into a Dactyl or Anapaest. The last foot 
alone is thus preserved pure. But in reciting Iambic verses 
it is necessary to read according to the Iambic rhythm, 
that is, in such a manner as to place the ictus on the 
second half of the foot, and if this half consists of two syl- 
lables, upon the first of them, for two syllables cannot be 
equally raised by the ictus. Hence the Tribrachys in Iam- 
bics is read u (f>, the Spondee _ £, the Dactyl _ J*"^, and 
the Anapaest according to its own peculiar rhythm. 

5. We shall subjoin, as an example, the first fable of 
Phaedrus, divided according to Dipodiae ; every Arsis is in- 
dicated by the ictus. (Respecting the elisions, see § 8.) 

Ad rivum eun\dem Vupus et d\gnus verier ant 
Siti compul\si; s'uperior \ stab at lupus 

Longeque inferi\or dgnus. Tunc \ fauce improba 

Latro incitd\tus, jurgii \ causarn intuliL 

Cur, inquit, tur\bulentam fe\cisti mihi 

Istdm biben\tif Ldniger \ contra timens : 

Qui possum, quae\so, f dcere quod \ quereris, lupe? 

A te decur\rit ad meos \ haustus liquor. 

Repulsus il\le veritd\tis viribus 

Ante hos sex men\ses m'dle, ait, di\xisti mihi. 
Respondit d\gnus : e'quidem nd\tus non eram. 
Pater hercule' tu\us> inquit, m'dle\dixit mihi. 

Atque ltd corre\ptum r deer at in\justd nece. 

6. The dactylic verse most commonly employed is the 
dactylic hexameter, also called the heroic verse, being used 
principally in heroic epics, after the example of Homer. 

It consists of six feet or dactyls, the last of which however 
is shortened by one syllable. In the first four places, a 
spondee may stand, but it rarely occurs in the fifth, because 
such a verse (called spondiacus) would sound rather heavy. 

The scheme therefore stands thus : 


7. In this verse we have to pay particular attention to 
its incision or caesura. A caesura is the interruption of the 
rhythm by the end of a word. For, as in reading we make a 
pause at the end of a word, in order to be understood, there 
arises a sort of opposition between the sense and the rhythm, 
which is removed in good reading by making a short pause 
on account of the sense, but taking up at the same time the 
interrupted rhythm. An hexameter may have many caesurae. 

Donee erisfelix, multos numerabis amicos, 

where the end of the words is throughout at variance with 
the end of the feet ; but one caesura in the middle of the 
line is necessary, in order to divide the verse, which would 
otherwise be too long, into two halves. It occurs either in 
the third foot after the arsis, and is called penthemimeres 
{7revQr]iJLif.iepric), because five half feet have preceded it ; or in 
the fourth, likewise after the arsis, and is called hephthe- 
mimeres (k^drj/jLLfjLEpijg). The former is by far the most fre- 
quent, e. g. in the following verses of Ovid, where all the 
caesurae are penthemimeres, with the exception of one. 

Silva vetus stabaf, |j nulla violata securi. 
Est specus in medio, || virgis ac vimine densus, 
Efficiens humilem \\ lapidum compagibus arcum, 
Uberibus fecundus aquis. |] Hoc conditus antro 
Martius anguis erat, \\ cristis praesignis et auro. 
Igne micant oculi, || corpus tumet omne veneno, 
Tresque vibrant linguae, || triplici stant or dine dentes. 

In determining the principal caesura of an hexameter, we are 
assisted by the punctuation, which the poets usually make to 
coincide with the principal caesura, if it does not coincide 
with the end of the verse. 

8. Next to the hexameter, the pentameter is the most 
common dactylic verse. It has its name from the five com- 
plete feet which it appears to contain, for of the six dactyls, 
the third and sixth are imperfect and consist only of two 
halves each. 

' w I ' MM I > I > I > I > 

— I — J — J _ ^ w I _ y, ^ I _ 


There is always* c»e S ™ &•£*££ *2 £ SS 

Wmeter ^cXg it, au/thL two verses together are 
called a distich, e. g. 

Artibus ingenuis, \ quarum tibi maxima cura est, 
Pectora mollescunt, \ aspentasque fugit. 


r 40 06 

London : 

Printed bv A. Spottiswoode, 

New- Street-Square. 



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